Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 322 in total

  1. Richards DC
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk
  2. Glennie SAR
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk
  3. Middleton WRC
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk
  4. Scharff JW, Sinnadorai S
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk
  5. Erfanian, A., Rasti, B.
    The aim of the present work was to produce a new soy milk-based cake. Soy milk was added at different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) during cake making to replace milk. Nutritional composition, batter characteristics, physical, and sensory properties, as well as the stability of cake during storage, were investigated. Sensory results indicated that cake with 50% soy milk had the most favourable acceptance scores with the highest score in the aroma, colour, and taste attributes. The addition of soy milk up to 50% produced a cake with higher protein content and lower carbohydrate content, along with lower density and higher specific volume compared to control. Cake with 50% soy milk addition had lower microbial counts as compared to control. Therefore, soy milk has the potential to act as a milk replacer in cake production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk; Soy Milk
  6. Hsu HT, Fong TV, Hassan NM, Wong HL, Rai JK, Khalid Z
    Breastfeed Med, 2012 Apr;7(2):118-22.
    PMID: 22011131 DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2011.0006
    Human milk bank is a source of human milk supply in many neonatal intensive care units. However, there are some hospitals without this facility because of financial or religious impediments, such as the Muslim community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*; Milk Banks*; Breast Milk Expression*
  7. Iyngkaran N, Yadav M, Boey CG
    Singapore Med J, 1995 Aug;36(4):393-6.
    PMID: 8919154
    Enterokinase has a critical role in initiating proteolytic digestion by hydrolysing the conversion of pancreatic trypsinogen into trypsin. The enzyme is synthesised by enterocytes of the proximal small intestine and initially incorporated into the brush border from where it is released into the intestinal lumen by the action of pancreatic secretions. The aim of the study was to analyse enterokinase activity in the duodenal mucosa of infants with diarrhoeal disease including cow's milk protein-sensitive enteropathy. Our observations show that the mean depletion of enterokinase was only 17% compared to 60-80% for other brush border enzymes like disaccharidases, peptidases and alkaline phosphatases in infants with diarrhoea. This suggests that enterokinase activity in the small bowel enteropathies may be dependent not only on the degree of mucosal damage specifically but also on the extent of damage to the goblet cell population where the enzyme is synthesised. Thus the enterokinase activity was reduced in acute and chronic diarrhoea with marked mucosal damage where significant reduction of goblet cell population was evident but the enzyme was relatively little affected when the mucosa was damaged mildly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk Proteins/adverse effects; Milk Hypersensitivity/diagnosis*; Milk Hypersensitivity/enzymology; Milk Hypersensitivity/pathology
  8. Juvarajah T, Wan-Ibrahim WI, Ashrafzadeh A, Othman S, Hashim OH, Fung SY, et al.
    Breastfeed Med, 2018 11;13(9):631-637.
    PMID: 30362820 DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2018.0057
    BACKGROUND: Bioactive proteins from milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) play extensive roles in cellular processes and defense mechanisms in infants. The aims of this study were to identify differences in protein compositions in human and caprine MFGM using proteomics and evaluate possible nutritional benefits of caprine milk toward an infant's growth, as an alternative when breastfeeding or human milk administration is not possible or inadequate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and caprine MFGM proteins were isolated and analyzed, initially by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and subsequently by quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This was then followed by database search and gene ontology analysis. In general, this method selectively analyzed the abundantly expressed proteins in milk MFGM.

    RESULTS: Human MFGM contains relatively more abundant bioactive proteins compared with caprine. While a total of 128 abundant proteins were detected in the human MFGM, only 42 were found in that of the caprine. Seven of the bioactive proteins were apparently found to coexist in both human and caprine MFGM.

    RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Among the commonly detected MFGM proteins, lactotransferrin, beta-casein, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase, and butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 were highly expressed in human MFGM. On the other hand, alpha-S1-casein and EGF factor 8 protein, which are also nutritionally beneficial, were found in abundance in caprine MFGM. The large number of human MFGM abundant proteins that were generally lacking in caprine appeared to mainly support human metabolic and developmental processes.

    CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated superiority of human MFGM by having more than one hundred nutritionally beneficial and abundantly expressed proteins, which are clearly lacking in caprine MFGM. The minor similarity in the abundantly expressed bioactive proteins in caprine MFGM, which was detected further, suggests that it is still nutritionally beneficial, and therefore should be included when caprine milk-based formula is used as an alternative.

    Matched MeSH terms: Milk/chemistry*; Milk Proteins/chemistry*; Milk, Human/chemistry*
  9. Sadeghinezhad E, Kazi SN, Dahari M, Safaei MR, Sadri R, Badarudin A
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2015;55(12):1724-43.
    PMID: 24731003 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.752343
    Heat exchanger performance degrades rapidly during operation due to formation of deposits on heat transfer surfaces which ultimately reduces service life of the equipment. Due to scaling, product deteriorates which causes lack of proper heating. Chemistry of milk scaling is qualitatively understood and the mathematical models for fouling at low temperatures have been produced but the behavior of systems at ultra high temperature processing has to be studied further to understand in depth. In diversified field, the effect of whey protein fouling along with pressure drop in heat exchangers were conducted by many researchers. Adding additives, treatment of heat exchanger surfaces and changing of heat exchanger configurations are notable areas of investigation in milk fouling. The present review highlighted information about previous work on fouling, influencing parameters of fouling and its mitigation approach and ends up with recommendations for retardation of milk fouling and necessary measures to perform the task.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk/microbiology; Milk/chemistry*; Milk Proteins/chemistry
  10. Alnakshabandi K, Fiester A
    Paediatr Int Child Health, 2016 Feb;36(1):4-6.
    PMID: 26750779 DOI: 10.1080/20469047.2015.1110336
    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*; Milk Banks/organization & administration*; Milk Banks/ethics
  11. Ewe JA, Wan Abdullah WN, Bhat R, Karim AA, Liong MT
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2012 Jan;19(1):160-73.
    PMID: 21775184 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.06.013
    This study aimed at utilizing ultrasound treatment to further enhance the growth of lactobacilli and their isoflavone bioconversion activities in biotin-supplemented soymilk. Strains of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus acidophilus BT 1088, L. fermentum BT 8219, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633, L. gasseri FTDC 8131) were treated with ultrasound (30 kHz, 100 W) at different amplitudes (20%, 60% and 100%) for 60, 120 and 180 s prior to inoculation and fermentation in biotin-soymilk. The treatment affected the fatty acids chain of the cellular membrane lipid bilayer, as shown by an increased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05). This led to increased membrane fluidity and subsequently, membrane permeability (P<0.05). The permeabilized cellular membranes had facilitated nutrient internalization and subsequent growth enhancement (P<0.05). Higher amplitudes and longer durations of the treatment promoted growth of lactobacilli in soymilk, with viable counts exceeding 9 log CFU/mL. The intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase specific activities of lactobacilli were also enhanced (P<0.05) upon ultrasound treatment, leading to increased bioconversion of isoflavones in soymilk, particularly genistin and malonyl genistin to genistein. Results from this study show that ultrasound treatment on lactobacilli cells promotes (P<0.05) the β-glucosidase activity of cells for the benefit of enhanced (P<0.05) isoflavone glucosides bioconversion to bioactive aglycones in soymilk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soy Milk/metabolism*; Soy Milk/chemistry
  12. Behkami S, Zain SM, Gholami M, Khir MFA
    Food Chem, 2019 Oct 01;294:309-315.
    PMID: 31126468 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.060
    Spectra data from two instruments (UV-Vis/NIR and FT-NIR) consisting of three and one detectors, respectively, were employed in order to discriminate the geographical origin of milk as a way to detect adulteration. Initially, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to see if clusters of milk from different origins are formed. Separation between samples of different origins were not observed with PCA, hence, feed-forward multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) models were designed. ANN models were developed by changing the number of input variables and the best models were chosen based on high values of generalized R-square and entropy R-square, as well as small values of root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute deviation (Mean Abs. Dev), and -loglikelihood while considering 100% classification rate. Based on the results, whether the spectra data was collected from a single or three detector instrument the same clustering was observed based on geographical origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk/classification*; Milk/chemistry
  13. Nurhazirah Salehen, Nurzafirah Mazlan, Oon, Chuah Li, Siti Marwanis Anua,, Young, Thung Tze
    Probiotics has been discovered long time ago for its beneficial effect on health when consumed especially to the people who had allergy and gastrointestinal disease. This preliminary study was conducted to find out which vehicles can allow better growth of probiotic. Lactobacillus plantarum was used in this study as choice of probiotic to be cultured in the four types of milk. The pH value was recorded for determination of growths and metabolic activity of the probiotic. Results showed that L. plantarum in soy milk can grow and had a better metabolic activity in the cultured soy milk with pH 3.46 compared to others. The highest growth was recorded at optical density of 1.137 in soy milk at 560nm. This result showed that L. plantarum in soy milk multiply rapidly compared to other milks. As conclusion, soy milk has better development of probiotic as delivery vehicles compare to cow milk, goat milk and coconut milk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk; Soy Milk; Cultured Milk Products
  14. Rosnani AI, Aini IN, Yazid AM, Dzulkifly MH
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2007 May 15;10(10):1691-6.
    PMID: 19086519
    Ice cream mixes containing 33.4% total solids including 10% fat, 11.1% milk solid-non fat (MSNF), 12% sugar, 0.35% commercial blend of emulsifier/ stabiliser and water were produced. The blending of PO with AMF were conducted at three different ratios 30: 70, 50: 50 and 70: 30, respectively. The experimental ice cream mixes were compared with a control ice cream mix prepared from AMF. The flow properties were measured after ageing at 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 24 h and determined using a controlled stress rheometer (Haake RS 100). The Power Law and Casson equation was employed to estimate the yield stress of an ice cream mixes. The regression coefficients (r) was represented well by the Casson model (r > 0.99) for all the samples, indicating goodness of fit. The profiles of the consistency coefficients (K(c)) were quite similar for all experimental samples, which could be attributed to the fact that all the samples exhibited similar viscoelastic behaviour. The flow behaviour index (n) of an ice cream mix prepared from PO and their blends with AMF were less then 1.0 (range 0.04-0.08) indicating that they were psuedoplastic fluid. The eta(o) at shear rate 20(-1) indicated higher degree of viscosity in AMF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk/chemistry*
  15. Chow AY, Simpson IA
    J Trop Pediatr (Lond), 1956 Sep;2(2):69-76.
    PMID: 24544134
    (1) The effect has been studied of the oral administration of supplementary thiamine on the thiamine content of milk from sixteen women, whose initial thiamine content was low ; and of the parenteral administration of thiamine to ten women, some of whom initially showed mild, clinical symptoms of beriberi.
    (2) The response in the milk content of thiamine to supplementary thiamine, administered either orally or by injection, showed marked variation in different women. While comparatively small doses taken by mouth evoked a marked response in some women, fairly large doses administered by injection failed to produce much response in others.
    (3) In some women, a marked increase in the thiamine content of their milk occurred soon after the administration of thiamine, either orally or parenterally. In others, the response was slow and meagre.
    (4) The highest thiamine level obtained in a sample of milk was 38.9 ug./100 ml., after the injection, twice daily, of 20 mg. thiamine for six days — a total intake of 240 mg. of thiamine parenterally. The initial milk thiamine level in this case was 2.3 ug./100 ml., but had increased to 16.2ug./100 ml., by the supply of a good diet alone, before the course of injections was commenced.
    (5) It would appear, that, in cases where the thiamine content of the milk is low, initial parenteral administration of thiamine must be supplemented by a continued intake of additional thiamine, if a satisfactory level of thiamine in the milk is to be maintained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human*
  16. Tao L, Ma J, Kunisue T, Libelo EL, Tanabe S, Kannan K
    Environ Sci Technol, 2008 Nov 15;42(22):8597-602.
    PMID: 19068854
    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from Germany and Canada. The highest estimated daily intakes of PFOS and PFOA by infants from seven Asian countries studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the tolerable daily intake values recommended by the U.K. Food Standards Agency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk/chemistry*; Milk, Human/chemistry*
  17. Iyngkaran N, Yadav M, Boey CG, Lam KL
    Arch Dis Child, 1988 Aug;63(8):911-5.
    PMID: 3415326
    The clinical response and the histological changes in the mucosa of the small bowel in response to continued feeding with cows' milk protein were assessed over a period of 2-6 weeks in 24 infants who had shown histological changes without immediate clinical symptoms after challenge with a diet containing cows' milk protein. Twenty of the 24 infants (83%) thrived well on cows' milk protein. Jejunal biopsy specimens taken six to eight weeks after the initial biopsy showed histological improvement in all 20 infants compared with biopsy specimens taken soon after the challenge, which had shown mucosal damage. The mucosa had returned to normal in 12, was mildly abnormal in seven, and moderately abnormal in one. Corresponding improvements in the activities of mucosal enzymes were seen. In four of the 24 infants (17%) symptoms developed between three and six weeks. Histological examination of the jejunal biopsy specimens showed that mucosal damage had progressed in two, and remained the same in two; moreover, the disaccharidase activities remained depressed. The present study shows that most infants with enteropathy caused by sensitivity to cows' milk protein but without clinical symptoms develop tolerance to the protein and the mucosa returns to normal despite continued feeding with cows' milk protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk/adverse effects*; Milk Proteins/adverse effects
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