Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

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  1. al-Mohdzar SA, Haque E, Abdullah WA
    Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol, 1993 Dec;19(4):401-5.
    PMID: 8135673
    Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM) functions as the state referral centre and the only hospital for the state of Kelantan that can offer neonatal intensive care service. The deliveries in HUSM with grand multiparity, late booking and problems of late referrals resembles a hospital serving a semiurban rather than an urban community. A comparison between the year 1989 and 1991 showed marked improvement of perinatal mortality rate from 41.32 to 24.88, which is significantly better than the improvement achieved from 1987 to 1989 (46.0 to 41.32). This was possible due to a marked fall in the early neonatal mortality rate from 10.02 in 1989 to 5.45 in 1991 and fall in the stillbirth rate from 31.61 to 19.53.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Mortality/trends*
  2. Wang H, Liddell CA, Coates MM, Mooney MD, Levitz CE, Schumacher AE, et al.
    Lancet, 2014 Sep 13;384(9947):957-79.
    PMID: 24797572 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60497-9
    BACKGROUND: Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success.

    METHODS: We generated updated estimates of child mortality in early neonatal (age 0-6 days), late neonatal (7-28 days), postneonatal (29-364 days), childhood (1-4 years), and under-5 (0-4 years) age groups for 188 countries from 1970 to 2013, with more than 29,000 survey, census, vital registration, and sample registration datapoints. We used Gaussian process regression with adjustments for bias and non-sampling error to synthesise the data for under-5 mortality for each country, and a separate model to estimate mortality for more detailed age groups. We used explanatory mixed effects regression models to assess the association between under-5 mortality and income per person, maternal education, HIV child death rates, secular shifts, and other factors. To quantify the contribution of these different factors and birth numbers to the change in numbers of deaths in under-5 age groups from 1990 to 2013, we used Shapley decomposition. We used estimated rates of change between 2000 and 2013 to construct under-5 mortality rate scenarios out to 2030.

    FINDINGS: We estimated that 6·3 million (95% UI 6·0-6·6) children under-5 died in 2013, a 64% reduction from 17·6 million (17·1-18·1) in 1970. In 2013, child mortality rates ranged from 152·5 per 1000 livebirths (130·6-177·4) in Guinea-Bissau to 2·3 (1·8-2·9) per 1000 in Singapore. The annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2013 ranged from -6·8% to 0·1%. 99 of 188 countries, including 43 of 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, had faster decreases in child mortality during 2000-13 than during 1990-2000. In 2013, neonatal deaths accounted for 41·6% of under-5 deaths compared with 37·4% in 1990. Compared with 1990, in 2013, rising numbers of births, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, led to 1·4 million more child deaths, and rising income per person and maternal education led to 0·9 million and 2·2 million fewer deaths, respectively. Changes in secular trends led to 4·2 million fewer deaths. Unexplained factors accounted for only -1% of the change in child deaths. In 30 developing countries, decreases since 2000 have been faster than predicted attributable to income, education, and secular shift alone.

    INTERPRETATION: Only 27 developing countries are expected to achieve MDG 4. Decreases since 2000 in under-5 mortality rates are accelerating in many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The Millennium Declaration and increased development assistance for health might have been a factor in faster decreases in some developing countries. Without further accelerated progress, many countries in west and central Africa will still have high levels of under-5 mortality in 2030.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US Agency for International Development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Mortality/trends*; Child Mortality/trends*
  3. Brehm U
    Soc Sci Med, 1993 May;36(10):1331-4.
    PMID: 8511619
    In Peninsular Malaysia child mortality rates (5q0) vary from 13 to 63 per thousand at district level. The spatial pattern is closely associated with the regional distribution of socio-economic factors. But due to multicollinearity it is difficult to isolate the influence of socio-economic variables from other variables by employing aggregated data. However, individual data collected in a case-control-study that was conducted in Perlis and Kuala Terengganu confirm the important role of socio-economic factors. So it should be possible to achieve a further reduction of child mortality by raising the income and educational level of the under-privileged groups. Apart from that, as the case of Perlis shows, the provision of family planning and preventive medical services may also contribute to lower child mortality independent from socio-economic changes. But, as the comparison with Kuala Terengganu shows, the utilization of family planning and preventive medical services is not only influenced by the accessibility to, but also by the socio-culturally determined acceptability of such services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Mortality/trends*; Mortality/trends*
  4. Hopkins S
    Health Policy, 2006 Feb;75(3):347-57.
    PMID: 15896870
    The East Asian economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand suffered declines in their economic growth rates in 1997. The Indonesian and Thai government followed the World Bank prescription for adjustment, which included a cut-back in government spending at a time when there were significant job losses. Malaysia chose its own path to adjustment. Evidence presented in this paper shows that although the declines were short-lived that there was an impact on the health status measured by mortality rates for the populations of Indonesia and Thailand. There was little apparent impact on the health status of Malaysians. The lessons for other developing economies include the importance of social safety nets and the maintenance of government expenditure in minimising the impact of economic shocks on health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends
  5. Phillips DR
    Soc Sci Med, 1991;33(4):395-404.
    PMID: 1948152
    The concept of epidemiological transition is now quite widely recognized, if not so widely accepted. The transition appears to progress at varying speeds and to different extents spatially; it seems that there can be considerable international, regional and local variations in its progress. The paper examines this contention in the case of a number of countries in Southeast Asia, principally Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand. Drawing on evidence from this region, the paper highlights the importance when researching epidemiological transition of the time period under consideration; socio-cultural variations; the nature and quality of data, and spatial scale. It makes some suggestions as to the potential of the concept of epidemiological transition in health care planning and development studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  6. Liljestrand J, Pathmanathan I
    J Public Health Policy, 2004;25(3-4):299-314.
    PMID: 15683067 DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jphp.3190030
    Developing countries are floundering in their efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015. Two issues are being debated. Is it doable within this time frame? And is it affordable? Malaysia and Sri Lanka have in the past 50 years repeatedly halved their maternal mortality ratio (MMR) every 7-10 years to reduce MMR from over 500 to below 50. Experience from four other developing countries--Bolivia, Yunan in China, Egypt, and Jamaica-confirms that each was able to halve MMR in less than 10 years beginning from levels of 200-300. Malaysia and Sri Lanka, invested modestly (but wisely)--less than 0.4% of GDP--on maternal health throughout the period of decline, although the large majority of women depended on publicly funded maternal health care. Analysis of their experience suggests that provision of access to and removal of barriers for the use of skilled birth attendance has been the key. This included professionalization of midwifery and phasing out of traditional birth attendants; monitoring births and maternal deaths and use of such information for high profile advocacy on the importance of reducing maternal death; and addressing critical gaps in the health system; and reducing disparities between different groups through special attention to the poor and disadvantaged populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant Mortality/trends; Maternal Mortality/trends*
  7. Ab Rahman A, Ahmad Z, Naing L, Sulaiman SA, Hamid AM, Daud WN
    PMID: 18613559
    The objective of this case-control study was to determine the association between herbal medicine use during pregnancy and perinatal mortality in Tumpat District, Kelantan, Malaysia. Cases were mothers who gave birth from June 2002 to June 2005 with a history of perinatal mortality, while controls were those without a history of perinatal infant mortality. A total of 316 mothers (106 cases and 210 controls) were interviewed. The use of unidentified herbs prepared by traditional midwives and other types of herbal medicines during the first trimester of pregnancy were positively associated with perinatal mortality (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.13; 24.23 and OR = 8.90, 95%, CI = 1.35; 58.53, respectively). The use of unidentified "Orang Asli" herbs and coconut oil during the third trimester of pregnancy were negatively associated with perinatal mortality in Tumpat (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.59 and OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.25; 0.92, respectively). These findings suggest the use of unidentified "Orang Asli" herbs and coconut oil in late pregnancy are protective against perinatal mortality, while the use of unidentified herbs prepared by traditional midwives and other types of herbal medicines in early pregnancy has an increased risk of perinatal infant mortality. Pharmacological studies to confirm and identify the compounds in these herbs and their effects on the fetus should be conducted in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perinatal Mortality/trends*
  8. Tishuk EA
    PMID: 14661406
    The medical-and-demographic processes as a starting point for the planning of means and resources for the short- and average-term future are forecasted in the paper on the basis of long-term peculiarities of the natural-science data and with respect for the social-and-economic crisis now underway in the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  9. Murray CJ, Ortblad KF, Guinovart C, Lim SS, Wolock TM, Roberts DA, et al.
    Lancet, 2014 Sep 13;384(9947):1005-70.
    PMID: 25059949 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60844-8
    BACKGROUND: The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occured since the Millennium Declaration.

    METHODS: To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and ART. For tuberculosis, we analysed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modelling. We analysed data for corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian meta-regression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. We analysed malaria mortality and incidence using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria, and recent studies (2010-13) of incidence, drug resistance, and coverage of insecticide-treated bednets.

    FINDINGS: Globally in 2013, there were 1·8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1·7 million to 2·1 million), 29·2 million prevalent HIV cases (28·1 to 31·7), and 1·3 million HIV deaths (1·3 to 1·5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1·7 million deaths (1·6 million to 1·9 million). Concentrated epidemics in Latin America and eastern Europe are substantially smaller than previously estimated. Through interventions including PMTCT and ART, 19·1 million life-years (16·6 million to 21·5 million) have been saved, 70·3% (65·4 to 76·1) in developing countries. From 2000 to 2011, the ratio of development assistance for health for HIV to years of life saved through intervention was US$4498 in developing countries. Including in HIV-positive individuals, all-form tuberculosis incidence was 7·5 million (7·4 million to 7·7 million), prevalence was 11·9 million (11·6 million to 12·2 million), and number of deaths was 1·4 million (1·3 million to 1·5 million) in 2013. In the same year and in only individuals who were HIV-negative, all-form tuberculosis incidence was 7·1 million (6·9 million to 7·3 million), prevalence was 11·2 million (10·8 million to 11·6 million), and number of deaths was 1·3 million (1·2 million to 1·4 million). Annualised rates of change (ARC) for incidence, prevalence, and death became negative after 2000. Tuberculosis in HIV-negative individuals disproportionately occurs in men and boys (versus women and girls); 64·0% of cases (63·6 to 64·3) and 64·7% of deaths (60·8 to 70·3). Globally, malaria cases and deaths grew rapidly from 1990 reaching a peak of 232 million cases (143 million to 387 million) in 2003 and 1·2 million deaths (1·1 million to 1·4 million) in 2004. Since 2004, child deaths from malaria in sub-Saharan Africa have decreased by 31·5% (15·7 to 44·1). Outside of Africa, malaria mortality has been steadily decreasing since 1990.

    INTERPRETATION: Our estimates of the number of people living with HIV are 18·7% smaller than UNAIDS's estimates in 2012. The number of people living with malaria is larger than estimated by WHO. The number of people living with HIV, tuberculosis, or malaria have all decreased since 2000. At the global level, upward trends for malaria and HIV deaths have been reversed and declines in tuberculosis deaths have accelerated. 101 countries (74 of which are developing) still have increasing HIV incidence. Substantial progress since the Millennium Declaration is an encouraging sign of the effect of global action.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends
  10. Ravindran J, Jayadev R, Lachmanan SR, Merican I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Jun;55(2):209-19.
    PMID: 19839149
    Liver disease is an important and serious condition in pregnancy. The Confidential Enquiries Into Maternal Deaths in Malaysia showed that there were 23 maternal deaths attributed to liver disease between 1991-1994. Over the same period, there were 1066 reported maternal deaths with 929 of them being due to direct and indirect causes. Thus 2.15% of such deaths were due to liver disease in Malaysia. The three main causes of maternal deaths due to liver disease in pregnancy were hepatitis (6 cases), acute fatty liver in pregnancy (6 cases) and septicaemia (4 cases). Liver disease is common at a mean of thirty weeks of gestation with a preponderance to women of low parity. Only two patients in this series had no antenatal care. The majority of cases (45.8%) presented between 28-37 weeks of gestation. All cases delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Remediable factors that were identified included failure to appreciate the severity of disease. Case summaries of all the cases of maternal deaths due to liver disease are discussed and a guideline to management of liver disease in pregnancy presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Maternal Mortality/trends*
  11. Goh AY, Lum LC, Chan PW
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 1999 Dec;45(6):362-4.
    PMID: 10667007
    Paediatric intensive care in Malaysia is a developing subspecialty with an increasing number of specialists with a paediatric background being involved in the care of critically ill children. A part prospective and part retrospective review of 118 consecutive non-neonatal ventilated patients in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was carried out from 1 June 1995 to 31 December 1996 to study the clinical epidemiology and outcome in our paediatric intensive case unit (PICU). The mean age of the patients was 33.9 +/- 6.0 months (median 16 months). The main mode of admission was emergency (96.6 per cent) with an overall mortality rate of 42 per cent (50/118). The mean paediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score was 20 +/- 0.98 SEM, with 53 per cent of patients having a score of over 30 per cent. Multiorgan dysfunction (MODS) was identified in 71 per cent of patients. Admission efficiency (mortality risk > 1 per cent) was 97 per cent. Standardized mortality rate using PRISM was an acceptable 1.06. The main diagnostic categories were respiratory (32 per cent), neurology (22 per cent), haematology-oncology (18 per cent); the aetiology of dysfunction was mainly infective. Non-survivors were older (29.5 vs. 13.8 months, p < 0.0001), had more severe illness (mean PRISM score 30 vs. 14, p < 0.0001), were more likely to develop MODS (96 vs. 53 per cent, p < 0.0001) and required more intervention and monitoring. Paediatric intensive care in Malaysia differs widely from that in developed countries in patient characteristics, severity of illness, and care modalities provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  12. Wang J, Jamison DT, Bos E, Vu MT
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1997 Oct;2(10):1001-10.
    PMID: 9357491
    This paper analyses the effect of income and education on life expectancy and mortality rates among the elderly in 33 countries for the period 1960-92 and assesses how that relationship has changed over time as a result of technical progress. Our outcome variables are life expectancy at age 60 and the probability of dying between age 60 and age 80 for both males and females. The data are from vital-registration based life tables published by national statistical offices for several years during this period. We estimate regressions with determinants that include GDP per capita (adjusted for purchasing power), education and time (as a proxy for technical progress). As the available measure of education failed to account for variation in life expectancy or mortality at age 60, our reported analyses focus on a simplified model with only income and time as predictors. The results indicate that, controlling for income, mortality rates among the elderly have declined considerably over the past three decades. We also find that poverty (as measured by low average income levels) explains some of the variation in both life expectancy at age 60 and mortality rates among the elderly across the countries in the sample. The explained amount of variation is more substantial for females than for males. While poverty does adversely affect mortality rates among the elderly (and the strength of this effect is estimated to be increasing over time), technical progress appears far more important in the period following 1960. Predicted female life expectancy (at age 60) in 1960 at the mean income level in 1960 was, for example 18.8 years; income growth to 1992 increased this by an estimated 0.7 years, whereas technical progress increased it by 2.0 years. We then use the estimated regression results to compare country performance on life expectancy of the elderly, controlling for levels of poverty (or income), and to assess how performance has varied over time. High performing countries, on female life expectancy at age 60, for the period around 1990, included Chile (1.0 years longer life expectancy), China (1.7 years longer), France (2.0 years longer), Japan (1.9 years longer), and Switzerland (1.3 years longer). Poorly performing countries included Denmark (1.1 years shorter life expectancy than predicted from income), Hungary (1.4 years shorter), Iceland (1.2 years shorter), Malaysia (1.6 years shorter), and Trinidad and Tobago (3.9 years shorter). Chile and Switzerland registered major improvements in relative performance over this period; Norway, Taiwan and the USA, in contrast showed major declines in performance between 1980 and the early 1990s.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  13. Sastry N
    Demography, 2002 Feb;39(1):1-23.
    PMID: 11852832
    I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and important they were. I also investigate whether the mortality effects were persistent or whether they represented a short-term, mortality-harvesting effect. The results show that the smoke haze from the fires had a deleterious effect on the health of the population in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  14. Chia BH, Chia A, Yee NW, Choo TB
    Arch Suicide Res, 2010;14(3):276-83.
    PMID: 20658381 DOI: 10.1080/13811118.2010.494147
    The objective of this study was to investigate suicide trends in Singapore between 1955 and 2004. Suicide cases were identified from the Registry of Birth and Death, Singapore, and analyzed using Poisson regression. Overall, suicide rates in Singapore remained stable between 9.8-13.0/100,000 over the last 5 decades. Rates remain highest in elderly males, despite declines among the elderly and middle-aged males in recent years. Rates in ethnic Chinese and Indians were consistently higher than in Malays. While the rates among female Indians and Chinese have declined significantly between 1995 and 2004, some increase was noted in female Malays. Although there was no increase in overall suicide rates, risk within certain population segments has changed over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  15. Phua KL
    Pac Health Dialog, 2009 Nov;15(2):117-27.
    PMID: 20443525
    Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends
  16. Tocharoenvanich P, Yipintsoi T, Choomalee K, Boonwanno P, Rodklai A
    J Med Assoc Thai, 2008 Apr;91(4):471-8.
    PMID: 18556854
    To determine the mortality rate and risk factors for death in a selected population in Songkhla province in southern Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  17. Gray L, Harding S, Reid A
    Eur J Public Health, 2007 Dec;17(6):550-4.
    PMID: 17353202
    BACKGROUND: Very little is known about how acculturation affects health in different societal settings. Using duration of residence, this study investigates acculturation and circulatory disease mortality among migrants in Australia.

    METHODS: Data from death records, 1998-2002, and from 2001 Census data were extracted for seven migrant groups [New Zealand; United Kingdom (UK)/Ireland; Germany; Greece; Italy; China/Singapore/Malaysia/Vietnam (East Asia); and India/Sri Lanka (South Asia)] aged 45-64 years. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the duration of residence effect (categorized in 5-year bands and also as having arrived 2-16, 17-31 and 32 years ago or more), adjusted for sex, 5-year age group and year of death, then additionally for occupational class and marital status (SES) on relative risks (RR) of CVD mortality.

    RESULTS: Compared with the Australia-born population, CVD mortality was generally lower in each migrant group. Decreasing mortality with increasing duration of residence was observed for migrants from New Zealand (RR 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92-0.98, P<0.01, per 5-year increase), Greece (0.90, 0.86-0.94, P<0.01), Italy (0.94, 0.91-0.97, P<0.01) and South Asia (0.95, 0.91-0.99, P<0.01), mainly in older age groups. Trends remained after SES adjustment and also when broader categories of duration of residence were used. CVD mortality among migrants from the UK/Ireland appeared to converge towards those of the Australian-born.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results show divergence in CVD mortality compared with the Australian rate for New Zealanders, Greeks, Italians and South Asians. Sustained cardio-protective behavioural practices in the Australian setting is a potential explanation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
  18. Kassebaum NJ, Bertozzi-Villa A, Coggeshall MS, Shackelford KA, Steiner C, Heuton KR, et al.
    Lancet, 2014 Sep 13;384(9947):980-1004.
    PMID: 24797575 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60696-6
    BACKGROUND: The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery.

    METHODS: We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine different causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990-2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values.

    FINDINGS: 292,982 (95% UI 261,017-327,792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376,034 (343,483-407,574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was -0·3% (-1·1 to 0·6) from 1990 to 2003, and -2·7% (-3·9 to -1·5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290-2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0·4% (0·2-0·6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the oldest age groups in both 1990 and 2013. In 2013, most deaths occurred intrapartum or postpartum. Causes varied by region and between 1990 and 2013. We recorded substantial variation in the MMR by country in 2013, from 956·8 (685·1-1262·8) in South Sudan to 2·4 (1·6-3·6) in Iceland.

    INTERPRETATION: Global rates of change suggest that only 16 countries will achieve the MDG 5 target by 2015. Accelerated reductions since the Millennium Declaration in 2000 coincide with increased development assistance for maternal, newborn, and child health. Setting of targets and associated interventions for after 2015 will need careful consideration of regions that are making slow progress, such as west and central Africa.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Maternal Mortality/trends*
  19. Fix AG
    Hum. Biol., 1991 Apr;63(2):211-20.
    PMID: 2019414
    An excess of male over female deaths is characteristic of modern national populations, whereas in some high-mortality societies female mortality exceeds that of males. Among the Semai Senoi, a Malaysian Orang Asli ("aboriginal") population, women experienced higher mortality than males in the decades before 1969. This differential occurred in all age classes older than 15 years so that the sex ratio progressively increased with age. A recent (1987) restudy of the Semai population found that sex-specific differential mortality is much reduced. A comparison of the 1969 and 1987 life tables shows a sharp shift in the sex ratios of mortality for the post-15-year-old age classes (the geometric means of age classes 15-44 were 0.768 in 1969 and 0.997 in 1987) so that male and female expectations of further life at age 15 are now nearly identical. In contrast to the best-known cases of high female mortality (mostly in South Asia), Semai sex differential mortality does not include the childhood ages. The Semai have traditionally been relatively sexually egalitarian, and sex bias in care has not occurred. Analysis of sex-specific causes of death for the pre-1969 population suggests that maternal mortality is the major cause of the excess female deaths. The reduced number of maternal deaths seems largely due to better health care, particularly the availability of hospital services. Interestingly, the reduction in female mortality has occurred simultaneously with increased fertility, and overall mortality has continued at relatively high levels (eO less than 36). Thus, rather than forming a component of a unitary demographic transition, declining sex differences in mortality can be accounted for by a specific factor, better maternal care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mortality/trends*
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