METHODS: Questions about tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and betel quid chewing were used to create outcome variables such as tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and 'dual use' (tobacco use and betel quid chewing). Sex-stratified weighted prevalence rates, distribution by socio-demographic factors were presented. Association of demographic factors with tobacco and/or betel quid chewing was assessed by multinomial logistic regression.
RESULTS: Among men, prevalence (%) of tobacco use and betel quid chewing was 40.9 (95% CI 38.1, 42.1) and 58.9 (95% CI 56.3, 61.6) respectively. Among women tobacco use was 3.7 (95% CI 2.0, 4.3) and betel quid chewing 18.2 (95% CI 16.4, 20.0). Among men prevalence of either tobacco or betel quid and 'dual use' was 50.4 (95% CI 48.5, 52.3) and 25.0 (95% CI 23.1, 26.8) respectively, whereas among women the corresponding rates were 17.9 (95% CI 16.2, 19.6) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.6, 2.9). Smokeless tobacco use was low (Myanmar, prevalence of both tobacco use and betel quid chewing was high particularly among men. Tobacco control interventions should be strictly implemented and 'dual use' of both tobacco and betel quid should also be urgently addressed.
OBJECTIVE: Explore the relationship between domestic violence on the decision-making power of married women in Myanmar.
SETTING: National, both urban and rural areas of Myanmar.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from the Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16 were used in this analysis. In that survey, married women aged between 15 to 49 years were selected for interview using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The dependent variables were domestic violence and the decision-making power of women. Independent variables were age of the respondents, educational level, place of residence, employment status, number of children younger than 5 years of age and wealth index.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Domestic violence and decision-making power of women.
SAMPLE SIZE: 7870 currently married women.
RESULTS: About 50% respondents were 35 to 49 years of age and the mean (SD) age was 35 (8.4) years. Women's place of residence and employment status had a significant impact on decision-making power whereas age group and decision-making power of women had a relationship with domestic violence.
CONCLUSION: Giving women decision making power will be indispensable for the achievement of sustainable development goals. Government and other stakeholders should emphasize this to eliminate violence against women.
LIMITATIONS: Use of secondary data analysis of cross-sectional study design and cross-sectional studies are not suitable design to assess this causality. Secondly the self-reported data on violence may be subject to recall bias.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined past month patterns of substances use and its gender difference among adolescents.
METHODS: Cross-sectional samples among adolescents aged 13-16 years who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) from eight ASEAN countries were included in the analysis (n = 40,212).
RESULTS: Prevalence of past month any tobacco use was relatively high in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines (11-15%), but prevalence of dual cigarette and other forms of tobacco use was about 2-5% in the five countries. Past month alcohol consumption prevalence was also high in Thailand, Viet Nam, and the Philippines (16-24%), compared to the rest countries (1.4-8.2%). Moreover, prevalence of the concurrent alcohol and tobacco use was higher in Thailand and the Philippines (7 and 10%, respectively), particularly in boys (13 and 15%, respectively). Conclusions/importance: Almost 30-40% of the boys and 10-20% of girls in Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam are engaged in at least one of the two risk behaviors, and the concurrent alcohol and tobacco use was also relatively high among boys in those countries (5-15%). This study may provide some valuable insights on alcohol and tobacco policy in the region and requires to begin prevention and treatment programs in ASEAN member states.
METHODS: In 2004 and 2014, household-based cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban and rural areas of Yangon Region using the WHO STEPS protocol. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, a total of 4448 and 1486 participated in 2004 and 2014, respectively, with the response rates above 89%.
RESULTS: From 2004 to 2014, there was a significant increase in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension from 26.7% (95% CI:24.4-29.1) - 34.6% (32.2-37.1), as well as an awareness from 19.4% (17.2-21.9) to 27.8% (24.9-31.0), while treatment and control rates did not change. The age-standardized mean systolic blood pressure increased from 122.8 (SE) ± 0.82 mmHg in 2004 to 128.1 ± 0.53 mmHg in 2014, whereas diastolic blood pressure increased from 76.2 ± 0.35 mmHg to 80.9 ± 0.53 mmHg. In multivariate analyses, hypertension was significantly associated with age, alcohol consumption, overweight and diabetes in both 2004 and 2014, and additionally associated with low physical activity and hypercholesterolemia in 2004. Combining all data, a significant association between study-year and hypertension persisted in different models with an adjustment for socio-demographic variables and behavioural variables, but not when adjusting for a combination of socio-demographic variables, the metabolic variables, BMI and hypercholesterolemia.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension has risen from 2004 to 2014 in both urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, while, the awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension remains low in urban and rural areas among both males and females. It is likely that changes in the metabolic variables, BMI and hypercholesterolemia have contributed to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension from 2004 to 2014. Factors associated with hypertension in both study years were age, alcohol consumption, overweight and diabetes. A national hypertension control programme should be implemented in order to reduce premature deaths in Myanmar.
DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology.
SETTING: Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded.
RESULTS: Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women.
CONCLUSION: The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.
OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers.
METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers.
RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides.
CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.
METHODS: This narrative systematic review addressed MSAs targeted to MMPs in Myanmar for malaria prevention. We searched relevant studies in electronic databases and present the narrative findings in 4 domains: stakeholder groups, net coverage and utilization, social determinates, and facilitators/barriers.
RESULTS: Nine studies were included. The review identified stakeholders involved in intersectoral collaboration. Net ownership was higher than utilization rates in the MARC zones and rates remained below the WHO recommended target of 100%. There was inadequate description of roles and responsibilities for implementation and on channels of communication within the partnerships and with the Government.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings show that interventions to distribute treated bed nets were supported by the multiple stakeholders. Due to the design of the primary studies, analysis of the added value of intersectoral collaboration was limited. More attention must be paid to designing studies to document and evaluate the contributions and outcomes of intersectoral collaboration.
METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban and rural areas of Yangon Region in 2013 and 2014 respectively, using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of risk factors of NCDs. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 1486 participants were recruited.
RESULTS: Age-standardized prevalence of the behavioral risk factors tended to be higher in the rural than urban areas for all included factors and significantly higher for alcohol drinking (19.9% vs. 13.9%; p = 0.040) and low fruit & vegetable consumption (96.7% vs. 85.1%; p = 0.001). For the metabolic risk factors, the tendency was opposite, with higher age-standardized prevalence estimates in urban than rural areas, significantly for overweight and obesity combined (40.9% vs. 31.2%; p = 0.023), obesity (12.3% vs.7.7%; p = 0.019) and diabetes (17.2% vs. 9.2%; p = 0.024). In sub-group analysis by gender, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher in urban than rural areas among males, 61.8% vs. 40.4%; p = 0.002 and 31.4% vs. 20.7%; p = 0.009, respectively. Mean values of age-standardized metabolic parameters showed higher values in urban than rural areas for both male and female. Based on WHO age-standardized Framingham risk scores, 33.0% (95% CI = 31.7-34.4) of urban dwellers and 27.0% (95% CI = 23.5-30.8) of rural dwellers had a moderate to high risk of developing CHD in the next 10 years.
CONCLUSION: The metabolic risk factors, as well as a moderate or high ten-year risk of CHD were more common among urban residents whereas behavioral risk factors levels were higher in among the rural people of Yangon Region. The high prevalences of NCD risk factors in both urban and rural areas call for preventive measures to reduce the future risk of NCDs in Myanmar.
METHODS: This scoping review intended to investigate published studies on the current prevalence and incidence of oral cancer in LMICs. The review was conducted applying the search words "Oral Cancer" and "Mouth neoplasm" as the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) major topic and "Epidemiology" and ("prevalence" OR "incidence") as the MeSH subheading; the search was supplemented by cross-references. Included studies met the following criteria: original studies, reporting of prevalence or incidence rates, population-based studies, studies in English language and studies involving humans.
RESULTS: The sample sizes ranged from 486 to 101,761 with 213,572 persons included. Buccal mucosa is one of the most common sites of oral cancer, associated with the widespread exposure to chewing tobacco. The incidence is likely to rise in the region where gutkha, pan masala, pan-tobacco and various other forms of chewing tobacco are popular.
CONCLUSION: This review contributes to useful information on prevalence and incidence estimates of oral cancer in LMICs.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 439 records of P. knowlesi infections in humans, macaque reservoir and vector species were collated. To predict spatial variation in disease risk, a model was fitted using records from countries where the infection data coverage is high. Predictions were then made throughout Southeast Asia, including regions where infection data are sparse. The resulting map predicts areas of high risk for P. knowlesi infection in a number of countries that are forecast to be malaria-free by 2025 (Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam) as well as countries projected to be eliminating malaria (Myanmar, Laos, Indonesia and the Philippines).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have produced the first map of P. knowlesi malaria risk, at a fine-scale resolution, to identify priority areas for surveillance based on regions with sparse data and high estimated risk. Our map provides an initial evidence base to better understand the spatial distribution of this disease and its potential wider contribution to malaria incidence. Considering malaria elimination goals, areas for prioritised surveillance are identified.