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  1. Nyunt MH, Soe HO, Aye KT, Aung WW, Kyaw YY, Kyaw AK, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 05 13;11(1):10203.
    PMID: 33986354 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-89361-7
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major health concern globally. Genomic epidemiology is an important tool to assess the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several mutations have been reported by genome analysis of the SARS-CoV-2. In the present study, we investigated the mutational and phylogenetic analysis of 30 whole-genome sequences for the virus's genomic characteristics in the specimens collected in the early phase of the pandemic (March-June, 2020) and the sudden surge of local transmission (August-September, 2020). The four samples in the early phase of infection were B.6 lineage and located within a clade of the samples collected at the same time in Singapore and Malaysia, while five returnees by rescue flights showed the lineage B. 1.36.1 (three from India), B.1.1 (one from India) and B.1.80 (one from China). However, there was no evidence of local spread from these returnees. Further, all 19 whole-genome sequences collected in the sudden surge of local transmission showed lineage B.1.36. The surge of the second wave on SARS-CoV-2 infection was linked to the single-introduction of a variant (B.1.36) that may result from the strict restriction of international travel and containment efforts. These genomic data provides the useful information to disease control and prevention strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  2. Pocock NS, Mahmood SS, Zimmerman C, Orcutt M
    BMJ, 2017 11 15;359:j5210.
    PMID: 29141900 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.j5210
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  3. Sreeramareddy CT, Aye SN, Venkateswaran SP
    BMC Public Health, 2021 02 03;21(1):277.
    PMID: 33535993 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-10347-1
    BACKGROUND: National-level prevalence of tobacco use and betel quid chewing, and associated socio-demographic factors were estimated using first-ever, Myanmar Demographic Health Survey, 2015-16.

    METHODS: Questions about tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and betel quid chewing were used to create outcome variables such as tobacco smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and 'dual use' (tobacco use and betel quid chewing). Sex-stratified weighted prevalence rates, distribution by socio-demographic factors were presented. Association of demographic factors with tobacco and/or betel quid chewing was assessed by multinomial logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Among men, prevalence (%) of tobacco use and betel quid chewing was 40.9 (95% CI 38.1, 42.1) and 58.9 (95% CI 56.3, 61.6) respectively. Among women tobacco use was 3.7 (95% CI 2.0, 4.3) and betel quid chewing 18.2 (95% CI 16.4, 20.0). Among men prevalence of either tobacco or betel quid and 'dual use' was 50.4 (95% CI 48.5, 52.3) and 25.0 (95% CI 23.1, 26.8) respectively, whereas among women the corresponding rates were 17.9 (95% CI 16.2, 19.6) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.6, 2.9). Smokeless tobacco use was low (Myanmar, prevalence of both tobacco use and betel quid chewing was high particularly among men. Tobacco control interventions should be strictly implemented and 'dual use' of both tobacco and betel quid should also be urgently addressed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  4. Andiappan H, Nissapatorn V, Sawangjaroen N, Nyunt MH, Lau YL, Khaing SL, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:564.
    PMID: 25498432 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0564-9
    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causes a disease called toxoplasmosis which can sometimes be acquired congenitally by a newborn from an infected mother. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and its associated risks among 219 and 215 pregnant women from Malaysia and Myanmar, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  5. Wongsathapornchai K, Salman MD, Edwards JR, Morley PS, Keefe TJ, Van Campen H, et al.
    Am. J. Vet. Res., 2008 Feb;69(2):252-60.
    PMID: 18241023 DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.69.2.252
    To assess the likelihood of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) into the Malaysia-Thailand-Myanmar (MTM) peninsula through terrestrial movement of livestock.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  6. Naing C, Aung K
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2014 Nov;93(21):e100.
    PMID: 25380081 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000100
    Hypertension (HPT) is the most common condition seen in primary care that can lead to health consequences and death if not detected early and treated appropriately.This study aimed to synthesize the prevalence, awareness, and control of HPT, and investigate the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar.We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed in 3 domains: selection bias, measurement bias, and bias related to data analysis. The overall prevalence and proportions was calculated using random-effect model of DerSimonian-Laird method. To identify the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar, we entered the ratio measures of the (adjusted) effect as a log odds ratio (OR) and the standard error of the log OR using generic inverse-variance weighting method. For stability of results, we performed leave-one-study-out sensitivity analysis by omitting individual studies one at a time from the meta-analysis.Seven studies (n = 20,901) were included in this analysis. Overall prevalence of HPT in Myanmar was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%-31.7%, I: 99.6%), stratified as 21.5% (95% CI: 14.1%-29.9%, I: 98.7%) in men and 22.7% (95% CI: 10.8%-34.6%, I: 99.5%) in women. Overall, prevalence of HPT increased with an advancing age of the participants. The proportions of awareness and controlled HPT were 55% (95% CI: 43%-67%, I: 97.7%) and 11% (95% CI: 6%-15%, I: 93.8%), respectively. A weak but significant association was observed between HPT and alcohol drinking (summary OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.14%-1.65, I: 0%) and smoking (summary OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.0%-1.74, I: 50%). In sensitivity analysis, when a study that made confirmation of HPT by the former World Health Organization criteria was dropped, the prevalence increased to 26% (95% CI: 20.8%-32.1%, I: 98.1%).HPT was considerably prevalent in Myanmar, while the levels of awareness and controlled HPT were low. Health promotion strategy tailored to the education on modifiable risk factors and establishment of blood pressure screening in primary health care context would be of immense value. Upcoming well-powered studies, using the standardized research design and covering more regions of the country are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  7. Tun MM, Thant KZ, Inoue S, Nabeshima T, Aoki K, Kyaw AK, et al.
    Emerg Infect Dis, 2014 Aug;20(8):1378-81.
    PMID: 25062511 DOI: 10.3201/eid2008.131431
    In 2010, chikungunya virus of the East Central South African genotype was isolated from 4 children in Myanmyar who had dengue-like symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis of the E1 gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to isolates from China, Thailand, and Malaysia that harbor the A226V mutation in this gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  8. Kabir R, Haque M, Mohammadnezhad M, Samad N, Mostari S, Jabin S, et al.
    Ann Saudi Med, 2019 12 05;39(6):395-402.
    PMID: 31804139 DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2019.395
    BACKGROUND: Women in Myanmar are not considered decision makers in the community and the physical and psychological effect of violence makes them more vulnerable. There is a strong negative reaction, usually violent, to any economic activity generated by women among poorer and middle-class families in Myanmar because a woman's income is not considered necessary for basic survival.

    OBJECTIVE: Explore the relationship between domestic violence on the decision-making power of married women in Myanmar.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: National, both urban and rural areas of Myanmar.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from the Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16 were used in this analysis. In that survey, married women aged between 15 to 49 years were selected for interview using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The dependent variables were domestic violence and the decision-making power of women. Independent variables were age of the respondents, educational level, place of residence, employment status, number of children younger than 5 years of age and wealth index.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Domestic violence and decision-making power of women.

    SAMPLE SIZE: 7870 currently married women.

    RESULTS: About 50% respondents were 35 to 49 years of age and the mean (SD) age was 35 (8.4) years. Women's place of residence and employment status had a significant impact on decision-making power whereas age group and decision-making power of women had a relationship with domestic violence.

    CONCLUSION: Giving women decision making power will be indispensable for the achievement of sustainable development goals. Government and other stakeholders should emphasize this to eliminate violence against women.

    LIMITATIONS: Use of secondary data analysis of cross-sectional study design and cross-sectional studies are not suitable design to assess this causality. Secondly the self-reported data on violence may be subject to recall bias.

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  9. Cassol S, Weniger BG, Babu PG, Salminen MO, Zheng X, Htoon MT, et al.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 1996 Oct 10;12(15):1435-41.
    PMID: 8893051
    Global surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes for genetic characterization is hampered by the biohazard of processing and the difficulties of shipping whole blood or cells from many developing country regions. We developed a technique for the direct automated sequencing of viral DNA from dried blood spot (DBS) specimens collected on absorbent paper, which can be mailed unrefrigerated in sturdy paper envelopes with low biohazard risk. DBS were collected nonrandomly from HIV-1-infected, mostly asymptomatic, patients in five Asian countries in 1991, and shipped via airmail or hand carried without refrigeration to Bangkok, and then transshipped to North America for processing. After more than 2 years of storage, including 6 months at ambient temperatures, proviral DNA in the DBS was amplified by nested PCR, and a 389-nucleotide segment of the C2-V3 env gene region was sequenced, from which 287 base pairs were aligned and subtyped by phylogenetic analysis with neighbor-joining and other methods. From southern India, there were 25 infections with subtype C and 2 with subtype A. From Myanmar (Burma), we identified the first subtype E infection, as well as six subtype BB, a distinct cluster within subtype B that was first discovered in Thailand and that has now appeared in China, Malaysia, and Japan. From southwest China, one BB was identified, while a "classical" B typical of North American and European strains was found in Indonesia. From Thailand, five DBS of ambiguous serotype were identified as three B, one BB, and one E. A blinded control serotype E specimen was correctly identified, but a serotype BB control was not tested. Most HIV-1 in southern India appears to be env subtype C, with rare A, as others have reported in western and northern India. The subtypes BB and E in Myanmar, and the BB in China, suggest epidemiological linkage with these subtypes in neighboring Thailand. DBS are a practical, economical technique for conducting large-scale molecular epidemiological surveillance to track the global distribution and spread of HIV-1 variants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  10. Htwe TT
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Mar;53(3):159-63.
    PMID: 22434287
    Endemic goitre is a major concern in many parts of the world, including Southeast Asia. Goitrous thyroid lesion is postulated as a precursor lesion to thyroid cancer (TC). This paper reviews the prevalence rates and characteristics of TC among cases of goitrous thyroid-swelling in different parts of Malaysia and Myanmar. Recorded data from hospital-based retrospective studies of thyroid cases, whose study periods ranged from three to 11 years, were analysed. These included research findings from the author's publications as well as other published review articles of retrospective analyses. The incidence of TC varies among gender, age, race/ethnicity and histological type. There appears to be a higher rate of occurrence among females aged 21-60 years. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the more common histological type compared to follicular cancer. This review also presents a descriptive analysis and discussion on studies conducted in other countries. Further exploration is warranted in order to uncover the possible risk factors for the rising incidence of TC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  11. van Enter BJD, Lau YL, Ling CL, Watthanaworawit W, Sukthana Y, Lee WC, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2017 Jul;97(1):232-235.
    PMID: 28719309 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0999
    Toxoplasma gondii primary infection in pregnancy is associated with poor obstetric outcomes. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant migrant and refugee women from Myanmar attending antenatal care in Thailand. A random selection of 199 residual blood samples from first antenatal screen in 2014-2015 was tested for Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was 31.7% (95% confidence interval = 25.6-38.4). Avidity testing in the three positive IgM cases indicated all were past infections. Multiparity (≥ 3 children) was significantly associated with higher Toxoplasma seropositivity rates. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in this pregnant population is similar to the only other report from Myanmar, where multiparity was also identified as a significant association. Toxoplasma infection is important in pregnant women. Nevertheless, in this marginalized population, this infection may be given less priority, due to resource constraints in providing the most basic components of safe motherhood programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  12. Hong SA, Peltzer K
    Subst Use Misuse, 2019;54(2):288-296.
    PMID: 30463459 DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2018.1517797
    BACKGROUND: Though alcohol and tobacco are the most commonly used substances among adolescents, little is known about the patterning of early adolescent substance use in Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined past month patterns of substances use and its gender difference among adolescents.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional samples among adolescents aged 13-16 years who completed the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) from eight ASEAN countries were included in the analysis (n = 40,212).

    RESULTS: Prevalence of past month any tobacco use was relatively high in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines (11-15%), but prevalence of dual cigarette and other forms of tobacco use was about 2-5% in the five countries. Past month alcohol consumption prevalence was also high in Thailand, Viet Nam, and the Philippines (16-24%), compared to the rest countries (1.4-8.2%). Moreover, prevalence of the concurrent alcohol and tobacco use was higher in Thailand and the Philippines (7 and 10%, respectively), particularly in boys (13 and 15%, respectively). Conclusions/importance: Almost 30-40% of the boys and 10-20% of girls in Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam are engaged in at least one of the two risk behaviors, and the concurrent alcohol and tobacco use was also relatively high among boys in those countries (5-15%). This study may provide some valuable insights on alcohol and tobacco policy in the region and requires to begin prevention and treatment programs in ASEAN member states.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  13. Htet AS, Bjertness MB, Oo WM, Kjøllesdal MK, Sherpa LY, Zaw KK, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2017 10 26;17(1):847.
    PMID: 29073891 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4870-y
    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and little is known about trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and the control of hypertension in Myanmar. This study aims at evaluating changes from 2004 to 2014 in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the Yangon Region, Myanmar, and to compare associations between hypertension and selected socio-demographic, behavioural- and metabolic risk factors in 2004 and 2014.

    METHODS: In 2004 and 2014, household-based cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban and rural areas of Yangon Region using the WHO STEPS protocol. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, a total of 4448 and 1486 participated in 2004 and 2014, respectively, with the response rates above 89%.

    RESULTS: From 2004 to 2014, there was a significant increase in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension from 26.7% (95% CI:24.4-29.1) - 34.6% (32.2-37.1), as well as an awareness from 19.4% (17.2-21.9) to 27.8% (24.9-31.0), while treatment and control rates did not change. The age-standardized mean systolic blood pressure increased from 122.8 (SE) ± 0.82 mmHg in 2004 to 128.1 ± 0.53 mmHg in 2014, whereas diastolic blood pressure increased from 76.2 ± 0.35 mmHg to 80.9 ± 0.53 mmHg. In multivariate analyses, hypertension was significantly associated with age, alcohol consumption, overweight and diabetes in both 2004 and 2014, and additionally associated with low physical activity and hypercholesterolemia in 2004. Combining all data, a significant association between study-year and hypertension persisted in different models with an adjustment for socio-demographic variables and behavioural variables, but not when adjusting for a combination of socio-demographic variables, the metabolic variables, BMI and hypercholesterolemia.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension has risen from 2004 to 2014 in both urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, while, the awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension remains low in urban and rural areas among both males and females. It is likely that changes in the metabolic variables, BMI and hypercholesterolemia have contributed to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension from 2004 to 2014. Factors associated with hypertension in both study years were age, alcohol consumption, overweight and diabetes. A national hypertension control programme should be implemented in order to reduce premature deaths in Myanmar.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  14. Htet AS, Kjøllesdal MK, Aung WP, Moe Myint AN, Aye WT, Wai MM, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 Nov 15;7(11):e017465.
    PMID: 29146640 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017465
    OBJECTIVE: The first is to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level), as well as the mean levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL, in the urban and rural Yangon Region, Myanmar. The second is to investigate the association between urban-rural location and total cholesterol.

    DESIGN: Two cross-sectional studies using the WHO STEPS methodology.

    SETTING: Both the urban and rural areas of the Yangon Region, Myanmar.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1370 men and women aged 25-74 years participated based on a multistage cluster sampling. Physically and mentally ill people, monks, nuns, soldiers and institutionalised people were excluded.

    RESULTS: Compared with rural counterparts, urban dwellers had a significantly higher age-standardised prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (50.7% vs 41.6%; p=0.042) and a low HDL level (60.6% vs 44.4%; p=0.001). No urban-rural differences were found in the prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia and high LDL. Men had a higher age-standardised prevalence of hypertriglyceridaemia than women (25.1% vs 14.8%; p<0.001), while the opposite pattern was found in the prevalence of a high LDL (11.3% vs 16.3%; p=0.018) and low HDL level (35.3% vs 70.1%; p<0.001).Compared with rural inhabitants, urban dwellers had higher age-standardised mean levels of total cholesterol (5.31 mmol/L, SE: 0.044 vs 5.05 mmol/L, 0.068; p=0.009), triglyceride (1.65 mmol/L, 0.049 vs 1.38 mmol/L, 0.078; p=0.017), LDL (3.44 mmol/L, 0.019 vs 3.16 mmol/L, 0.058; p=0.001) and lower age-standardised mean levels of HDL (1.11 mmol/L, 0.010 vs 1.25 mmol/L, 0.012; p<0.001). In linear regression, the total cholesterol was significantly associated with an urban location among men, but not among women.

    CONCLUSION: The mean level of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia were alarmingly high in men and women in both the urban and rural areas of Yangon Region, Myanmar. Preventive measures to reduce cholesterol levels in the population are therefore needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  15. Myzabella N, Fritschi L, Merdith N, El-Zaemey S, Chih H, Reid A
    Int J Occup Environ Med, 2019 10;10(4):159-173.
    PMID: 31586381 DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1576
    BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers.

    METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers.

    RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides.

    CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  16. Naing C, Whittaker MA, Tanner M
    J Infect Dis, 2020 10 29;222(Suppl 8):S717-S725.
    PMID: 33119095 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa335
    BACKGROUND: Myanmar is a premalaria elimination country with artemisinin-resistant malaria. A strategy for transmission control is focused on vulnerable groups such as mobile and migrant populations (MMPs), and includes improving access to insecticide-treated bed nets in the Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment (MARC) zones using multisectoral approaches (MSA).

    METHODS: This narrative systematic review addressed MSAs targeted to MMPs in Myanmar for malaria prevention. We searched relevant studies in electronic databases and present the narrative findings in 4 domains: stakeholder groups, net coverage and utilization, social determinates, and facilitators/barriers.

    RESULTS: Nine studies were included. The review identified stakeholders involved in intersectoral collaboration. Net ownership was higher than utilization rates in the MARC zones and rates remained below the WHO recommended target of 100%. There was inadequate description of roles and responsibilities for implementation and on channels of communication within the partnerships and with the Government.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings show that interventions to distribute treated bed nets were supported by the multiple stakeholders. Due to the design of the primary studies, analysis of the added value of intersectoral collaboration was limited. More attention must be paid to designing studies to document and evaluate the contributions and outcomes of intersectoral collaboration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  17. Htet AS, Bjertness MB, Sherpa LY, Kjøllesdal MK, Oo WM, Meyer HE, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2016 12 05;16(1):1225.
    PMID: 27919240
    BACKGROUND: Recent societal and political reforms in Myanmar may upturn the socio-economy and, thus, contribute to the country's health transition. Baseline data on urban-rural disparities in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors are not thoroughly described in this country which has been relatively closed for more than five decades. We aim to investigate urban-rural differences in mean values and the prevalence of selected behavioral and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases and 10-years risk in development of coronary heart diseases (CHD).

    METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban and rural areas of Yangon Region in 2013 and 2014 respectively, using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of risk factors of NCDs. Through a multi-stage cluster sampling method, 1486 participants were recruited.

    RESULTS: Age-standardized prevalence of the behavioral risk factors tended to be higher in the rural than urban areas for all included factors and significantly higher for alcohol drinking (19.9% vs. 13.9%; p = 0.040) and low fruit & vegetable consumption (96.7% vs. 85.1%; p = 0.001). For the metabolic risk factors, the tendency was opposite, with higher age-standardized prevalence estimates in urban than rural areas, significantly for overweight and obesity combined (40.9% vs. 31.2%; p = 0.023), obesity (12.3% vs.7.7%; p = 0.019) and diabetes (17.2% vs. 9.2%; p = 0.024). In sub-group analysis by gender, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher in urban than rural areas among males, 61.8% vs. 40.4%; p = 0.002 and 31.4% vs. 20.7%; p = 0.009, respectively. Mean values of age-standardized metabolic parameters showed higher values in urban than rural areas for both male and female. Based on WHO age-standardized Framingham risk scores, 33.0% (95% CI = 31.7-34.4) of urban dwellers and 27.0% (95% CI = 23.5-30.8) of rural dwellers had a moderate to high risk of developing CHD in the next 10 years.

    CONCLUSION: The metabolic risk factors, as well as a moderate or high ten-year risk of CHD were more common among urban residents whereas behavioral risk factors levels were higher in among the rural people of Yangon Region. The high prevalences of NCD risk factors in both urban and rural areas call for preventive measures to reduce the future risk of NCDs in Myanmar.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  18. Shrestha AD, Vedsted P, Kallestrup P, Neupane D
    Eur J Cancer Care (Engl), 2020 Mar;29(2):e13207.
    PMID: 31820851 DOI: 10.1111/ecc.13207
    INTRODUCTION: Oral cancer is common cancer in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a low five-year survival rate. It is among the four most common types of cancer in South East Asia region. In South-Central Asia, lip and oral cavity cancer is the second most common cancer according to the specific cancer types.

    METHODS: This scoping review intended to investigate published studies on the current prevalence and incidence of oral cancer in LMICs. The review was conducted applying the search words "Oral Cancer" and "Mouth neoplasm" as the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) major topic and "Epidemiology" and ("prevalence" OR "incidence") as the MeSH subheading; the search was supplemented by cross-references. Included studies met the following criteria: original studies, reporting of prevalence or incidence rates, population-based studies, studies in English language and studies involving humans.

    RESULTS: The sample sizes ranged from 486 to 101,761 with 213,572 persons included. Buccal mucosa is one of the most common sites of oral cancer, associated with the widespread exposure to chewing tobacco. The incidence is likely to rise in the region where gutkha, pan masala, pan-tobacco and various other forms of chewing tobacco are popular.

    CONCLUSION: This review contributes to useful information on prevalence and incidence estimates of oral cancer in LMICs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
  19. Shearer FM, Huang Z, Weiss DJ, Wiebe A, Gibson HS, Battle KE, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 08;10(8):e0004915.
    PMID: 27494405 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004915
    BACKGROUND: Infection by the simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, can lead to severe and fatal disease in humans, and is the most common cause of malaria in parts of Malaysia. Despite being a serious public health concern, the geographical distribution of P. knowlesi malaria risk is poorly understood because the parasite is often misidentified as one of the human malarias. Human cases have been confirmed in at least nine Southeast Asian countries, many of which are making progress towards eliminating the human malarias. Understanding the geographical distribution of P. knowlesi is important for identifying areas where malaria transmission will continue after the human malarias have been eliminated.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 439 records of P. knowlesi infections in humans, macaque reservoir and vector species were collated. To predict spatial variation in disease risk, a model was fitted using records from countries where the infection data coverage is high. Predictions were then made throughout Southeast Asia, including regions where infection data are sparse. The resulting map predicts areas of high risk for P. knowlesi infection in a number of countries that are forecast to be malaria-free by 2025 (Malaysia, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam) as well as countries projected to be eliminating malaria (Myanmar, Laos, Indonesia and the Philippines).

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have produced the first map of P. knowlesi malaria risk, at a fine-scale resolution, to identify priority areas for surveillance based on regions with sparse data and high estimated risk. Our map provides an initial evidence base to better understand the spatial distribution of this disease and its potential wider contribution to malaria incidence. Considering malaria elimination goals, areas for prioritised surveillance are identified.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myanmar/epidemiology
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