Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

  1. Das AK, Pal R
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2010 Aug;4(6):413-21.
    PMID: 20084623 DOI: 10.1002/term.258
    Pluripotent stem cells possess the unique property of differentiating into all other cell types of the human body. Further, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006 has opened up new avenues in clinical medicine. In simple language, iPSCs are nothing but somatic cells reprogrammed genetically to exhibit pluripotent characteristics. This process utilizes retroviruses/lentiviruses/adenovirus/plasmids to incorporate candidate genes into somatic cells isolated from any part of the human body. It is also possible to develop disease-specific iPSCs which are most likely to revolutionize research in respect to the pathophysiology of most debilitating diseases, as these can be mimicked ex vivo in the laboratory. These models can also be used to study the safety and efficacy of known drugs or potential drug candidates for a particular diseased condition, limiting the need for animal studies and considerably reducing the time and money required to develop new drugs. Recently, functional neurons, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic islet cells, hepatocytes and retinal cells have been derived from human iPSCs, thus re-confirming the pluripotency and differentiation capacity of these cells. These findings further open up the possibility of using iPSCs in cell replacement therapy for various degenerative disorders. In this review we highlight the development of iPSCs by different methods, their biological characteristics and their prospective applications in regenerative medicine and drug screening. We further discuss some practical limitations pertaining to this technology and how they can be averted for the betterment of human life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  2. Lu J, Wei H, Wu J, Jamil MF, Tan ML, Adenan MI, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(12):e115648.
    PMID: 25535742 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115648
    INTRODUCTION: Mitragynine is a major bioactive compound of Kratom, which is derived from the leave extracts of Mitragyna speciosa Korth or Mitragyna speciosa (M. speciosa), a medicinal plant from South East Asia used legally in many countries as stimulant with opioid-like effects for the treatment of chronic pain and opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Fatal incidents with Mitragynine have been associated with cardiac arrest. In this study, we determined the cardiotoxicity of Mitragynine and other chemical constituents isolated using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs).

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr), L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) and action potential duration (APD) were measured by whole cell patch-clamp. The expression of KCNH2 and cytotoxicity was determined by real-time PCR and Caspase activity measurements. After significant IKr suppression by Mitragynine (10 µM) was confirmed in hERG-HEK cells, we systematically examined the effects of Mitragynine and other chemical constituents in hiPSC-CMs. Mitragynine, Paynantheine, Speciogynine and Speciociliatine, dosage-dependently (0.1∼100 µM) suppressed IKr in hiPSC-CMs by 67%∼84% with IC50 ranged from 0.91 to 2.47 µM. Moreover, Mitragynine (10 µM) significantly prolonged APD at 50 and 90% repolarization (APD50 and APD90) (439.0±11.6 vs. 585.2±45.5 ms and 536.0±22.6 vs. 705.9±46.1 ms, respectively) and induced arrhythmia, without altering the L-type Ca2+ current. Neither the expression, and intracellular distribution of KCNH2/Kv11.1, nor the Caspase 3 activity were significantly affected by Mitragynine.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that Mitragynine and its analogues may potentiate Torsade de Pointes through inhibition of IKr in human cardiomyocytes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology; Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects*; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism; Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology*
  3. Musa S, Xin LZ, Govindasamy V, Fuen FW, Kasim NH
    Expert Opin Biol Ther, 2014 Jan;14(1):63-73.
    PMID: 24191782 DOI: 10.1517/14712598.2014.858694
    Acute myocardial infarction is the primary cause of heart disease-related death in the world. Reperfusion therapy is currently the backbone of treatment for acute myocardial infarction albeit with many limitations. With the emergence of stem cells as potential therapeutic agents, attempts in using them to enhance cardiac function have increased exponentially. However, it has its own disadvantages, and we postulate that the primary drawback is choosing the right cell type and solving this may significantly contribute to ambitious goal of using stem cells in the regeneration medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology; Myocytes, Cardiac/transplantation*
  4. Sudi SB, Tanaka T, Oda S, Nishiyama K, Nishimura A, Sunggip C, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 07 05;9(1):9785.
    PMID: 31278358 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-46252-2
    Myocardial atrophy, characterized by the decreases in size and contractility of cardiomyocytes, is caused by severe malnutrition and/or mechanical unloading. Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), known as a danger signal, is recognized to negatively regulate cell volume. However, it is obscure whether extracellular ATP contributes to cardiomyocyte atrophy. Here, we report that ATP induces atrophy of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) without cell death through P2Y2 receptors. ATP led to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through increased amount of NADPH oxidase (Nox) 2 proteins, due to increased physical interaction between Nox2 and canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3). This ATP-mediated formation of TRPC3-Nox2 complex was also pathophysiologically involved in nutritional deficiency-induced NRCM atrophy. Strikingly, knockdown of either TRPC3 or Nox2 suppressed nutritional deficiency-induced ATP release, as well as ROS production and NRCM atrophy. Taken together, we propose that TRPC3-Nox2 axis, activated by extracellular ATP, is the key component that mediates nutritional deficiency-induced cardiomyocyte atrophy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism*; Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology
  5. Jeevaratnam K, Chadda KR, Huang CL, Camm AJ
    J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Ther., 2018 03;23(2):119-129.
    PMID: 28946759 DOI: 10.1177/1074248417729880
    The development of novel drugs specifically directed at the ion channels underlying particular features of cardiac action potential (AP) initiation, recovery, and refractoriness would contribute to an optimized approach to antiarrhythmic therapy that minimizes potential cardiac and extracardiac toxicity. Of these, K+ channels contribute numerous and diverse currents with specific actions on different phases in the time course of AP repolarization. These features and their site-specific distribution make particular K+ channel types attractive therapeutic targets for the development of pharmacological agents attempting antiarrhythmic therapy in conditions such as atrial fibrillation. However, progress in the development of such temporally and spatially selective antiarrhythmic drugs against particular ion channels has been relatively limited, particularly in view of our incomplete understanding of the complex physiological roles and interactions of the various ionic currents. This review summarizes the physiological properties of the main cardiac potassium channels and the way in which they modulate cardiac electrical activity and then critiques a number of available potential antiarrhythmic drugs directed at them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism*
  6. Leong YY, Ng WH, Umar Fuaad MZ, Ng CT, Ramasamy R, Lim V, et al.
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2019 06;120(6):9104-9116.
    PMID: 30548289 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.28186
    Stem cell therapy offers hope to reconstitute injured myocardium and salvage heart from failing. A recent approach using combinations of derived Cardiac-derived c-kit expressing cells (CCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in transplantation improved infarcted hearts with a greater functional outcome, but the effects of MSCs on CCs remain to be elucidated. We used a novel two-step protocol to clonogenically amplify colony forming c-kit expressing cells from 4- to 6-week-old C57BL/6N mice. This method yielded highly proliferative and clonogenic CCs with an average population doubling time of 17.2 ± 0.2, of which 80% were at the G1 phase. We identified two distinctly different CC populations based on its Sox2 expression, which was found to inversely related to their nkx2.5 and gata4 expression. To study CCs after MSC coculture, we developed micron-sized particles of iron oxide-based magnetic reisolation method to separate CCs from MSCs for subsequent analysis. Through validation using the sex and species mismatch CC-MSC coculture method, we confirmed that the purity of the reisolated cells was greater than 85%. In coculture experiment, we found that MSCs prominently enhanced Ctni and Mef2c expressions in Sox2 pos CCs after the induction of cardiac differentiation, and the level was higher than that of conditioned medium Sox2 pos CCs. However, these effects were not found in Sox2 neg CCs. Immunofluorescence labeling confirmed the presence of cardiac-like cells within Sox2 pos CCs after differentiation, identified by its cardiac troponin I and α-sarcomeric actinin expressions. In conclusion, this study shows that MSCs enhance CC differentiation toward cardiac myocytes. This enhancement is dependent on CC stemness state, which is determined by Sox2 expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects*; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism*
  7. Ganapathy R, Mani S, Hanumanth Rao BR, Tunku K, Ray B, Bhat A, et al.
    Front Biosci (Elite Ed), 2018 03 01;10:437-448.
    PMID: 29293467
    Thraatchathi Chooranam (TC), is a polyphenol-rich Indian traditional medicine. Present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of TC against H2O2 induced oxidative stress and apoptotic damage in H9C2 cardiomyocytes. Cell viability assay indicated relative safety (IC50= 488.10±12.04 mg/ml) of TC. Pretreatment of cells with TC upregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl2, and anti-oxidants TRX1 and TRXR and downregulated Bax and HIF-α and inflammatory genes iNOS and TNF-α. Together, these findings show that TC has both anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Further studies may be considered to identify the bioactive principle(s) and precise mechanisms of action of TC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects*; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  8. Wan Safwani WK, Makpol S, Sathapan S, Chua KH
    PMID: 22221649 DOI: 10.1186/1477-5751-11-3
    Adipose tissue is a source of multipotent adult stem cells and it has the ability to differentiate into several types of cell lineages such as neuron cells, osteogenic cells and adipogenic cells. Several reports have shown adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to undergo cardiomyogenesis. Studies have shown 5-azacytidine can successfully drive stem cells such as bone marrow derived stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyogenic cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect 5-azacytidine on the cardiogenic ability of ASCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology*; Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  9. Khanabdali R, Saadat A, Fazilah M, Bazli KF, Qazi RE, Khalid RS, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2016;10:81-91.
    PMID: 26766903 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S89658
    Small molecules, growth factors, and cytokines have been used to induce differentiation of stem cells into different lineages. Similarly, demethylating agents can trigger differentiation in adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the in vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cardiomyocytes by a demethylating agent, zebularine, as well as neuronal-like cells by β-mercaptoethanol in a growth factor or cytokines-free media. Isolated bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology. These cells expressed positive markers for CD29, CD44, and CD117 and were negative for CD34 and CD45. After treatment with 1 μM zebularine for 24 hours, the MSCs formed myotube-like structures after 10 days in culture. Expression of cardiac-specific genes showed that treated MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of cardiac troponin-T, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 compared with untreated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that differentiated cells also expressed cardiac proteins, GATA-4, Nkx 2.5, and cardiac troponin-T. For neuronal differentiation, MSCs were treated with 1 and 10 mM β-mercaptoethanol overnight for 3 hours in complete and serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, respectively. Following overnight treatment, neuron-like cells with axonal and dendritic-like projections originating from the cell body toward the neighboring cells were observed in the culture. The mRNA expression of neuronal-specific markers, Map2, Nefl, Tau, and Nestin, was significantly higher, indicating that the treated cells differentiated into neuronal-like cells. Immunostaining showed that differentiated cells were positive for the neuronal markers Flk, Nef, Nestin, and β-tubulin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology*
  10. Gorain B, Choudhury H, Pandey M, Kesharwani P, Abeer MM, Tekade RK, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Aug;104:496-508.
    PMID: 29800914 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.066
    Myocardial infarction (cardiac tissue death) is among the most prevalent causes of death among the cardiac patients due to the inability of self-repair in cardiac tissues. Myocardial tissue engineering is regarded as one of the most realistic strategies for repairing damaged cardiac tissue. However, hindrance in transduction of electric signals across the cardiomyocytes due to insulating properties of polymeric materials worsens the clinical viability of myocardial tissue engineering. Aligned and conductive scaffolds based on Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have gained remarkable recognition due to their exceptional attributes which provide synthetic but viable microenvironment for regeneration of engineered cardiomyocytes. This review presents an overview and critical analysis of pharmaceutical implications and therapeutic feasibility of CNT based scaffolds in improving the cardiac tissue regeneration and functionality. The expository analysis of the available evidence revealed that inclusion of single- or multi-walled CNT into fibrous, polymeric, and elastomeric scaffolds results in significant improvement in electrical stimulation and signal transduction through cardiomyocytes. Moreover, incorporation of CNT in engineering scaffolds showed a greater potential of augmenting cardiomyocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation and has improved synchronous beating of cardiomyocytes. Despite promising ability of CNT in promoting functionality of cardiomyocytes, their presence in scaffolds resulted in substantial improvement in mechanical properties and structural integrity. Conclusively, this review provides new insight into the remarkable potential of CNT aligned scaffolds in improving the functionality of engineered cardiac tissue and signifies their feasibility in cardiac tissue regenerative medicines and stem cell therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects*
  11. Tan XW, Bhave M, Fong AY, Matsuura E, Kobayashi K, Shen LH, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016;2016:6943053.
    PMID: 27239253 DOI: 10.1155/2016/6943053
    This study was aimed at preliminarily assessing the cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of rice bran extracts (RBEs) from a Sarawak local rice variety (local name: "BJLN") and a commercial rice variety, "MR219," on oxidative stress in rat H9c2(2-1) cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyocytes were incubated with different concentrations of RBE and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively, to identify their respective IC50 values and safe dose ranges. Two nonlethal and close-to-IC50 doses of RBE were selected to evaluate their respective effects on H2O2 induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Both RBEs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects on cardiomyocytes. H2O2 induction of cardiomyocytes pretreated with RBE further revealed the dose-dependent cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of RBE via an increase in IC50 values of H2O2. Preliminary analyses of induction effects of RBE and H2O2 on cellular antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT), also revealed their potential in regulating these activities and expression profile of related gene on oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Pretreated cardiomyocytes significantly upregulated the enzymatic activity and expression level of CAT under the exposure of H2O2 induced oxidative stress. This preliminary study has demonstrated the potential antioxidant effects of RBE in alleviating H2O2-mediated oxidative injuries via upregulation in enzymatic activities and expression levels of CAT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology*; Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects
  12. Bannister ML, Alvarez-Laviada A, Thomas NL, Mason SA, Coleman S, du Plessis CL, et al.
    Br. J. Pharmacol., 2016 08;173(15):2446-59.
    PMID: 27237957 DOI: 10.1111/bph.13521
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flecainide is a use-dependent blocker of cardiac Na(+) channels. Mechanistic analysis of this block showed that the cationic form of flecainide enters the cytosolic vestibule of the open Na(+) channel. Flecainide is also effective in the treatment of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia but, in this condition, its mechanism of action is contentious. We investigated how flecainide derivatives influence Ca(2) (+) -release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor channel (RyR2) and whether this correlates with their effectiveness as blockers of Na(+) and/or RyR2 channels.

    EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We compared the ability of fully charged (QX-FL) and neutral (NU-FL) derivatives of flecainide to block individual recombinant human RyR2 channels incorporated into planar phospholipid bilayers, and their effects on the properties of Ca(2) (+) sparks in intact adult rat cardiac myocytes.

    KEY RESULTS: Both QX-FL and NU-FL were partial blockers of the non-physiological cytosolic to luminal flux of cations through RyR2 channels but were significantly less effective than flecainide. None of the compounds influenced the physiologically relevant luminal to cytosol cation flux through RyR2 channels. Intracellular flecainide or QX-FL, but not NU-FL, reduced Ca(2) (+) spark frequency.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Given its inability to block physiologically relevant cation flux through RyR2 channels, and its lack of efficacy in blocking the cytosolic-to-luminal current, the effect of QX-FL on Ca(2) (+) sparks is likely, by analogy with flecainide, to result from Na(+) channel block. Our data reveal important differences in the interaction of flecainide with sites in the cytosolic vestibules of Na(+) and RyR2 channels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  13. Hanafi NI, Mohamed AS, Md Noor J, Abdu N, Hasani H, Siran R, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2016 Jun 17;15(2).
    PMID: 27323195 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028150
    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat liver diseases and demonstrates cardioprotective effects. Accumulation of the plasma membrane sphingolipid sphingomyelin in the heart can lead to atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Sphingomyelinases (SMases) break down sphingomyelin, producing ceramide, and inhibition of SMases activity can promote cell survival. We hypothesized that UDCA regulates activation of ERK and Akt survival signaling pathways and SMases in protecting cardiac cells against hypoxia. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated from 0- to 2-day-old Sprague Dawley rats, and given 100 μM CoCl2, 150 μM H2O2, or placed in a hypoxia chamber for 24 h. The ameliorative effects of 100-μM UDCA treatment for 12 h were then assessed using MTS, QuantiGene Plex (for Smpd1 and Smpd2), and SMase assays, beating rate assessment, and western blotting (for ERK and Akt). Data were analyzed by the paired Student t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Cell viability decreased significantly after H2O2 (85%), CoCl2 (50%), and hypoxia chamber (52%) treatments compared to the untreated control (100%). UDCA significantly counteracted the effects of chamber- and CoCl2- induced hypoxia on viability and beating rate. However, no significant differences were observed in acid SMase gene and protein expression between the untreated, CoCl2, and UDCA-CoCl2 groups. In contrast, neutral SMase gene and protein expression did significantly differ between the latter two groups. ERK and Akt phosphorylation was higher in hypoxic cardiomyocytes treated with UDCA than those given CoCl2 alone. In conclusion, UDCA regulates the activation of survival signaling proteins and SMases in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during hypoxia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects*; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  14. Ibrahim E, Diakonov I, Arunthavarajah D, Swift T, Goodwin M, McIlvride S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 05 08;8(1):7110.
    PMID: 29740092 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-25569-4
    Bile acids are recognised as bioactive signalling molecules. While they are known to influence arrhythmia susceptibility in cholestasis, there is limited knowledge about the underlying mechanisms. To delineate mechanisms underlying fetal heart rhythm disturbances in cholestatic pregnancy, we used FRET microscopy to monitor cAMP release and contraction measurements in isolated rodent neonatal cardiomyocytes. The unconjugated bile acids CDCA, DCA and UDCA and, to a lesser extent, CA were found to be relatively potent agonists for the GPBAR1 (TGR5) receptor and elicit cAMP release, whereas all glyco- and tauro- conjugated bile acids are weak agonists. The bile acid-induced cAMP production does not lead to an increase in contraction rate, and seems to be mediated by the RI isoform of adenylate cyclase, unlike adrenaline-dependent release which is mediated by the RII isoform. In contrast, bile acids elicited slowing of neonatal cardiomyocyte contraction indicating that other signalling pathways are involved. The conjugated bile acids were found to be partial agonists of the muscarinic M2, but not sphingosin-1-phosphate-2, receptors, and act partially through the Gi pathway. Furthermore, the contraction slowing effect of unconjugated bile acids may also relate to cytotoxicity at higher concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism; Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology
  15. Adeyemi O, Alvarez-Laviada A, Schultz F, Ibrahim E, Trauner M, Williamson C, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(9):e0183167.
    PMID: 28934223 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183167
    BACKGROUND: Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated.

    METHODS: High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM). Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes.

    RESULTS: TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05) and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV) by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05) exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T) blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05), but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L) blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS). The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM) reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05). UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05) and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001), whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
  16. Hafez P, Chowdhury SR, Jose S, Law JX, Ruszymah BHI, Mohd Ramzisham AR, et al.
    Cardiovasc Eng Technol, 2018 09;9(3):529-538.
    PMID: 29948837 DOI: 10.1007/s13239-018-0368-8
    Developing experimental models to study ischemic heart disease is necessary for understanding of biological mechanisms to improve the therapeutic approaches for restoring cardiomyocytes function following injury. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro hypoxic/re-oxygenation model of ischemia using primary human cardiomyocytes (HCM) and define subsequent cytotoxic effects. HCM were cultured in serum and glucose free medium in hypoxic condition with 1% O2 ranging from 30 min to 12 h. The optimal hypoxic exposure time was determined using Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) as the hypoxic marker. Subsequently, the cells were moved to normoxic condition for 3, 6 and 9 h to replicate the re-oxygenation phase. Optimal period of hypoxic/re-oxygenation was determined based on 50% mitochondrial injury via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cytotoxicity via lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. It was found that the number of cells expressing HIF-1α increased with hypoxic time and 3 h was sufficient to stimulate the expression of this marker in all the cells. Upon re-oxygenation, mitochondrial activity reduced significantly whereas the cytotoxicity increased significantly with time. Six hours of re-oxygenation was optimal to induce reversible cell injury. The injury became irreversible after 9 h as indicated by > 60% LDH leakage compared to the control group cultured in normal condition. Under optimized hypoxic reoxygenation experimental conditions, mesenchymal stem cells formed nanotube with ischemic HCM and facilitated transfer of mitochondria suggesting the feasibility of using this as a model system to study molecular mechanisms of myocardial injury and rescue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism*; Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology
  17. Valli H, Ahmad S, Jiang AY, Smyth R, Jeevaratnam K, Matthews HR, et al.
    Mech. Ageing Dev., 2018 01;169:1-9.
    PMID: 29197478 DOI: 10.1016/j.mad.2017.11.016
    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies reported that energetically deficient murine Pgc-1β-/- hearts replicate age-dependent atrial arrhythmic phenotypes associated with their corresponding clinical conditions, implicating action potential (AP) conduction slowing consequent upon reduced AP upstroke rates.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested a hypothesis implicating Na+ current alterations as a mechanism underlying these electrophysiological phenotypes. We applied loose patch-clamp techniques to intact young and aged, WT and Pgc-1β-/-, atrial cardiomyocyte preparations preserving their in vivo extracellular and intracellular conditions.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Depolarising steps activated typical voltage-dependent activating and inactivating inward (Na+) currents whose amplitude increased or decreased with the amplitudes of the activating, or preceding inactivating, steps. Maximum values of peak Na+ current were independently influenced by genotype but not age or interacting effects of genotype and age on two-way ANOVA. Neither genotype, nor age, whether independently or interactively, influenced voltages at half-maximal current, or steepness factors, for current activation and inactivation, or time constants for recovery from inactivation following repolarisation. In contrast, delayed outward (K+) currents showed similar activation and rectification properties through all experimental groups. These findings directly demonstrate and implicate reduced Na+ in contrast to unchanged K+ current, as a mechanism for slowed conduction causing atrial arrhythmogenicity in Pgc-1β-/- hearts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism*; Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology
  18. Sung TC, Yang JS, Yeh CC, Liu YC, Jiang YP, Lu MW, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2019 Nov;221:119411.
    PMID: 31419657 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119411
    Commonly, stem cell culture is based on batch-type culture, which is laborious and expensive. We continuously cultured human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) on thermoresponsive dish surfaces, where hPSCs were partially detached on the same thermoresponsive dish by decreasing the temperature of the thermoresponsive dish to be below the lower critical solution temperature for only 30 min. Then, the remaining cells were continuously cultured in fresh culture medium, and the detached stem cells were harvested in the exchanged culture medium. hPSCs were continuously cultured for ten cycles on the thermoresponsive dish surface, which was prepared by coating the surface with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-styrene) and oligovitronectin-grafted poly(acrylic acid-co-styrene) or recombinant vitronectin for hPSC binding sites to maintain hPSC pluripotency. After ten cycles of continuous culture on the thermoresponsive dish surface, the detached cells expressed pluripotency proteins and had the ability to differentiate into cells derived from the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the detached cells differentiated into specific cell lineages, such as cardiomyocytes, with high efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac
  19. Sung TC, Liu CH, Huang WL, Lee YC, Kumar SS, Chang Y, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2019 Oct 28.
    PMID: 31656967 DOI: 10.1039/c9bm00817a
    Current xeno-free and chemically defined methods for the differentiation of hPSCs (human pluripotent stem cells) into cardiomyocytes are not efficient and are sometimes not reproducible. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable and efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes for future use in cardiovascular research related to drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and disease modeling. We evaluated two representative differentiation methods that were reported previously, and we further developed original, more efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes under xeno-free, chemically defined conditions. The developed protocol successively differentiated hPSCs into cardiomyocytes, approximately 90-97% of which expressed the cardiac marker cTnT, with beating speeds and sarcomere lengths that were similar to those of a healthy adult human heart. The optimal cell culture biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs were also evaluated using extracellular matrix-mimetic material-coated dishes. Synthemax II-coated and Laminin-521-coated dishes were found to be the most effective and efficient biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs according to the observation of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes with high survival ratios, high beating colony numbers, a similar beating frequency to that of a healthy adult human heart, high purity levels (high cTnT expression) and longer sarcomere lengths similar to those of a healthy adult human heart.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac
  20. Ng WH, Umar Fuaad MZ, Azmi SM, Leong YY, Yong YK, Ng AMH, et al.
    Cell Tissue Res., 2019 Feb;375(2):383-396.
    PMID: 30232595 DOI: 10.1007/s00441-018-2918-7
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to secrete cardioprotective paracrine factors that can potentially activate endogenous cardiac c-kit cells (CCs). This study aims to optimise MSC growth conditions and medium formulation for generating the conditioned medium (CdM) to facilitate CC growth and expansion in vitro. The quality of MSC-CdM after optimisation of seeding density during MSC stabilisation and medium formulation used during MSC stimulation including glucose, ascorbic acid, serum and oxygen levels and the effects of treatment concentration and repeated CdM harvesting were assessed based on CC viability in vitro under growth factor- and serum-deprived condition. Our data showed that functional CdM can be produced from MSCs with a density of 20,000 cells/cm2, which were stimulated using high glucose (25 mM), ascorbic acid supplemented, serum-free medium under normoxic condition. The generated CdM, when applied to growth factor- and serum-deprived medium at 1:1 ratio, improved CC viability, migration and proliferation in vitro. Such an effect could further be augmented by generating CdM concentrates without compromising CC gene and protein expressions, while retaining its capability to undergo differentiation to form endothelial, smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. Nevertheless, CdM could not be repeatedly harvested from the same MSC culture, as the protein content and its effect on CC viability deteriorated after the first harvest. In conclusion, this study provides a proof-of-concept strategy to standardise the production of CdM from MSCs based on rapid, stepwise assessment of CC viability, thus enabling production of CdM favourable to CC growth for in vitro or clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology; Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism
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