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  1. Khalik WF, Ong SA, Ho LN, Wong YS, Voon CH, Yusuf SY, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Aug;23(16):16716-21.
    PMID: 27184147 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6840-9
    This study investigated the effect of different supporting electrolyte (Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaCl) in degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and generation of electricity. Zinc oxide (ZnO) was immobilized onto carbon felt acted as photoanode, while Pt-coated carbon paper as photocathode was placed in a single chamber photocatalytic fuel cell, which then irradiated by UV lamp for 24 h. The degradation and mineralization of RB5 with 0.1 M NaCl rapidly decreased after 24-h irradiation time, followed by MgSO4, Na2SO4 and without electrolyte. The voltage outputs for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 908, 628 and 523 mV, respectively, after 24-h irradiation time; meanwhile, their short-circuit current density, J SC, was 1.3, 1.2 and 1.05 mA cm(-2), respectively. The power densities for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 0.335, 0.256 and 0.245 mW cm(-2), respectively. On the other hand, for without supporting electrolyte, the voltage output and short-circuit current density was 271.6 mV and 0.055 mA cm(-2), respectively. The supporting electrolyte NaCl showed greater performance in degradation of RB5 and generation of electricity due to the formation of superoxide radical anions which enhance the degradation of dye. The mineralization of RB5 with different supporting electrolyte was measured through spectrum analysis and reduction in COD concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  2. Hasan DB, Abdul Aziz AR, Daud WM
    Environ Technol, 2012 Jun;33(10-12):1111-21.
    PMID: 22856280
    The mineralisation of remazol black B (RBB) was studied at concentrations ranging from 20-1000 mgL(-1). The work was aimed at investigating the Fenton-like peroxidation of RBB at a concentration typically obtained in Batik cottage industries. Other response parameters were degradation and colour removal efficiencies. The parameters that were measured included total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as absorbance for mineralisation, degradation and colour. To optimise the process, the interaction effects of several controlling variables on the treatment process were examined using dispersion matrix-optimal design and response surface analysis. Four specific variables: initial dye concentration (Dye)o; the molar ratio of oxidant to dye organic strength (H2O2):(COD); the mass ratio of the oxidant to the catalyst (H2O2):(Fe3+) and reaction time (t(r)), were observed. Three reduced empirical models, one for each response, were developed for describing the treatment process. For 20, 510 and 1000 mgL(-1), the optimum %TOC reduction and oxidation times were 44% for 95 min, 52% for 52.5 min and 68% for 10 min corresponding to 67, 81 and 75% COD reduction, respectively. The optimum COD reduction and oxidation times were 89% for 95 min, 91% for 10 min and 84% for 95 min for concentrations of 20, 510 and 1000 mg L(-1), respectively. For all concentrations, total colour removal was achieved. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with literature values for traditional Fenton, photo-Fenton and photo-Fenton-like oxidation indicated that the TOC reduction obtained using the Fenton-like process was satisfactory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  3. Zahrim AY, Hilal N, Tizaoui C
    Water Sci Technol, 2013;67(4):901-6.
    PMID: 23306271 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.638
    Tubular nanofiltration membrane performance to treat water for reuse was carried out by choosing C.I. Acid Black 210 dye as a model dye. It has been shown that increasing pH causes reduction in irreversible fouling factor (IFF) and the dye removal is also affected by solution pH. The total organic carbon removal for pH 4, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 10 is 97.9, 92.3, 94.5 and 94.6%, respectively. The conductivity removal for pH 4, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 10 is 85.1, 88.3, 87.8 and 90.7% respectively. The increase in the initial dye concentration causes rapid increase in fouling until 100 mg/l. Then the fouling increases gradually as it reaches a maximum IFF around 13%. This study also shows that the colour of permeate changes from colourless to light greenish/yellowish (initial concentration of 2,000 and 4,000 mg/l) as the initial dye concentration increases. The conductivity removal was also reduced as the initial dye concentration increased due to screening of the Donnan effect with the presence of salt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  4. Khalik WF, Ho LN, Ong SA, Voon CH, Wong YS, Yusuf SY, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2018 Jul;202:467-475.
    PMID: 29579681 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.113
    The role of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) as an electron donor and/or electron acceptor could be distinguished in dual chamber of photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC). The introduction of RB5 in anode chamber increased the voltage generation in the system since degradation of RB5 might produce electrons which also would transfer through external circuit to the cathode chamber. The removal efficiency of RB5 with open and closed circuit was 8.5% and 13.6%, respectively and removal efficiency for open circuit was low due to the fact that recombination of electron-hole pairs might happen in anode chamber since without connection to the cathode, electron cannot be transferred. The degradation of RB5 in cathode chamber with absence of oxygen showed that electrons from anode chamber was accepted by dye molecules to break its azo bond. The presence of oxygen in cathode chamber would improve the oxygen reduction rate which occurred at Platinum-loaded carbon (Pt/C) cathode electrode. The Voc, Jsc and Pmax for different condition of ultrapure water at cathode chamber also affected their fill factor. The transportation of protons to cathode chamber through Nafion membrane could decrease the pH of ultrapure water in cathode chamber and undergo hydrogen evolution reaction in the absence of oxygen which then increased degradation rate of RB5 as well as its electricity generation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  5. Mohtor NH, Othman MHD, Bakar SA, Kurniawan TA, Dzinun H, Norddin MNAM, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2018 Oct;208:595-605.
    PMID: 29890498 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.05.159
    Hydrothermal method has been proven to be an effective method to synthesise the nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) with good morphology and uniform distribution at low temperature. Despite of employing a well-known and commonly used glass substrate as the support to hydrothermally synthesise the nanostructured TiO2, this study emphasised on the application of kaolin hollow fibre membrane as the support for the fabrication of kaolin/TiO2 nanorods (TNR) membrane. By varying the hydrothermal reaction times (2 h, 6 h, and 10 h), the different morphology, distribution, and properties of TiO2 nanorods on kaolin support were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the well-dispersed of TiO2 nanorods have improved the surface affinity of kaolin/TNR membrane towards water, allowing kaolin/TNR membrane prepared from 10 h of hydrothermal reaction to exhibit the highest water permeation of 165 L/h.m2.bar. In addition, this prepared membrane also showed the highest photocatalytic activity of 80.3% in the decolourisation of reactive black 5 (RB5) under UV irradiation. On top of that, the kaolin/TNR membrane prepared from 10 h of hydrothermal reaction also exhibited a good resistance towards photocorrosion, enabling the reuse of this membrane for three consecutive cycles of photocatalytic degradation of RB5 without showing significant reduction in photocatalytic efficiency towards the decolourisation of RB5.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  6. Nourouzi MM, Chuah TG, Choong TS
    Water Sci Technol, 2011;63(5):984-94.
    PMID: 21411950 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.280
    The removal of Reactive Black 5 dye in an aqueous solution by electrocoagulation (EC) as well as addition of flocculant was investigated. The effect of operational parameters, i.e. current density, treatment time, solution conductivity and polymer dosage, was investigated. Two models, namely the artificial neural network (ANN) and the response surface method (RSM), were used to model the effect of independent variables on percentage of dye removal. The findings of this work showed that current density, treatment time and dosage of polymer had the most significant effect on percentage of dye removal (p<0.001). In addition, interaction between time and current density, time and dosage of polymer, current density and dosage of polymer also significantly affected the percentage of dye removal (p=0.034, 0.003 and 0.024, respectively). It was shown that both the ANN and RSM models were able to predict well the experimental results (R(2)>0.8).
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  7. Daud NK, Hameed BH
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Apr 15;176(1-3):1118-21.
    PMID: 20042286 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.134
    Decolorization of reactive azo dye, reactive black 5 (RB5), was conducted using Fe(III) immobilized on Montmorillonite K10 (MK10) as a catalyst in the presence of H(2)O(2) using Fenton-like oxidation process. The effect of different parameters such as iron ions loading on supported catalyst, catalyst dosage, initial pH of dye solution, initial concentration of H(2)O(2) and dye and reaction temperature on the decolorization efficiency of the process were studied. The results indicated that by using 12 mM of H(2)O(2) and 3.50 g L(-1) of the 0.11 wt.% Fe(III) oxide on MK10 catalyst at pH of 2.5, 99% of decolorization efficiency was achieved within 150 min in a batch process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  8. Mook WT, Ajeel MA, Aroua MK, Szlachta M
    J Environ Sci (China), 2017 Apr;54:184-195.
    PMID: 28391928 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2016.02.003
    In this work a novel anode configuration consisting of an iron mesh double layer is proposed for the electrochemical treatment of wastewater. The removal of Reactive Black 5 dye (RB5) from synthetic contaminated water was used as a model system. At a constant anode surface area, identical process operating parameters and batch process mode, the iron mesh double layer electrode showed better performance compared to the conventional single layer iron mesh. The double layer electrode was characterized by RB5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 98.2% and 97.7%, respectively, kinetic rate constant of 0.0385/min, diffusion coefficient of 4.9×10(-5)cm(2)/sec and electrical energy consumption of 20.53kWh/kgdye removed. In the continuous flow system, the optimum conditions suggested by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) are: initial solution pH of 6.29, current density of 1.6mA/cm(2), electrolyte dose of 0.15g/L and flow rate of 11.47mL/min which resulted in an RB5 removal efficiency of 81.62%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  9. Kameel NI, Shuib AS, Tayyab S
    Protein Pept Lett, 2016;23(12):1111-1117.
    PMID: 27774894
    Acid denaturation of champedak galactose-binding (CGB) lectin was studied in the pH range, 7.0-1.0 using intrinsic fluorescence and ANS fluorescence measurements. The lectin remained stable up to pH 5.0 and showed local disordering in the vicinity of the protein fluorophores within the pH range, 5.0-3.5. Decrease in the pH from pH 3.5 to pH 2.5 led to structural transition, marked by the decrease in the intrinsic fluorescence and increase in the ANS fluorescence signals. This can be ascribed to the dissociation of the tetrameric lectin into monomeric forms. Further decrease in the pH up to pH 1.5 produced another transition, which specified the unfolding of monomers as reflected from the decrease in both intrinsic fluorescence and ANS fluorescence signals. Characterization of the conformational states obtained at pH 7.0, pH 2.5 and pH 1.5 based on intrinsic and ANS fluorescence spectra, gel chromatographic behavior and thermal denaturation confirmed the existence of folded monomeric forms at pH 2.5 and unfolded states at pH 1.5. However, the aciddenatured state of CGB lectin at pH 1.5 retained significant residual structure, as evident from the greater loss of both secondary and tertiary structures in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride at low pH values. Anion-induced refolding below pH 1.5 was also seen using ANS fluorescence measurements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry
  10. Kardi SN, Ibrahim N, Rashid NAA, Darzi GN
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Jul;26(21):21201-21215.
    PMID: 31115820 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05204-z
    One of the biggest challenges of using single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that utilize proton-exchange membrane (PEM) air cathode for bioenergy recovery from recalcitrant organic compounds present in wastewater is mainly attributed to their high internal resistance in the anodic chamber of the single microbial fuel cell (MFC) configurations. The high internal resistance is due to the small surface area of the anode and cathode electrodes following membrane biofouling and pH splitting conditions as well as substrate and oxygen crossover through the membrane pores by diffusion. To address this issue, the fabrication of new PEM air-cathode single-chamber MFC configuration was investigated with inner channel flow open assembled with double PEM air cathodes (two oxygen reduction activity zones) coupled with spiral-anode MFC (2MA-CsS-AMFC). The effect of various proton-exchange membranes (PEMs), including Nafion 117 (N-117), Nafion 115 (N-115), and Nafion 212 (N-212) with respective thicknesses of 183, 127, and 50.08 μ, was separately incorporated into carbon cloth as PEM air-cathode electrode to evaluate their influences on the performance of the 2MA-CsS-AMFC configuration operated in fed-batch mode, while Azorubine dye was selected as the recalcitrant organic compound. The fed-batch test results showed that the 2MA-CsS-AMFC configuration with PEM N-115 operated at Azorubine dye concentration of 300 mg L-1 produced the highest power density of 1022.5 mW m-2 and open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.20 V coupled with enhanced dye removal (4.77 mg L h-1) compared to 2MA-CsS-AMFCs with PEMs N-117 and N-212 and those in previously published data. Interestingly, PEM 115 showed remarkable reduction in biofouling and pH splitting. Apart from that, mass transfer coefficient of PEM N-117 was the most permeable to oxygen (KO = 1.72 × 10-4 cm s-1) and PEM N-212 was the most permeable membrane to Azorubine (KA = 7.52 × 10-8 cm s-1), while PEM N-115 was the least permeable to both oxygen (KO = 1.54 × 10-4) and Azorubine (KA = 7.70 × 10-10). The results demonstrated that the 2MA-CsS-AMFC could be promising configuration for bioenergy recovery from wastewater treatment under various PEMs, while application of PEM N-115 produced the best performance compared to PEMs N-212 and N-117 and those in previous studies of membrane/membrane-less air-cathode single-chamber MFCs that consumed dye wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry*
  11. Harruddin N, Othman N, Ee Sin AL, Raja Sulaiman RN
    Environ Technol, 2015 Jan-Feb;36(1-4):271-80.
    PMID: 25514128 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2014.943301
    Effluent containing colour/dyes, especially reactive dyes, becomes a great concern of wastewater treatment because it is toxic to human life and aquatic life. In this study, reactive dye of Black B was separated using the supported liquid membrane process. Commercial polypropylene membrane was used as a support of the kerosene-tridodecylamine liquid membrane. Several parameters were tested and the result showed that almost 100% of 70 ppm Black B was removed and 99% of 70 ppm Black B was recovered at pH 2 of the feed phase containing 0.00001 M Na2SiO3, flow rate of 150 ml/min and 0.2 M NaOH. The membrane support also remained stable for up to 36 hours under an optimum condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry
  12. Chong SS, Aziz AR, Harun SW, Arof H
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(9):15836-48.
    PMID: 25166498 DOI: 10.3390/s140915836
    In this study, the construction and test of tapered plastic optical fiber (POF) sensors, based on an intensity modulation approach are described. Tapered fiber sensors with different diameters of 0.65 mm, 0.45 mm, and 0.35 mm, were used to measure various concentrations of Remazol black B (RBB) dye aqueous solutions at room temperature. The concentrations of the RBB solutions were varied from 0 ppm to 70 ppm. In addition, the effect of varying the temperature of the RBB solution was also investigated. In this case, the output of the sensor was measured at four different temperatures of 27 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, and 40 °C, while its concentration was fixed at 50 ppm and 100 ppm. The experimental results show that the tapered POF with d = 0.45 mm achieves the best performance with a reasonably good sensitivity of 61 × 10(-4) and a linearity of more than 99%. It also maintains a sufficient and stable signal when heat was applied to the solution with a linearity of more than 97%. Since the transmitted intensity is dependent on both the concentration and temperature of the analyte, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to combine the two independent variables into a single equation. The resulting equation was then validated experimentally and the best agreement between the calculated and experimental results was achieved by the sensor with d = 0.45 mm, where the minimum discrepancy is less than 5%. The authors conclude that POF-based sensors are suitable for RBB dye concentration sensing and, with refinement in fabrication, better results could be achieved. Their low fabrication cost, simple configuration, accuracy, and high sensitivity would attract many potential applications in chemical and biological sensing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry
  13. Hamid TH, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Protein J, 2010 May;29(4):290-7.
    PMID: 20509044 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-010-9251-7
    The use of lipase in hydrophilic solvent is usually hampered by inactivation. The solvent stability of a recombinant solvent stable lipase isolated from thermostable Bacillus sp. strain 42 (Lip 42), in DMSO and methanol were studied at different solvent-water compositions. The enzymatic activities were retained in up to 45% v/v solvent compositions. The near-UV CD spectra indicated that tertiary structures were perturbed at 60% v/v and above. Far-UV CD in methanol indicated the secondary structure in Lip 42 was retained throughout all solvent compositions. Fluorescence studies indicated formations of molten globules in solvent compositions of 60% v/v and above. The enzyme was able to retain its secondary structures in the presence of methanol; however, there was a general reduction in beta-sheet and an increase in alpha-helix contents. The H-bonding arrangements triggered in methanol and DMSO, respectively, caused different forms of tertiary structure perturbations on Lip 42, despite both showing partial denaturation with molten globule formations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry
  14. Khasri A, Ahmad MA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Nov;25(31):31508-31519.
    PMID: 30203351 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3046-3
    The adsorption behavior of basic, methylene blue (MB), and reactive, remazol brilliant violet 5R (RBV), dyes from aqueous solution onto Intsia bijuga sawdust-based activated carbon (IBSAC) was executed via batch and column studies. The produced activated carbon was characterized through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore structural analysis, proximate and ultimate, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch studies were performed to investigate the effects of contact time, initial concentration, and solution pH. The equilibrium data for both MB and RBV adsorption better fits Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 434.78 and 212.77 mg/g, respectively. Kinetic studies for both MB and RBV dyes showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. For column mode, the breakthrough curves were plotted by varying the flow rate, bed height, and initial concentration and the breakthrough data were best correlated with the Yoon-Nelson model compared to Thomas and Adams-Bohart model. The adsorption activity of IBSAC shows good stability even after four consecutive cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Naphthalenesulfonates/chemistry
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