The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Malaya (in Singapore) was established in 1952. Prior to this, the teaching of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University was undertaken by the Department of Surgery under the Professor of Surgery and Professor of Clinical Surgery. From a course consisting of 15 weekly classes on fractures for 18 undergraduates in the late 1930s, and the clinical postings in orthopaedic surgery for over 40 students in 1952, the programme now encompasses an exposure to musculoskeletal diseases and trauma in all 5 years of the undergraduate course. Over this time, the spectrum of clinical conditions has also changed, and with it the emphasis on the conditions to be taught; from that dealing primarily with tuberculosis of bones and joints, poliomyelitis, and childhood deformity, to those resulting from degenerative disorders, sports injuries, industrial and motor vehicle accidents, and cancer. The students are now taught orthopaedic surgery in all the major public hospitals. Local postgraduate training programmes for orthopaedic surgery started in the 1980s. From 1993, a more structured training and assessment programme was introduced for basic and advanced training in surgery and orthopaedics. Advanced trainees rotate through the various teaching hospitals to expose them to a wider range of orthopaedic problems as well as teachers. The postgraduate training programme is now well established, and Singapore is accredited by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh as an orthopaedic training centre for higher surgical training.
The Orthopaedic specialty service in Singapore began in 1952 with the appointment of J A P Cameron to the chair of Orthopaedics at the University of Malaya and the simultaneous establishment of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the General Hospital, Singapore. A second department--a government department of orthopaedic surgery was established in 1959, under the headship of Mr D W C Gawne also at the General Hospital, Singapore to cater to the increasing workload. Although orthopaedic services were already available at Alexandra Hospital, Tan Tock Seng Hospital and Toa Payoh Hospital from as early as 1974, the formal establishment of a Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in these hospitals took place only in 1977. The pioneering local orthopaedic surgeons--Mr W G S Fung, Mr K H Yeoh, and Mr V K Pillay--joined the orthopaedic service in 1961. In 1967, Prof Pillay and Mr Fung took the leadership role at the University Orthopaedic Department and Government Orthopaedic Department, General Hospital, Singapore, respectively. Subspecialty services in orthopaedic surgery began in the late 1970s, and currently, at least 7 subspecialties have developed to divisional status at one or more hospitals. In 2001, there were 92 registered Orthopaedic specialists and just over a third were in private practice.
Matched MeSH terms: Orthopedics/education; Orthopedics/history*; Orthopedics/statistics & numerical data
The Mahmood Merican Award is an annual award for the best original scientific or clinical study submitted by young trainees in orthopaedic surgery in Malaysia, for presentation during the annual scientific meeting of the Malaysian Orthopaedic Association (MOA). This award was initiated in 1997 to encourage high standard of research and scientific presentations among young trainees.A cash prize of RM 1,000 was donated by Dato Dr Mahmood Merican. All Award finalists will represent MOA as ambassadors to regional orthopaedic association meetings, a duty that will be fully sponsored by MOA.
Removal of plates is a procedure commonly performed by orthopaedic surgeons and stripped screws are probably the most common problem encountered during this procedure. Stripped screws are caused by slippage between the screwdriver and the screw. Due to the inherent difficulty in removing such screws, surgeons should be knowledgeable in techniques for their removal and should be equipped with the proper instruments to expedite the procedure. There are few published articles about such techniques. This report describes a technique for removal of plates with stripped screws. The tip of a stripped screw is approached from the far cortex and then reamed with a trephine reamer in the direction of the screw until both cortices are cleared. The plate is then removed with stripped screws attached. All the removals utilizing this technique to date have been successful with no complications, and this method is safe, efficient and technically easy to learn.
Gastrocnemius flap is the workhorse for wound coverage in the proximal
tibia. It can be perform by general orthopaedic surgeon because it is done without the
need of microscopic instrumentation. Its coverage can be extended to cover the knee
and midshaft of tibia when skin overlying it is included in the flap. (Copied from article).
The great potential of biodegradable polymers in orthopaedic surgery is
gradually being recognized. PLGA is one of the common polymers used. However, long
term outcomes, with regards to PLGA, are still not well documented. Hence, we
attempted to study the outcome of PLGA and also its combination with fibrin. (Copied from article).
The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.
The following factors influencing vocational success or failure were selected and studied for their predictive value in a Rehabilitation Centre, age, family background, educational level, work history and work level, motivation, mental ability and physical disability. Graded numerical scores from 1 to 3 were assigned to these factors according to Lane et al. A cut-off score was tested and found to distinguish the successful from the unsuccessful groups. The individual factors found to differ significantly in the two groups were work history and skill, motivation, and physical disability. Mental ability, however, could not be tested adequately.
There are millions of orthopedic surgeries and dental implantation procedures performed every year globally. Most of them involve machining of bones and cartilage. However, theoretical and analytical study on bone machining is lagging behind its practice and implementation. This study views bone machining as a machining process with bovine bone as the workpiece material. Turning process which makes the basis of the actually used drilling process was experimented. The focus is on evaluating the effects of three machining parameters, that is, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, to machining responses, that is, cutting forces and surface roughness resulted by the turning process. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the relation between the machining parameters and the machining responses. The turning process was done at various cutting speeds (29-156 m/min), depths of cut (0.03 -0.37 mm), and feeds (0.023-0.11 mm/rev). Empirical models of the resulted cutting force and surface roughness as the functions of cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed were developed. Observation using the developed empirical models found that within the range of machining parameters evaluated, the most influential machining parameter to the cutting force is depth of cut, followed by feed and cutting speed. The lowest cutting force was obtained at the lowest cutting speed, lowest depth of cut, and highest feed setting. For surface roughness, feed is the most significant machining condition, followed by cutting speed, and with depth of cut showed no effect. The finest surface finish was obtained at the lowest cutting speed and feed setting.
Femoral fractures are one of the commonest fractures encountered in orthopaedic practice. Over the years, treatment of this injury has evolved tremendously. The initial non-operative methods of reduction and stabilization have largely been replaced by operative fixation. There are currently three basic modes of internal fixation of femoral diaphyseal fractures in the adult age group: plate and screws, intramedullary Kuntscher nailing, and interlocking nailing. The objective of this study is to determine whether the so-called more â€˜technologically advancedâ€™ interlocking nailing results in better outcome compared to the more â€˜traditionalâ€™ plate and screws, and Kuntscher nailing. It is found that, in terms of time to union and final function after an average of just under 2 years post-operative period, the group of patients who had interlocking nailing fared poorer. A review of relevant literature will then be presented.
Conflicts of interest in medicine has created deep concerns about the integrity of medicine and raised doubts about the trustworthiness of the medical professional. New stories of conflict of interest in medicine have become a commonplace. The interactions between the medical
professional and the biomedical device as well as the pharmaceutical industry has become so pervasive that the primary interest of the medical professional in protecting and promoting the welfare of the patient has been compromised. The professional judgement and actions have been
influenced by secondary interests, the major fungible and quantifiable being financial interest. The industry influence not only affects the way we practice orthopaedics but also affects medical education and peer review publications. Peer review publications have been shown to exaggerate benefits of the industry products while at the same time downplaying the risks. These conflicts of interest in orthopaedic surgery are particularly common in spinal and joint replacement surgery where joint replacement has been described as a ‘fashion trade’. The introduction of new products appears to be an uncontrolled experiment which has been hijacked by large corporations. This article explores the unhealthy pervasive interaction between the orthopaedic surgeon and the medical devices as well as the pharmaceutical industry. It highlights how the biomedical and the pharmaceutical industry dominate all aspects of the healthcare system. With its wealth and political clout, its influence is present everywhere, from the use of devices and drugs, research, publications, trials, education and even formulation of CGPs.
Infection after joint replacement surgery is problematic and difficult to treat. The utility of antibiotic laden bone cement for reduction of risk of infection in primary and revision joint replacement surgery has already been established in many studies. In this study, we examined the efficacy of bone cement containing cefuroxime, employing a modified in vitro Kirby-Bauer susceptibility model for investigation of 13 strains of organisms that are found in orthopaedic infections. Organisms investigated were broad spectrum and effective for Gram-positive, Gram-negative, aerobic organisms and anaerobes. Simplex P with added cefuroxime was effective against 8 out of 13 strains. Cefuroxime is stable during exothermic polymerisation of the cement, and is released from the cement at concentrations high enough to inhibit the growth of most organisms encountered after joint arthroplasty.