Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 187 in total

  1. Atif M, Javaid S, Farooqui M, Sarwar MR
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0151321.
    PMID: 26998830 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151321
    BACKGROUND: Implementation of the Charter to protect patients' rights is an important criterion to achieve patient-centered approach and receive financial support from the Global Fund. Our study aims to explore the knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) patients about their rights and responsibilities at the Chest Disease Unit of the Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    METHODS: This was a qualitative study. The data from purposefully selected TB patients was collected by in-depth interviews. Eligibility criteria included confirmed diagnosis of TB and enrollment in the TB program. A pilot tested interview protocol was based upon the objectives of the study, and was used uniformly in each interview to maintain the consistency. The sample size was limited by applying the saturation criteria. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Inductive thematic content analysis was applied to analyze the data and draw conclusions.
    RESULTS: Out of the total 16 patients, four were female, and seven were illiterate. Eight patients were known cases of multi-drug resistant TB. Analysis of the data yielded seven themes; tuberculosis care services, moral support and stigmatization, dignity and privacy, complaints, fear of losing job, information sharing and compliance to the treatment plan, and contribution to eradicate TB. First five represented the rights section while latter two were related to the responsibilities section of the Charter.
    CONCLUSION: Discriminatory access to TB care services and the right to privacy were two major concerns identified in this study. However, the respondents recognized their responsibilities as a TB patient. To ensure uninterrupted investment from the Global Fund, there is a need to implement fair TB care policies which support human rights-based approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  2. Bukhsh A, Lee SWH, Pusparajah P, Khan AH, Khan TM
    Front Public Health, 2017;5:139.
    PMID: 28702453 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00139
    OBJECTIVE: Patient education is a key element in the treatment of diabetes. Assessment of diabetes knowledge is important for optimum treatment. For the assessment of diabetes knowledge, validated tool is essential. None of such validated tool is available in Urdu language. Therefore, the aim of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the 24-item Urdu version of Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) among type 2 diabetes patients.

    METHODS: Standard "forward-backward" process was used to translate DKQ into Urdu language. Later, it was validated on a convenience sample of 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, between July and September 2016. Internal consistency was assessed by reliability analysis, one-way analysis of variance was applied for known group validity and multivariate linear logistic regression was applied for identifying significant predictors for patients' DKQ score.

    RESULTS: Good internal consistency was observed for DKQ (Cronbach's α = 0.702). The mean HbA1c of the patients was 8.55% (±1.91). DKQ scores of patients' with "good glycemic control" (14.22 ± 2.4) were observed significantly higher (P Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  3. Ullah S, Daud H, Dass SC, Fanaee-T H, Khalil A
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(6):e0199176.
    PMID: 29920540 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199176
    Identifying the abnormally high-risk regions in a spatiotemporal space that contains an unexpected disease count is helpful to conduct surveillance and implement control strategies. The EigenSpot algorithm has been recently proposed for detecting space-time disease clusters of arbitrary shapes with no restriction on the distribution and quality of the data, and has shown some promising advantages over the state-of-the-art methods. However, the main problem with the EigenSpot method is that it cannot be adapted to detect more than one spatiotemporal hotspot. This is an important limitation, since, in reality, we may have multiple hotspots, sometimes at the same level of importance. We propose an extension of the EigenSpot algorithm, called Multi-EigenSpot that is able to handle multiple hotspots by iteratively removing previously detected hotspots and re-running the algorithm until no more hotspots are found. In addition, a visualization tool (heatmap) has been linked to the proposed algorithm to visualize multiple clusters with different colors. We evaluated the proposed method using the monthly data on measles cases in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan (Jan 2016- Dec 2016), and the efficiency was compared with the state-of-the-art methods: EigenSpot and Space-time scan statistic (SaTScan). The results showed the effectiveness of the proposed method for detecting multiple clusters in a spatiotemporal space.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan/epidemiology
  4. Akhter E, Bilal S, Kiani A, Haque U
    Rheumatol. Int., 2011 Jul;31(7):849-55.
    PMID: 21331574 DOI: 10.1007/s00296-011-1820-3
    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of disease in this part of country that can be stepping-stone for policy makers to draft policies that can affect target population more appropriately.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan/epidemiology
  5. Haider S, Hassali MA, Iqbal Q, Anwer M, Saleem F
    Lancet Infect Dis, 2016 12;16(12):1333.
    PMID: 27998597 DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30452-2
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan/epidemiology
  6. Rehman IU, Bukhsh A, Khan TM
    Travel Med Infect Dis, 2017 Jul-Aug;18:67-69.
    PMID: 28842213 DOI: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2017.08.002
    World Health Organization (WHO) measles surveillance data report a reduction in cases of measles globally from 67,524 cases in 2015 to 16,846 in 2016, and a reduction in deaths from 546,800 to 114,900 during period of 2000-14. Pakistan is among the five nations where almost a million children did not receive their first dose of measles vaccination, and outbreaks of the disease resulted in 4386 cases in 2011, 14,687 cases in 2012 with 310 deaths. In 2013, about 25,401 cases of measles were reported and 321 affected children died. The measles vaccination coverage is very low in Pakistan for both 1st dose and booster dose. To prevent outbreaks of measles in Pakistan a national vaccination program should be launched side by side with a polio eradication program in each district and township and a campaign should be launched to educate parents on measles vaccination for childrens to reduce the measles case fatality rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan/epidemiology
  7. Zubair M, Habib L, Mirza MR, Channa MA, Yousuf M, Quraishy MS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Oct;67(5):494-6.
    PMID: 23770866
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  8. Saleem F, Hassali M, Shafie A, Atif M
    J Young Pharm, 2012 Apr;4(2):101-7.
    PMID: 22754262 DOI: 10.4103/0975-1483.96624
    The study is aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of hypertensive patients toward medication use and adherence. The study was qualitative in nature conducted at Sandamen Provisional Hospital of Quetta city, Pakistan; a public hospital catering to the health needs of about 40% of the population. A qualitative approach was used to gain an in-depth knowledge of the issues. Sixteen patients were interviewed, and the saturation point was achieved after the 14(th) interview. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and were then analyzed for thematic contents by the standard content analysis framework. Thematic content analysis yielded five major themes. (1) Perceived benefits and risks of medications, (2) physician's interaction with patients, (3) perception toward traditional remedies, (4) layman concept toward medications, and (5) beliefs toward hypertension and its control. The majority of the patients carried specific unrealistic beliefs regarding the long-term use of medication; yet these beliefs were heavily accepted and practiced by the society. The study indicated a number of key themes that can be used in changing the beliefs and experiences of hypertensive patients. Physician's attitude, patient's past experiences, and knowledge related to hypertension were noted as major contributing factors thus resulting in nonadherence to therapy prescribed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  9. Siddiqua, A.
    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify reverse culture shock among returnee high school students. Methods: It was an observational study conducted at an International High School of Islamabad, Pakistan on overseas-experienced returnee Pakistani students. A 15 statements questionnaire was used to measure reverse culture shock. Results: Mean index score on survey questionnaire was 4 indicative that these returnees were experiencing high reverse culture shock. Conclusion: For being feeling different in own cultural set up the returnees usually suffer from reverse culture shock and develop personal problems associated with it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  10. Taqi M, Razak IA, Ab-Murat N
    Pak J Med Sci, 2017 Jul-Aug;33(4):948-952.
    PMID: 29067071 DOI: 10.12669/pjms.334.13106
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage of children with low, moderate and high caries risk; and to determine the predictors of caries risk amongst 11-12 year old Pakistani school children.

    METHODS: Subjects' caries risk was assessed using the Cariogram programme. The survey was done among school children in Bhakkar district of Punjab, Pakistan. Caries and plaque level were assessed using the DMFT and Sillnes and Loe indices respectively, while diet content and frequency were assessed using a three-day diet diary.

    RESULTS: A total of 226 children participated in this study, giving a response rate of 75%. Most subjects (39.8%) were in the low risk category with DMFT score of 0. The overall mean DMFT score was 1.49 (±0.63). Linear and multiple regressions were performed to evaluate the predictability of caries risk. Previous experience of dental caries was found to be the most relevant predictor of caries risk (40%).

    CONCLUSION: The levels of caries risk amongst Pakistani 11-12 year old school children were generally low. Past caries experience was the most significant factor in predicting future caries lesion in this sample population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  11. Ming LC, Hadi MA, Khan TM
    Lancet, 2016 11 26;388(10060):2601-2602.
    PMID: 27894657 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32222-X
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  12. Khan AH, Israr M, Khan A, Aftab RA, Khan TM
    Am. J. Med. Sci., 2015 Jun;349(6):505-9.
    PMID: 26030612 DOI: 10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000473
    Smoking is a risk factor not only for the development of cancer and coronary heart disease but also for tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smoking in patients with TB, identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with smoking and to evaluate TB treatment outcomes in the smokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan/epidemiology
  13. Iftikhar A, Naseeb AK, Khwaja A, Mati H, Karim K, Hameeda N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Oct;66(4):322-5.
    PMID: 22299551
    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in several countries. The main objective of this retrospective study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in males and females by age groups for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). This study reports on 87 cases of DTC from Baluchistan province of Pakistan treated with post operative radioiodine at the Center for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (CENAR) Quetta from January 2003 to December 2009. The patient data has been collected from CENAR Quetta. Patients with DTC were confirmed by clinical examination, thyroid scintigraphy (Thyroid scan), blood tests (T3, T4, TSH) and histopathalogy tests and then treated with radioiodine. The Median age of the patients was 35.5 years (Range 12-70 years). The final histological diagnosis was papillary carcinoma in 71 (81.6 %) cases, follicular carcinoma in 6 (6.9%) cases while 10 (11.5%) cases presented with mixed papillary and follicular carcinoma. About 53 % cases were found in females with age 21-40 years. No strike predominance was observed in any age group for males. Four patients presented with recurrence while six patients showed metastasis in cervical lymph nodes. The small annual incidence did not follow any definite pattern. DTC has a small incidence in Baluchistan due to lack of education and health care facilities. The incidence of DTC is higher in females when compared with males as per this study. This preliminary study will provide an insight to incidence of DTC, its treatment facilities and future planning strategies in Baluchistan, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan; Pakistan/epidemiology
  14. Hameed K, Angelone-Alasaad S, Din JU, Nawaz MA, Rossi L
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 07 19;9(1):402.
    PMID: 27435176 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1685-0
    Although neglected, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei is an unpredictable emerging parasite, threatening human and animal health globally. In this paper we report the first fatal outbreak of sarcoptic mange in the endangered Himalayan lynx (Lynx lynx isabellinus) from Pakistan. A 10-year-old male Himalayan lynx was found in a miserable condition with severe crusted lesions in Chitral District, and immediately died. Post-mortem examination determined high S. scabiei density (1309 mites/cm(2) skin). It is most probably a genuine emergence, resulting from a new incidence due to the host-taxon derived or prey-to-predator cross-infestation hypotheses, and less probable to be apparent emergence resulting from increased infection in the Himalayan lynx population. This is an alarming situation for the conservation of this already threatened population, which demands surveillance for early detection and eventually rescue and treatment of the affected Himalayan lynx.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan/epidemiology
  15. Ahmad N, Javaid A, Sulaiman SA, Ming LC, Ahmad I, Khan AH
    Braz J Infect Dis, 2016 Jan-Feb;20(1):41-7.
    PMID: 26626164 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjid.2015.09.011
    BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are the backbone of multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens. Despite the high burden of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in the country, little is known about drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance among multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients from Pakistan.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate drug resistance patterns, prevalence, and predictors of fluoroquinolones resistance in multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a programmatic management unit of drug resistant tuberculosis, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan. Two hundred and forty-three newly diagnosed multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients consecutively enrolled for treatment at study site from January 1, 2012 to July 28, 2013 were included in the study. A standardized data collection form was used to collect patients' socio-demographic, microbiological, and clinical data. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis.
    RESULTS: High degree of drug resistance (median 5 drugs, range 2-8) was observed. High proportion of patients was resistant to all five first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (62.6%), and more than half were resistant to second line drugs (55.1%). The majority of the patients were ofloxacin resistant (52.7%). Upon multivariate analysis previous tuberculosis treatment at private (OR=1.953, p=0.034) and public private mix (OR=2.824, p=0.046) sectors were predictors of ofloxacin resistance.
    CONCLUSION: The high degree of drug resistance observed, particularly to fluoroquinolones, is alarming. We recommend the adoption of more restrictive policies to control non-prescription sale of fluoroquinolones, its rational use by physicians, and training doctors in both private and public-private mix sectors to prevent further increase in fluoroquinolones resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.
    KEYWORDS: Fluoroquinolones; MDR-TB; Private; Resistance
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  16. Aamir, Siddiqua
    The aim of review was to find the recent evidence for the management of conversion disorder. The study was conducted at the Psychiatry Unit of Govt. Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. A systematic literature search was done using Medline and Extra Medline. A total of 10 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In the literature reviewed hypnosis and self hypnosis, psychoanalytical intervention, behavioral intervention, paradoxical intervention, treatment by strong suggestion and trans-cranial magnetic stimulation were the treatments used by the clinicians for the management of conversion disorder. Conclusion: The literature review did not give details concerning the treatment used for conversion disorders adequately. Behavioral interventions were in general found to be more successful treatment course for the management of conversion disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  17. Ullah AR, Hussain A, Ali I, Samad A, Ali Shah ST, Yousef M, et al.
    Pak J Med Sci, 2016 May-Jun;32(3):688-93.
    PMID: 27375715 DOI: 10.12669/pjms.323.9978
    The current study aims to explore the factors associated with outcome among patients with severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to the intensive care unit, Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  18. Gul Y, Sultan Z, Jokhio GA
    Heliyon, 2018 Aug;4(8):e00715.
    PMID: 30094383 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00715
    It has been reported in the literature that the perception of crime at the neighbourhood level inversely affects the walking behaviour of individuals. On the other hand, the gated neighbourhoods are considered safe from crime, however, there is a lack of research on the association of the perception of crime and walking in gated neighbourhoods. Therefore, the objectives of the study reported in this paper were to investigate the association between the perception of crime and walking in gated and non-gated neighbourhoods. A questionnaire was used to collect the data on walking and the perception of crime in 16 neighbourhoods of Karachi Pakistan, 8 out of which were gated. Independent sample t-test and gamma tests were used for the data analysis. The results show that although there is a lower perception of crime in the gated neighbourhoods, yet the inhabitants of gated neighbourhoods engage in less physical activity comprising of walking. In spite of a greater perception of crime in non-gated neighbourhoods, higher values of walking were reported by the residents of those neighbourhoods. Therefore, it has been concluded that there does not exist a definite relationship between the perception of crime and walking behaviour at the neighbourhood level and the perceived safety from crime claimed by the proponents of the gated neighbourhoods does not encourage walking among the residents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  19. Ahmed A, Devadason ES, Al-Amin AQ
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(13):12347-12359.
    PMID: 28357797 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8747-5
    This study accounts for the Hicks neutral technical change in a calibrated model of climate analysis, to identify the optimum level of technical change for addressing climate changes. It demonstrates the reduction to crop damages, the costs to technical change, and the net gains for the adoption of technical change for a climate-sensitive Pakistan economy. The calibrated model assesses the net gains of technical change for the overall economy and at the agriculture-specific level. The study finds that the gains of technical change are overwhelmingly higher than the costs across the agriculture subsectors. The gains and costs following technical change differ substantially for different crops. More importantly, the study finds a cost-effective optimal level of technical change that potentially reduces crop damages to a minimum possible level. The study therefore contends that the climate policy for Pakistan should consider the role of technical change in addressing climate impacts on the agriculture sector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
  20. Jamshed SQ, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA, Sharrad AK, Shafie AA, Babar ZU
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2015;6:359-66.
    PMID: 26028981 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S27762
    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.62.

    RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in the understanding of generic medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in generic medicines and increase the generic medicine use in Pakistan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pakistan
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