Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 59 in total

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  1. Low CF, Md Yusoff MR, Kuppusamy G, Ahmad Nadzri NF
    J Fish Dis, 2018 Dec;41(12):1771-1781.
    PMID: 30270534 DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12895
    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) has been threatening the giant freshwater prawn aquaculture since 1997, causing white tail disease in the prawn species that leads to 100% lethality of the infected postlarvae. Comprehension of the viral infectivity and pathogenesis at molecular biology level has recently resolved the viral capsid protein and evidenced the significant difference in the viral structural protein compared to other nodaviruses that infect fish and insect. Cumulative researches have remarked the proposal to assert MrNV as a member of new genus, gammanodavirus to the Nodaviridae family. The significance of molecular biology in MrNV infection is being highlighted in this current review, revolving the viral life cycle from virus binding and entry into host, virus replication in host cell, to virus assembly and release. The current review also highlights the emerging aptamers technology that is also known as synthetic antibody, its application in disease diagnosis, and its prophylactic and therapeutic properties. The future perspective of synthetic virology technology in understanding viral pathogenesis, as well as its potential in viral vaccine development, is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/virology*
  2. Fransen CH
    Zootaxa, 2013;3694:343-57.
    PMID: 26312295
    A sponge-associated species of the genus Nippontonia new to science is described from Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia. The only other species in the genus is also known to be a sponge-dweller. The new species can be distinguished from its con- gener by a suite of characters mainly of the anterior appendages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/anatomy & histology; Palaemonidae/classification*; Palaemonidae/genetics; Palaemonidae/growth & development
  3. Ho KL, Kueh CL, Beh PL, Tan WS, Bhella D
    Sci Rep, 2017 05 18;7(1):2083.
    PMID: 28522842 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-02292-0
    White tail disease in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii causes significant economic losses in shrimp farms and hatcheries and poses a threat to food-security in many developing countries. Outbreaks of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), the causative agent of white tail disease (WTD) are associated with up to 100% mortality rates. There are no interventions available to treat or prevent MrNV disease however. Here we show the structure of MrNV virus-like particles (VLPs) produced by recombinant expression of the capsid protein, using cryogenic electron microscopy. Our data show that MrNV VLPs package nucleic acids in a manner reminiscent of other known nodavirus structures. The structure of the capsid however shows striking differences from insect and fish infecting nodaviruses, which have been shown to assemble trimer-clustered T = 3 icosahedral virus particles. MrNV particles have pronounced dimeric blade-shaped spikes extending up to 6 nm from the outer surface of the capsid shell. Our structural analysis supports the assertion that MrNV may belong to a new genus of the Nodaviridae. Moreover, our study provides the first structural view of an important pathogen affecting aquaculture industries across the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/virology
  4. Chen-Fei L, Chou-Min C, Jiun-Yan L
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2020 Sep;104:431-438.
    PMID: 32580003 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2020.06.039
    The giant freshwater prawn/giant river prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is one of the high market value crustaceans cultured worldwide. The intensified aquaculture of the species has led to the outbreak of infectious diseases, prominently, the white tail disease (WTD). It is caused by the infection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), which was classified in the family of Nodaviridae. To-date, there are no effective prophylactic and therapeutic agents available against MrNV infection. Vaccination is known to be the most effective prophylactic agent in disease prevention. However, vaccine development against virus infection in crustaceans is equivocal. The feasibility of vaccination in conferring immune protection in crustaceans against infectious diseases is disputable. The argument lies in the fact that crustaceans do not possess adaptive immunity, which is the main immune component that functions to establish immunological memory upon vaccination. Nevertheless, an increasing number of literatures has been documented, which concerns the development of vaccines against infectious diseases in crustaceans. The current review deliberates different approaches in vaccine development against MrNV, which were documented in the past years. It is noteworthy that the live-attenuated MrNV vaccine has not been experimented by far. Thus, the potential of live-attenuated MrNV vaccine in conferring long-term immune protection through the establishment of innate immune memory is currently being discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/virology*
  5. Arockiaraj J, Vanaraja P, Easwvaran S, Singh A, Alinejaid T, Othman RY, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2011 Jul;31(1):81-9.
    PMID: 21549198 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2011.04.004
    Arginine kinase-1 (MrAK-1) was sequenced from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii using Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzer Technique. MrAK-1 consisted of 1068 bp nucleotide encoded 355 polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 40 kDa. MrAK-1 sequence contains a potential ATP:guanido phosphotransferases active domain site. The deduced amino acid sequence of MrAK-1 was compared with other 7 homologous arginine kinase (AK) and showed the highest identity (96%) with AK-1 from cherry shrimp Neocaridina denticulate. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of MrAK-1 with the highest expression in the muscle and the lowest in the eyestalk. The expression of MrAK-1 after challenge with the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) was tested in muscle. In addition, MrAK-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pMAL-c2x. The optimum temperature (30 °C) and pH (8.5) was determined for the enzyme activity assay. MrAK-1 showed significant (P < 0.05) activity towards 10-50 mM ATP concentration. The enzyme activity was inhibited by α-ketoglutarate, glucose and ATP at the concentration of 10, 50 and 100 mM respectively. Conclusively, the findings of this study indicated that MrAK-1 might play an important role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the immune response in shrimps.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/classification; Palaemonidae/genetics*; Palaemonidae/immunology; Palaemonidae/virology
  6. Gan HY, Gan HM, Lee YP, Austin CM
    PMID: 25693708 DOI: 10.3109/19401736.2015.1007311
    The mitochondrial genome of the rock pool prawn (Palaemon serenus), is sequenced, making it the third for genera of the family Palaemonidae and the first for the genus Palaemon. The mitogenome is 15,967 base pairs in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The P. serenus mitogenome has an AT bias of 58.97% and a base composition of 29.79% for T, 24.14% for C, 29.18% for A, and 16.89% for G. The mitogenome gene order of P. serenus is identical to Exopalaemon carinicauda.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics*
  7. See LM, Hassan R, Tan SG, Bhassu S
    Genetika, 2011 Apr;47(4):566-9.
    PMID: 21675248
    Seven single locus microsatellite markers were characterized in Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii from an enriched genomic library Primer pairs were designed to flank the repeat sequences and the loci characterized for this species. The bands resulting from the PCR amplifications of these eight microsatellite loci were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from 8 to 26 alleles per locus, whereas the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0641 to 0.6564. These newly developed microsatellite markers should prove to be useful for population studies and in the management of genetic variations in broodstocks of freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics*
  8. Thong QX, Wong CL, Ooi MK, Kueh CL, Ho KL, Alitheen NB, et al.
    J Gen Virol, 2018 09;99(9):1227-1238.
    PMID: 30041713 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001116
    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) causes white tail disease (WTD) in giant freshwater prawns, which leads to devastating economic losses in the aquaculture industry. Despite extensive research on MrNv, there is still no antiviral agent to treat WTD. Thus, the main aim of this study was to identify potential anti-MrNv molecules. A 12-mer phage-displayed peptide library was biopanned against the MrNv virus-like particle (VLP). After four rounds of biopanning, two dominant phages harbouring the amino acid sequences HTKQIPRHIYSA and VSRHQSWHPHDL were selected. An equilibrium binding assay in solution was performed to determine the relative dissociation constant (KDrel) of the interaction between the MrNv VLP and the selected fusion phages. Phage-HTKQIPRHIYSA has a KDrel value of 92.4±22.8 nM, and phage-VSRHQSWHPHDL has a KDrel value of 12.7±3.8 nM. An in-cell elisa was used to determine the inhibitory effect of the synthetic peptides towards the entry of MrNv VLP into Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. Peptides HTKQIPRHIYSA and VSRHQSWHPHDL inhibited the entry of the MrNv VLP into Sf9 cells with IC50 values of 30.4±3.6 and 26.5±8.8 µM, respectively. Combination of both peptides showed a significantly higher inhibitory effect with an IC50 of 4.9±0.4 µM. An MTT assay revealed that the viability of MrNv-infected cells increased to about 97 % in the presence of both peptides. A real-time RT-PCR assay showed that simultaneous application of both peptides significantly reduced the number of MrNv per infected cell, from 97±9 to 11±4. These peptides are lead compounds which can be further developed into potent anti-MrNv agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/virology*
  9. Atin KH, Christianus A, Fatin N, Lutas AC, Shabanimofrad M, Subha B
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2017 Aug 17;16(3).
    PMID: 28829885 DOI: 10.4238/gmr16035685
    The Malaysian giant prawn is among the most commonly cultured species of the genus Macrobrachium. Stocks of giant prawns from four rivers in Peninsular Malaysia have been used for aquaculture over the past 25 years, which has led to repeated harvesting, restocking, and transplantation between rivers. Consequently, a stock improvement program is now important to avoid the depletion of wild stocks and the loss of genetic diversity. However, the success of such an improvement program depends on our knowledge of the genetic variation of these base populations. The aim of the current study was to estimate genetic variation and differentiation of these riverine sources using novel expressed sequence tag-microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers, which not only are informative on genetic diversity but also provide information on immune and metabolic traits. Our findings indicated that the tested stocks have inbreeding depression due to a significant deficiency in heterozygotes, and FIS was estimated as 0.15538 to 0.31938. An F-statistics analysis suggested that the stocks are composed of one large panmictic population. Among the four locations, stocks from Johor, in the southern region of the peninsular, showed higher allelic and genetic diversity than the other stocks. To overcome inbreeding problems, the Johor population could be used as a base population in a stock improvement program by crossing to the other populations. The study demonstrated that EST-SSR markers can be incorporated in future marker assisted breeding to aid the proper management of the stocks by breeders and stakeholders in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics*
  10. Arockiaraj J, Easwvaran S, Vanaraja P, Singh A, Othman RY, Bhassu S
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2012 Jul;33(1):121-9.
    PMID: 22565019 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.04.010
    In this study, we have reported a full length of peroxiredoxin (designated MrPrdx) gene, identified from the transcriptome of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrPrdx is 940 base pairs in length, and encodes 186 amino acids. MrPrdx contains a long thioredoxin domain in the amino acid sequence between 34 and 186. The gene expressions of MrPrdx in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. MrPrdx is highly expressed in all the other tissues of M. rosenbergii considered for analysis and the highest in gills. The expression is strongly up-regulated in gills after IHHNV infection. To understand MrPrdx functional properties, the recombinant MrPrdx protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified. A peroxidise activity assay was conducted using recombinant MrPrdx protein at different concentrations. This peroxidises activity showed that the recombinant MrPrdx is a thiol-dependant protein. Additionally, this result showed that recombinant MrPrdx protein, as a secretory protein can remove H₂O₂ and protect DNA damage. This finding leads a possible way to propose the recombinant MrPrdx protein as an effective medicine for reactive oxygen species (ROS) related diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics*; Palaemonidae/immunology*; Palaemonidae/virology
  11. Rao R, Bhassu S, Bing RZ, Alinejad T, Hassan SS, Wang J
    J Invertebr Pathol, 2016 05;136:10-22.
    PMID: 26880158 DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2016.01.002
    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics; Palaemonidae/immunology; Palaemonidae/virology*
  12. Kawamura G, Bagarinao T, Yong ASK, Noor SN, Lim LS
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2018 Mar;29(1):103-112.
    PMID: 29644018 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2018.29.1.7
    The effect of low pH on the tactile sense of Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae was determined in the laboratory by means of two behavioural assays: shelter (netting) occupancy and jumping response to touch stimuli (taps) by a glass micropipette. The postlarvae were acclimated to pH 4, pH 5, pH 6 and pH 7.5 (control) in 45 L aquaria 5-7 d before the experiments. Shelter occupancy decreased with pH and was significantly lower at pH 4 and pH 5 than at pH 6 and in the control. The jumping response instantly followed a tap 93-98% of the time in the control, pH 6 and pH 5 treatments. However, the postlarvae showed significantly lower jumping response (65%) at pH 4, indicating an impaired tactile sense. Low pH 4-5 probably degrades the chitin of the sensory setae and inhibits the surface mechanoreceptors of the prawn postlarvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae
  13. Tan TT, Chen M, Harikrishna JA, Khairuddin N, Mohd Shamsudin MI, Zhang G, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2013 Oct;35(4):1061-9.
    PMID: 23816854 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.06.017
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~20-22 nucleotides, non protein-coding RNA regulatory genes that post-transcriptionally regulate many protein-coding genes, influencing critical biological and metabolic processes. While the number of known microRNA is increasing, there is currently no published data for miRNA from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (M. rosenbergii), a commercially cultured and economically important food species. In this study, we identified novel miRNAs in the gill and hepatopancreas of M. rosenbergii. Through a deep parallel sequencing analysis and an in silico data analysis approach, 327 miRNA families were identified from small RNA libraries with reference to both the de novo transcriptome of M. rosenbergii obtained from RNA-Seq and to miRBase (Release 18.0, November 2012). Based on the identified mature miRNA and recovered precursor sequences that form appropriate hairpin structures, three conserved miRNA (miR125, miR750, miR993) and 27 novel miRNA candidates encoding messenger-like non-coding RNA were identified. miR-125, miR-750, G-m0002/H-m0009, G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027 and G-m0015 were selected for experimental validation with stem-loop quantitative RT-PCR and were found to be coherent with the expression profile of deep sequencing data as evaluated with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.835178 for miRNA in gill, r = 0.724131 for miRNA in hepatopancreas). Using a combinatorial approach of pathway enrichment analysis and inverse expression relationship of miRNA and mRNA, four co-expressed novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, G-m0011/H-m0027, and G-m0015) were found to be associated with energy metabolism. In addition, the expression of the three novel miRNA candidates (G-m0005, G-m0008/H-m0016, and G-m0011/H-m0027) were also found to be significantly reduced at 9 and 24 h post infection in M. rosenbergii challenged with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, suggesting a functional role of these miRNAs in crustacean immune defense.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics*; Palaemonidae/metabolism
  14. Shuhaimi-Othman M, Yakub N, Ramle NA, Abas A
    Toxicol Ind Health, 2011 Jul;27(6):523-30.
    PMID: 21343224 DOI: 10.1177/0748233710391993
    Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT₅₀) and concentrations (LC₅₀) were calculated. At the end of the 4-day period, live prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT₅₀ and LC₅₀ increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC₅₀s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 32.3, 7.0, 525.1 and 35.0 µg/L, respectively. Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb bioconcentration in M. lanchesteri increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to M. lanchesteri, followed by Pb, Cu and Zn. Comparison of LC₅₀ values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean organisms reveals that M. lanchesteri is equally or more sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested crustaceans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/drug effects*; Palaemonidae/metabolism
  15. Idrus FA, Basri MM, Rahim KAA, Rahim NSA, Chong MD
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2018 Mar;100(3):350-355.
    PMID: 29344698 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-018-2270-3
    This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/drug effects*; Palaemonidae/metabolism
  16. Kua BC, Choong FC, Hazreen Nita MK, Muhd Faizul H AH, Bhassu S, Imelda RR, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Apr;28(1):85-9.
    PMID: 21602773 MyJurnal
    A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/parasitology*; Palaemonidae/virology*
  17. Ravichandran G, Kumaresan V, Mahesh A, Dhayalan A, Arshad A, Arasu MV, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Jan;106:1014-1022.
    PMID: 28837852 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.08.098
    Chitinases play a vital role during the pathogenic invasion and immunosuppression in various organisms including invertebrates and vertebrates. In this study, we have investigated the participation of MrChit-3 (Macrobrachium rosenbergii Chitinase-3) during host-pathogenic interaction in freshwater prawn, M. rosenbergii. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of MrChit-3 was up-regulated during bacterial, viral and laminarin challenge. Moreover, to understand the antimicrobial role of the GH18 domain, a putative membrane-targeting antimicrobial peptide (MrVG) was identified from the GH18 domain region of the protein and it was chemically synthesized. Physico-chemical features of the GH18 derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP) was assessed by various in silico tools and the antimicrobial property of the peptide was confirmed from in vitro studies. The membrane targeting mechanism of the peptide was determined by flow cytometry (FACS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Interestingly, the peptide was able to inhibit the growth of a chitinolytic fungal pathogen, Aspergillus niger, which was isolated from the shells of M. rosenbergii. The toxicity studies such as hemolysis activity on human blood erythrocytes and cell viability assay with primary kidney cells, HEK293 of MrVG revealed that the peptide was not involved in inducing any toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/enzymology; Palaemonidae/microbiology; Palaemonidae/chemistry*; Palaemonidae/virology
  18. Ravichandran G, Pasupuleti M, Arasu MV, Al-Dhabi NA, Arshad A, Arockiaraj J
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2020 Nov;106:332-340.
    PMID: 32758637 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2020.07.068
    The occurrences of multiple drug-resistant strains have been relentlessly increasing in recent years. The aquaculture industry has encountered major disease outbreaks and crucially affected by this situation. The usage of non-specific chemicals and antibiotics expedites the stimulation of resistant strains. Triggering the natural defense mechanism would provide an effective and safest way of protecting the host system. Hence, we have investigated the innate immune function of serine/threonine-protein kinase (STPK) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). The in-silico protein analysis resulted in the identification of cationic antimicrobial peptide, MrSL-19, with interesting properties from STPK of M. rosenbergii. Antimicrobial assay, FACS and SEM analysis demonstrated that the peptide potentially inhibits Staphylococcus aureus by interacting with its membrane. The toxic study on MrSL-19 demonstrated that the peptide is not toxic against HEK293 cells as well as human erythrocytes. This investigation showed the significant innate immune property of an efficient cationic antimicrobial peptide, MrSL-19 of STPK from M. rosenbergii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics*; Palaemonidae/immunology*
  19. Soo TCC, Bhassu S
    PLoS One, 2021;16(10):e0258655.
    PMID: 34653229 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0258655
    Diseases have remained the major issue for shrimp aquaculture industry for decades by which different shrimp species demonstrated alternative disease resistance or tolerance. However, there had been insufficient studies on the underlying host mechanisms of such phenomenon. Hence, in this study, the main objective involves gaining a deeper understanding into the functional importance of shrimp STAT gene from the aspects of expression, sequence, structure, and associated genes. STAT gene was selected primarily because of its vital signalling roles in stress, endocrine, and immune response. The differential gene expressions of Macrobrachium rosenbergii STAT (MrST) and Penaeus monodon STAT (PmST) under White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus/VpAHPND infections were identified through qPCR analysis. Notably, during both pathogenic infections, MrST demonstrated significant gene expression down-regulations (during either early or later post-infection time points) whereas PmST showed only significant gene expression up-regulations. Important sequence conservation or divergence was highlighted through STAT sequence comparison especially amino acid alterations at 614 aa [K (Lysine) to E (Glutamic Acid)] and 629 aa [F (Phenylalanine) to V (Valine)] from PmST (AY327491.1) to PmST (disease tolerant strain). There were significant differences observed between in silico characterized structures of MrST and PmST proteins. Important functional differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the aspects of stress, endocrine, immune, signalling, and structural were uncovered through comparative transcriptomic analysis. The DEGs associated with STAT functioning were identified including inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, hsp90, caspase, ATP binding cassette transmembrane transporter, C-type Lectin, HMGB, ALF1, ALF3, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and TBK1. The main findings of this study are STAT differential gene expression patterns, sequence divergence, structural differences, and associated functional DEGs. These findings can be further utilized for shrimp health or host response diagnostic studies. STAT gene can also be proposed as a suitable candidate for future studies of shrimp innate immune enhancement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Palaemonidae/genetics*; Palaemonidae/virology
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