Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 342 in total

  1. Tan SS, Maul TH, Mennie NR
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(5):e63042.
    PMID: 23696791 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063042
    Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Auditory Perception/physiology*; Visual Perception/physiology*
  2. Walker P, Scallon G, Francis B
    Perception, 2017 Jul;46(7):772-792.
    PMID: 28622755 DOI: 10.1177/0301006616684369
    Everyday language reveals how stimuli encoded in one sensory feature domain can possess qualities normally associated with a different domain (e.g., higher pitch sounds are bright, light in weight, sharp, and thin). Such cross-sensory associations appear to reflect crosstalk among aligned (corresponding) feature dimensions, including brightness, heaviness, and sharpness. Evidence for heaviness being one such dimension is very limited, with heaviness appearing primarily as a verbal associate of other feature contrasts (e.g., darker objects and lower pitch sounds are heavier than their opposites). Given the presumed bidirectionality of the crosstalk between corresponding dimensions, heaviness should itself induce the cross-sensory associations observed elsewhere, including with brightness and pitch. Taking care to dissociate effects arising from the size and mass of an object, this is confirmed. When hidden objects varying independently in size and mass are lifted, objects that feel heavier are judged to be darker and to make lower pitch sounds than objects feeling less heavy. These judgements track the changes in perceived heaviness induced by the size-weight illusion. The potential involvement of language, natural scene statistics, and Bayesian processes in correspondences, and the effects they induce, is considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Color Perception/physiology*; Pitch Perception/physiology*; Weight Perception/physiology*
  3. Siti Nurma Hanim Hadie, Asma' Hassan, Zul Izhar Mohd Ismail, Mohd Asnizam Asari, Aaijaz Ahmed Khan, Fazlina Kasim, et al.
    Anatomy is an important knowledge for medical practice. Insufficient anatomy knowledge leading to errors in identification of anatomical structures during medical practices has been reported in many countries. Many medical students seem to have difficulties in learning anatomy and retaining the knowledge for future practice, thus this might reflect the possible flaws in anatomy education. In order to achieve optimum anatomy education environment and to close the gaps in education, measuring the students' perception on anatomy teaching and learning is a pre-emptive measure needed by educationists. At present, there is no valid and reliable inventory available to specifically evaluate the anatomy education environment. Therefore, this article highlights the importance of having such inventory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perception
  4. Yap KC, Aminah A
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2011 Jun;33(3):245-50.
    PMID: 21272038 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00621.x
    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perception*
  5. Sharanjeet-Kaur, Kulikowski JJ, Carden D
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 1998 Jan;18(1):49-56.
    PMID: 9666910
    The purpose of this study was to optimise the testing paradigm for isolating the contributions of chromatic and achromatic mechanisms to the human spectral sensitivity function. Spectral sensitivity was determined for a test spot size of 1.2 deg presented with various spatial and temporal masks on a large, 10 deg background field of moderate intensity (1000 td) and colour temperature, CT = 2700 K. Sinusoidal temporal presentation (1 Hz) and a masking annulus of between 3 and 10 min of arc surrounding the test spot, was found to be most effective in separating chromatic from achromatic mechanisms. Square-wave (1 Hz) temporal presentation combined with the annulus was slightly less selective. The presence of the annulus did not affect the shape of flicker detection at 25 Hz which is a measure of the luminosity (achromatic) spectral sensitivity function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Color Perception*; Visual Perception
  6. Shafizadeh M, Davids K, Correia V, Wheat J, Hizan H
    J Sports Sci, 2016 Sep;34(17):1596-601.
    PMID: 26652039 DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1125011
    The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptual variables can provide informational constraints for the goalkeepers to intercept the ball successfully in 1v1 dyads. Video images of 42 actions (1v1 in direct shots) were selected randomly from different matches and divided into conceded goals (n = 20) and saved actions (n = 22) to investigate interceptive actions of 20 goalkeepers in the English Premier League in season 2013-2014. Time to Contact (TTC) of the closing distance gap between shooter and goalkeeper was obtained by digitising actions in the 18-yard penalty box. Statistical analyses revealed that, in sequences of play resulting in an intercepted shot at goal, goalkeepers closed down outfield players in the X axis, whereas when a goal was conceded, there was a significantly delayed movement by goalkeepers toward the shooters in this plane. The results of canonical correlations showed that a decreasing distance between a shooter and goalkeeper, and accompanied reduction in relative interpersonal velocity followed a temporal pattern. Findings of this study showed how perception of key informational constraints on dyadic system relations, such as TTC, interpersonal distance and relative velocity, constrain elite goalkeepers' interceptive actions, playing an important role in successful performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Space Perception/physiology*; Time Perception/physiology*
  7. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
    Professional behavior is an area of medical education that has long been of concern to medical educator. Professional behavior is one of the domains of the professionalism and it’s a behavior reflection of professionalism. But in spite of its perceived importance, until recently it has not been actively taught or reliably assessed. The purposes of this writing are:
    1) To provide appropriate definition of professional behavior.
    2) To identify characteristics of professional behavior.
    3) To identify valid and reliable assessment tools to assess professional behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perception
  8. Gurbinder Kaur, J.S., Hamidah, H., Blackman, I., Belan, I.
    Medicine & Health, 2011;6(2):86-97.
    Stress has a negative effect on student nurses well-being and can impede learning or motivate them and is conducive to learning. This study examined the perceived stress and factors that influenced daily students’ life among both the Diploma and Bachelor of Nursing students. A total of 241 nursing students were involved in this research project. Findings of this study indicated that junior nursing students (
    Matched MeSH terms: Perception
  9. Perera AT, Newport R, McKenzie KJ
    Exp Brain Res, 2017 06;235(6):1809-1821.
    PMID: 28293693 DOI: 10.1007/s00221-017-4935-2
    The dynamic flexibility of body representation has been highlighted through numerous lines of research that range from clinical studies reporting disorders of body ownership, to experimentally induced somatic illusions that have provided evidence for the embodiment of manipulated representations and even fake limbs. While most studies have reported that enlargement of body parts alters somatic perception, and that these can be more readily embodied, shrunken body parts have not been found to consistently alter somatic experiences, perhaps due to reduced feelings of ownership over smaller body parts. Over two experiments, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms responsible for altered somatic representations following exposure to both enlarged and shrunken body parts. Participants were given the impression that their hand and index finger were either longer or shorter than veridical length and asked to judge veridical finger length using online and offline size estimation tasks, as well as to report the degree of ownership towards the distorted finger and hand representations. Ownership was claimed over all distorted representations of the hand and finger and no differences were seen across ownership ratings, while the online and offline measurements of perceived size demonstrated differing response patterns. These findings suggest that ownership towards manipulated body representations is more bidirectional than previously thought and also suggest differences in perceived body representation with respect to the method of measurement suggesting that online and offline tasks may tap into different aspects of body representation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Size Perception/physiology*; Visual Perception/physiology*
  10. Walker P, Bremner JG, Lunghi M, Dolscheid S, D Barba B, Simion F
    Dev Psychobiol, 2018 03;60(2):216-223.
    PMID: 29355921 DOI: 10.1002/dev.21603
    Amodal (redundant) and arbitrary cross-sensory feature associations involve the context-insensitive mapping of absolute feature values across sensory domains. Cross-sensory associations of a different kind, known as correspondences, involve the context-sensitive mapping of relative feature values. Are such correspondences in place at birth (like amodal associations), or are they learned from subsequently experiencing relevant feature co-occurrences in the world (like arbitrary associations)? To decide between these two possibilities, human newborns (median age = 44 hr) watched animations in which two balls alternately rose and fell together in space. The pitch of an accompanying sound rose and fell either congruently with this visual change (pitch rising and falling as the balls moved up and down), or incongruently (pitch rising and falling as the balls moved down and up). Newborns' looking behavior was sensitive to this congruence, providing the strongest indication to date that cross-sensory correspondences can be in place at birth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motion Perception/physiology*; Pitch Perception/physiology*
  11. Qazi A, Raj RG, Tahir M, Waheed M, Waheed M, Khan SU, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:872929.
    PMID: 24711739 DOI: 10.1155/2014/872929
    Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users' perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N = 400) and designers (N = 106), current research work studies three review types, A (regular), B (comparative), and C (suggestive), which are related to perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. The study reveals that positive perception of the use of suggestive reviews improves users' decision making in business intelligence. The results also depict that type C (suggestive reviews) could be considered a new useful review type in addition to other types, A and B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perception*
  12. Abdullah BJ, Ng KH
    Br J Radiol, 2001 Aug;74(884):675-6.
    PMID: 11511489
    Matched MeSH terms: Visual Perception*
  13. Khairuddin TK, Lionheart WR
    Bioinspir Biomim, 2016 09 06;11(5):055004.
    PMID: 27596986 DOI: 10.1088/1748-3190/11/5/055004
    Weakly electric fish generate electric current and use hundreds of voltage sensors on the surface of their body to navigate and locate food. Experiments (von der Emde and Fetz 2007 J. Exp. Biol. 210 3082-95) show that they can discriminate between differently shaped conducting or insulating objects by using electrosensing. One approach to electrically identify and characterize the object with a lower computational cost rather than full shape reconstruction is to use the first order polarization tensor (PT) of the object. In this paper, by considering experimental work on Peters' elephantnose fish Gnathonemus petersii, we investigate the possible role of the first order PT in the ability of the fish to discriminate between objects of different shapes. We also suggest some experiments that might be performed to further investigate the role of the first order PT in electrosensing fish. Finally, we speculate on the possibility of electrical cloaking or camouflage in prey of electrosensing fish and what might be learnt from the fish in human remote sensing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Form Perception/physiology*
  14. Aksentijevic A, Elliott MA
    Q J Exp Psychol (Hove), 2017 Aug;70(8):1535-1548.
    PMID: 27244533 DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2016.1192657
    Dynamic distortion of the visual field has been shown to affect perceptual judgment of visual dimensions such as size, length, and distance. Here, we report four experiments demonstrating that the different aspects of a triangle differently influence judgments of distance. Specifically, when the base of the triangle faces the centre of the display, participants consistently underestimate and overestimate the distance of a small dot from the unmarked centre of the display relative to conditions in which the vertex of the triangle faces the centre. When the dot is close to the figure, the distance of the dot to the centre is underestimated. Conversely, when the dot is close to the figure, the distance to the centre is overestimated. The effect is replicated when the internal distances are equalized and when ellipses are used instead of triangles. These results support a ripple model of spatial distortion in which local curvature acts to attract or repel objects. In conclusion, we suggest some implications of our findings for theories of perceptual organization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Distance Perception/physiology*; Space Perception/physiology*
  15. Tse LF, Thanapalan KC, Chan CC
    Res Dev Disabil, 2014 Feb;35(2):340-7.
    PMID: 24333804 DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2013.11.013
    This study investigated the role of visual-perceptual input in writing Chinese characters among senior school-aged children who had handwriting difficulties (CHD). The participants were 27 CHD (9-11 years old) and 61 normally developed control. There were three writing conditions: copying, and dictations with or without visual feedback. The motor-free subtests of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-2) were conducted. The CHD group showed significantly slower mean speeds of character production and less legibility of produced characters than the control group in all writing conditions (ps<0.001). There were significant deteriorations in legibility from copying to dictation without visual feedback. Nevertheless, the Group by Condition interaction effect was not statistically significant. Only position in space of DTVP-2 was significantly correlated with the legibility among CHD (r=-0.62, p=0.001). Poor legibility seems to be related to the less-intact spatial representation of the characters in working memory, which can be rectified by viewing the characters during writing. Visual feedback regarding one's own actions in writing can also improve legibility of characters among these children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Perception/physiology; Visual Perception/physiology*
  16. Pillai D, Sheppard E, Mitchell P
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(11):e49859.
    PMID: 23226227 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049859
    Are we able to infer what happened to a person from a brief sample of his/her behaviour? It has been proposed that mentalising skills can be used to retrodict as well as predict behaviour, that is, to determine what mental states of a target have already occurred. The current study aimed to develop a paradigm to explore these processes, which takes into account the intricacies of real-life situations in which reasoning about mental states, as embodied in behaviour, may be utilised. A novel task was devised which involved observing subtle and naturalistic reactions of others in order to determine the event that had previously taken place. Thirty-five participants viewed videos of real individuals reacting to the researcher behaving in one of four possible ways, and were asked to judge which of the four 'scenarios' they thought the individual was responding to. Their eye movements were recorded to establish the visual strategies used. Participants were able to deduce successfully from a small sample of behaviour which scenario had previously occurred. Surprisingly, looking at the eye region was associated with poorer identification of the scenarios, and eye movement strategy varied depending on the event experienced by the person in the video. This suggests people flexibly deploy their attention using a retrodictive mindreading process to infer events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Perception*; Visual Perception/physiology*
  17. Fraundorf SH, Watson DG, Benjamin AS
    Psychol Aging, 2012 Mar;27(1):88-98.
    PMID: 21639646 DOI: 10.1037/a0024138
    In two experiments, we investigated age-related changes in how prosodic pitch accents affect memory. Participants listened to recorded discourses that contained two contrasts between pairs of items (e.g., one story contrasted British scientists with French scientists and Malaysia with Indonesia). The end of each discourse referred to one item from each pair; these references received a pitch accent that either denoted contrast (L + H* in the ToBI system) or did not (H*). A contrastive accent on a particular pair improved later recognition memory equally for young and older adults. However, older adults showed decreased memory if the other pair received a contrastive accent (Experiment 1). Young adults with low working memory performance also showed this penalty (Experiment 2). These results suggest that pitch accents guide processing resources to important information for both older and younger adults but diminish memory for less important information in groups with reduced resources, including older adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pitch Perception/physiology; Speech Perception/physiology*
  18. Ching TY, Quar TK, Johnson EE, Newall P, Sharma M
    J Am Acad Audiol, 2015 Mar;26(3):260-74.
    PMID: 25751694 DOI: 10.3766/jaaa.26.3.6
    BACKGROUND: An important goal of providing amplification to children with hearing loss is to ensure that hearing aids are adjusted to match targets of prescriptive procedures as closely as possible. The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) v5 and the National Acoustic Laboratories' prescription for nonlinear hearing aids, version 1 (NAL-NL1) procedures are widely used in fitting hearing aids to children. Little is known about hearing aid fitting outcomes for children with severe or profound hearing loss.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prescribed and measured gain of hearing aids fit according to the NAL-NL1 and the DSL v5 procedure for children with moderately severe to profound hearing loss; and to examine the impact of choice of prescription on predicted speech intelligibility and loudness.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: Participants were fit with Phonak Naida V SP hearing aids according to the NAL-NL1 and DSL v5 procedures. The Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) and estimated loudness were calculated using published models.

    STUDY SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 16 children (30 ears) aged between 7 and 17 yr old.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The measured hearing aid gains were compared with the prescribed gains at 50 (low), 65 (medium), and 80 dB SPL (high) input levels. The goodness of fit-to-targets was quantified by calculating the average root-mean-square (RMS) error of the measured gain compared with prescriptive gain targets for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. The significance of difference between prescriptions for hearing aid gains, SII, and loudness was examined by performing analyses of variance. Correlation analyses were used to examine the relationship between measures.

    RESULTS: The DSL v5 prescribed significantly higher overall gain than the NAL-NL1 procedure for the same audiograms. For low and medium input levels, the hearing aids of all children fit with NAL-NL1 were within 5 dB RMS of prescribed targets, but 33% (10 ears) deviated from the DSL v5 targets by more than 5 dB RMS on average. For high input level, the hearing aid fittings of 60% and 43% of ears deviated by more than 5 dB RMS from targets of NAL-NL1 and DSL v5, respectively. Greater deviations from targets were associated with more severe hearing loss. On average, the SII was higher for DSL v5 than for NAL-NL1 at low input level. No significant difference in SII was found between prescriptions at medium or high input level, despite greater loudness for DSL v5 than for NAL-NL1.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although targets between 0.25 and 2 kHz were well matched for both prescriptions in commercial hearing aids, gain targets at 4 kHz were matched for NAL-NL1 only. Although the two prescriptions differ markedly in estimated loudness, they resulted in comparable predicted speech intelligibility for medium and high input levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Loudness Perception/physiology*; Speech Perception/physiology*
  19. Levitan CA, Ren J, Woods AT, Boesveldt S, Chan JS, McKenzie KJ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(7):e101651.
    PMID: 25007343 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101651
    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.
    Matched MeSH terms: Color Perception*; Olfactory Perception*
  20. Umat C, McDermott HJ, McKay CM
    J Am Acad Audiol, ;17(10):733-46.
    PMID: 17153721
    This study investigated the effect of intensity on pitch in electric hearing and its relationship to the speech perception ability of cochlear implantees. Subjects were 13 adult users of the Nucleus 22 cochlear implant system, using either the Spectra22 or ESPrit22 speech processor and the SPEAK speech processing strategy. A multidimensional scaling technique was employed. Speech perception was measured using sentences and vowels. All measurements were performed in a soundfield condition, and subjects wore their own speech processors with their normally used settings. Results showed a significant correlation between the degree of deviation of the subjects' stimulus spaces from the "ideal" space and subjects' performance with the sentences, but not with the vowels. A significant correlation was found between subjects' response variability in performing the multidimensional scaling task and their speech perception measures, suggesting that spectral smearing or underlying cognitive abilities might affect implantees' speech perception performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Loudness Perception*; Speech Perception*
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