Many receiver-based Preamble Sampling Medium Access Control (PS-MAC) protocols have been proposed to provide better performance for variable traffic in a wireless sensor network (WSN). However, most of these protocols cannot prevent the occurrence of incorrect traffic convergence that causes the receiver node to wake-up more frequently than the transmitter node. In this research, a new protocol is proposed to prevent the problem mentioned above. The proposed mechanism has four components, and they are Initial control frame message, traffic estimation function, control frame message, and adaptive function. The initial control frame message is used to initiate the message transmission by the receiver node. The traffic estimation function is proposed to reduce the wake-up frequency of the receiver node by using the proposed traffic status register (TSR), idle listening times (ILTn, ILTk), and "number of wake-up without receiving beacon message" (NWwbm). The control frame message aims to supply the essential information to the receiver node to get the next wake-up-interval (WUI) time for the transmitter node using the proposed adaptive function. The proposed adaptive function is used by the receiver node to calculate the next WUI time of each of the transmitter nodes. Several simulations are conducted based on the benchmark protocols. The outcome of the simulation indicates that the proposed mechanism can prevent the incorrect traffic convergence problem that causes frequent wake-up of the receiver node compared to the transmitter node. Moreover, the simulation results also indicate that the proposed mechanism could reduce energy consumption, produce minor latency, improve the throughput, and produce higher packet delivery ratio compared to other related works.
Matched MeSH terms: Auditory Perception; Time Perception
Visual to auditory conversion systems have been in existence for several decades. Besides being among the front runners in providing visual capabilities to blind users, the auditory cues generated from image sonification systems are still easier to learn and adapt to compared to other similar techniques. Other advantages include low cost, easy customizability, and universality. However, every system developed so far has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. In order to improve these systems further, we propose an automated and quantitative method to measure the performance of such systems. With these quantitative measurements, it is possible to gauge the relative strengths and weaknesses of different systems and rank the systems accordingly.
Everyday language reveals how stimuli encoded in one sensory feature domain can possess qualities normally associated with a different domain (e.g., higher pitch sounds are bright, light in weight, sharp, and thin). Such cross-sensory associations appear to reflect crosstalk among aligned (corresponding) feature dimensions, including brightness, heaviness, and sharpness. Evidence for heaviness being one such dimension is very limited, with heaviness appearing primarily as a verbal associate of other feature contrasts (e.g., darker objects and lower pitch sounds are heavier than their opposites). Given the presumed bidirectionality of the crosstalk between corresponding dimensions, heaviness should itself induce the cross-sensory associations observed elsewhere, including with brightness and pitch. Taking care to dissociate effects arising from the size and mass of an object, this is confirmed. When hidden objects varying independently in size and mass are lifted, objects that feel heavier are judged to be darker and to make lower pitch sounds than objects feeling less heavy. These judgements track the changes in perceived heaviness induced by the size-weight illusion. The potential involvement of language, natural scene statistics, and Bayesian processes in correspondences, and the effects they induce, is considered.
Matched MeSH terms: Color Perception/physiology*; Pitch Perception/physiology*; Weight Perception/physiology*
Ambiguous images are widely recognized as a valuable tool for probing human perception. Perceptual biases that arise when people make judgements about ambiguous images reveal their expectations about the environment. While perceptual biases in early visual processing have been well established, their existence in higher-level vision has been explored only for faces, which may be processed differently from other objects. Here we developed a new, highly versatile method of creating ambiguous hybrid images comprising two component objects belonging to distinct categories. We used these hybrids to measure perceptual biases in object classification and found that images of man-made (manufactured) objects dominated those of naturally occurring (non-man-made) ones in hybrids. This dominance generalized to a broad range of object categories, persisted when the horizontal and vertical elements that dominate man-made objects were removed and increased with the real-world size of the manufactured object. Our findings show for the first time that people have perceptual biases to see man-made objects and suggest that extended exposure to manufactured environments in our urban-living participants has changed the way that they see the world.
Matched MeSH terms: Space Perception; Visual Perception*
Anatomy is an important knowledge for medical practice. Insufficient anatomy knowledge leading to errors in identification of anatomical structures during medical practices has been reported in many countries. Many medical students seem to have difficulties in learning anatomy and retaining the knowledge for future practice, thus this might reflect the possible flaws in anatomy education. In order to achieve optimum anatomy education environment and to close the gaps in education, measuring the students' perception on anatomy teaching and learning is a pre-emptive measure needed by educationists. At present, there is no valid and reliable inventory available to specifically evaluate the anatomy education environment. Therefore, this article highlights the importance of having such inventory.
Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained.
The purpose of this study was to optimise the testing paradigm for isolating the contributions of chromatic and achromatic mechanisms to the human spectral sensitivity function. Spectral sensitivity was determined for a test spot size of 1.2 deg presented with various spatial and temporal masks on a large, 10 deg background field of moderate intensity (1000 td) and colour temperature, CT = 2700 K. Sinusoidal temporal presentation (1 Hz) and a masking annulus of between 3 and 10 min of arc surrounding the test spot, was found to be most effective in separating chromatic from achromatic mechanisms. Square-wave (1 Hz) temporal presentation combined with the annulus was slightly less selective. The presence of the annulus did not affect the shape of flicker detection at 25 Hz which is a measure of the luminosity (achromatic) spectral sensitivity function.
Matched MeSH terms: Color Perception*; Visual Perception
Students' perceptions of their learning environment, by defining its strengths and weaknesses, are important for continuous improvement of the educational environments and curriculum. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore students' perceptions of their learning environment, among medical students in Malaysia. Various aspects of the education environment were compared between year levels and sex.
This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Malaysia in 2012. A total number of 438 medical students participated in this study, and the response rate was 87.6%. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Comparisons of the mean scores of Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) subscales were calculated. The t-test was used to determine statistically significant differences.
The majority of the study participants were female, Malay, and from year 3 (68.7%, 65.3%, and 55.7%; respectively). Analysis of each of the 50 items of the DREEM inventory showed that 47 items scored ranged between 2.00 and 3.00, and three items scored below 2.00. These were identified as problem areas in this medical school that are required to be critically addressed. The overall score showed that the medical students' perceptions were positive. The students' perception toward educational environment was positive for all five DREEM subscales.
The study found that, in general, the perceptions of the participants about the learning environment were positive. Nevertheless, the study also found there is a need for curriculum improvement in this school and identified priority areas for such improvement.
DREEM; Malaysia; learning environment; medical education; students’ perceptions
The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptual variables can provide informational constraints for the goalkeepers to intercept the ball successfully in 1v1 dyads. Video images of 42 actions (1v1 in direct shots) were selected randomly from different matches and divided into conceded goals (n = 20) and saved actions (n = 22) to investigate interceptive actions of 20 goalkeepers in the English Premier League in season 2013-2014. Time to Contact (TTC) of the closing distance gap between shooter and goalkeeper was obtained by digitising actions in the 18-yard penalty box. Statistical analyses revealed that, in sequences of play resulting in an intercepted shot at goal, goalkeepers closed down outfield players in the X axis, whereas when a goal was conceded, there was a significantly delayed movement by goalkeepers toward the shooters in this plane. The results of canonical correlations showed that a decreasing distance between a shooter and goalkeeper, and accompanied reduction in relative interpersonal velocity followed a temporal pattern. Findings of this study showed how perception of key informational constraints on dyadic system relations, such as TTC, interpersonal distance and relative velocity, constrain elite goalkeepers' interceptive actions, playing an important role in successful performance.
Matched MeSH terms: Space Perception/physiology*; Time Perception/physiology*
Didactic lecture is the oldest and most commonly used method of teaching. In addition, it is considered one of the most efficient ways to disseminate theories, ideas, and facts. Many critics feel that lectures are an obsolete method to use when students need to perform hands-on activities, which is an everyday need in the study of medicine. This study evaluates students' perceptions regarding lecture quality in a new medical school.
Stress has a negative effect on student nurses well-being and can impede learning or motivate them and is conducive to learning. This study examined the perceived stress and factors that influenced daily students’ life among both the Diploma and Bachelor of Nursing students. A total of 241 nursing students were involved in this research project. Findings of this study indicated that junior nursing students (
Professional behavior is an area of medical education that has long been of concern to medical educator. Professional behavior is one of the domains of the professionalism and it’s a behavior reflection of professionalism. But in spite of its perceived importance, until recently it has not been actively taught or reliably assessed. The purposes of this writing are:
1) To provide appropriate definition of professional behavior.
2) To identify characteristics of professional behavior.
3) To identify valid and reliable assessment tools to assess professional behavior.
Amodal (redundant) and arbitrary cross-sensory feature associations involve the context-insensitive mapping of absolute feature values across sensory domains. Cross-sensory associations of a different kind, known as correspondences, involve the context-sensitive mapping of relative feature values. Are such correspondences in place at birth (like amodal associations), or are they learned from subsequently experiencing relevant feature co-occurrences in the world (like arbitrary associations)? To decide between these two possibilities, human newborns (median age = 44 hr) watched animations in which two balls alternately rose and fell together in space. The pitch of an accompanying sound rose and fell either congruently with this visual change (pitch rising and falling as the balls moved up and down), or incongruently (pitch rising and falling as the balls moved down and up). Newborns' looking behavior was sensitive to this congruence, providing the strongest indication to date that cross-sensory correspondences can be in place at birth.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is any difference between individuals with diabetes and without diabetes in their perceived stress, use of coping strategies and psychological well-being. A comparative study was conducted on 240 Bangladeshi adult participants. Among them 120 participants were with diabetes ranging in age from 27 through 56 years (M = 40.10 years
Science has been defined as 'a way of knowing' which is, in certain respects, unlike other ways of knowing. While some forms of knowledge are highly personal and intuitive, the methods of science are designed to be as objective and impersonal as possible. Science has been referred to as 'public knowledge' because of its procedures for verification involve the whole of society. Science is also 'organised knowledge' because it is systematic and because it is supported by a group of social institutions without which it could not exist in its modern form. For many decades, Fensham, an internationally recognised science educator, has been one of the most important and consistent voices for the reform of science education based on his vision of a democratic and socially responsible science education for all, based on the fundamental premise that if society is to understand the world it must be educated in the principles of science upon which a sustainable world is premised. Thus, science has a real place in society and a social responsibility. From a chemistry perspective, this enabling science is perceived by society as irrelevant to the real world and the cause of many of the evils of the world. This paper addresses the pivotal role of chemistry both in science education and in the social responsibility of science campaign and simultaneously shows how chemistry is at the leading edge of sustainable science in both a scientific and social context.
Sains telah ditakrifkan sebagai 'suatu cara mengetahui'. Dalam ertikata tertentu, takrif ini berlainan dengan cara-cara mengetahui hal-hal lain. Sesetengah bentuk pengetahuan sangatlah tersendiri dan intuitif, namun kaedah sains direkabentuk sedemikian sehingga sejauh mungkin ia berobjektif dan tidak tersendiri. Sains telah dirujukkan sebagai 'pengetahuan awam' kerana prosedur pensahihannya melibatkan seluruh masyarakat. Sains juga merupakan 'pengetahuan yang tersusun' kerana ini bersistem dan kerana ia disokong oleh kumpulan institusi sosial. Tanpa sokongan ini sains tidak boleh wujud dalam bentuk modemnya. Selama beberapa dekad yang lalu, Fensham, seorang ahli pendidikan sains yang diiktiraf antarabangsa, merupakan seorang penggiat yang penting dan konsisten dalam menyuarakan pendapat ke arah perubahan pendidikan sains berdasarkan visinya, iaitu pendidikan sains untuk semua secara demokratik dan bertanggungjawab kepada masyarakat, berlandaskan kepada premis asas bahawa jika masyarakat hendak memahami dunia, maka ia mestilah dididik dalam prinsip-prinsip sains dengan prinsip-prinsip itu sendiri dijadikan premos bagi sebuah dunia mampan. Dengan demikian, sains mempunyai tempatnya yang sebenar dalam masyarakat dan mempunyai tanggungjawab kemasyarakatan. Dari perspektif kimia, masyarakat bertanggapan bahawa sains tersebut tidaklah relevan dalam dunia nyata dan merupakan penyebab kepada banyak keburukan dalam dunia ini. Kertas ini mengupas peranan pengimbangan bidang kimia dalam pendidikan sains dan dalam tanggungjawab sosial kempen sains dan sekali gus menunjukkan bahawa kimia adalah teraju bagi sains mampan dalam kedua-dua konteks sainstifik dan sosial.
The dynamic flexibility of body representation has been highlighted through numerous lines of research that range from clinical studies reporting disorders of body ownership, to experimentally induced somatic illusions that have provided evidence for the embodiment of manipulated representations and even fake limbs. While most studies have reported that enlargement of body parts alters somatic perception, and that these can be more readily embodied, shrunken body parts have not been found to consistently alter somatic experiences, perhaps due to reduced feelings of ownership over smaller body parts. Over two experiments, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms responsible for altered somatic representations following exposure to both enlarged and shrunken body parts. Participants were given the impression that their hand and index finger were either longer or shorter than veridical length and asked to judge veridical finger length using online and offline size estimation tasks, as well as to report the degree of ownership towards the distorted finger and hand representations. Ownership was claimed over all distorted representations of the hand and finger and no differences were seen across ownership ratings, while the online and offline measurements of perceived size demonstrated differing response patterns. These findings suggest that ownership towards manipulated body representations is more bidirectional than previously thought and also suggest differences in perceived body representation with respect to the method of measurement suggesting that online and offline tasks may tap into different aspects of body representation.
Statistics plays a vital role in various spheres of life. Choosing the right statistical analysis is one of the most crucial aspects in statistics. Some researchers especially those who have minimal statistical background, are often having difficulties in choosing the right statistical analysis for their study. Inappropriate analysis may produce misleading results at the end of the study. Hence, mySTATS Tracker was created as an alternative tool to assist the researcher in determining the right statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to gauge the effectiveness of using mySTATS Tracker in identifying the most appropriate statistical analysis based on the supplied input. In addition, this study intended to determine whether there was significant difference in score based on gender and faculties. The difference in the perception towards the usefulness and effectiveness of this application based on faculties was also investigated. A sample of 55 undergraduate students with various background have participated in this study. The sample of students were asked to answer a set of questions with (posttest) and without (pre-test) using mySTATS Tracker. Then, the score obtained was recorded and analysed. Gap analysis and Independent t-test were applied in achieving the objectives of the study. The results showed that there was a significant difference in scores between pre-test and post-test, p < 0.05. It could be concluded that the users scored significantly higher and answered the questions in a significantly shorter time using mySTATS Tracker compared to without using it. The study also found that there was a significant difference in score based on gender and faculties, p < 0.05. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the perception of the usefulness and effectiveness of this application based on respective faculties. In overall, mySTATS Tracker has received a positive feedback from the potential users. This study has proven that mySTATS Tracker is a good alternative solution in suggesting the right statistical analysis to the users
An equitable and positive learning environment fosters deep self-directed learning in students and, consequently, good practice in their profession. Although demotivating weaknesses may lead to repeated day-to-day stress with a cascade of deleterious consequences at both personal and professional levels, a possible relationship between these parameters has not been reported. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between students' perceptions of their educational environment and their stress levels.
Stress may affect students' health and their academic performance. Coping strategies are specific efforts that individuals employ to manage stress. This study aimed to assess the perception of stress among medical students and their coping strategies.
Existing opinion mining studies have focused on and explored only two types of reviews, that is, regular and comparative. There is a visible gap in determining the useful review types from customers and designers perspective. Based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and statistical measures we examine users' perception about different review types and its effects in terms of behavioral intention towards using online review system. By using sample of users (N = 400) and designers (N = 106), current research work studies three review types, A (regular), B (comparative), and C (suggestive), which are related to perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavioral intention. The study reveals that positive perception of the use of suggestive reviews improves users' decision making in business intelligence. The results also depict that type C (suggestive reviews) could be considered a new useful review type in addition to other types, A and B.