Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Ganapathy Pillay S, Mohd Amin SDW, Masri SN, Joseph NM, Amran F, Van Belkum A, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2021 Aug;43(2):261-268.
    PMID: 34448790
    INTRODUCTION: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-associated peritonitis remains a major complication in patients on CAPD leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Successful therapy of peritonitis is highly dependent on a positive microbiological culture because narrow spectrum antibiotics are essential to efficiently combat infection. Therefore, this study evaluated the performance of Tween 80 containing media at three different concentrations (0.1%, 1.0% and 2.0%) to increase the pathogen yield from peritoneal fluid in comparison with the standard culture media.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal fluid samples (n=121) obtained from CAPD patients suspected of peritonitis at Hospital Kuala Lumpur were analysed macroscopically and microscopically prior to culture. All samples were cultured on seven different culture media, including sheep blood agar, MacConkey agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, brain heart infusion agar and Tween 80 incorporated blood agar. All plates were incubated at an optimum temperature up to 48 hours.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Among all the culture media investigated, 0.1% to 2.0% Tween 80 incorporated blood agar yielded the highest positive culture (23/121) in comparison with all other standard media, thus lowering the negative culture rate among CAPD patients. Statistical analysis by Chi Square revealed significant differences (p <0.001) between the three concentrations of Tween 80 tested in this study. Among the three different concentrations of Tween 80 optimised in this study, blood agar containing 0.1% Tween 80 generated the best results, achieved by optimum growth of all Gram-positive organisms, Gram-negative organisms and yeast cells simultaneously. Using a small amount of detergent at low cost significantly increased the pathogen yield during CAPD-associated peritonitis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  2. Fan KS, Suleiman AB
    Med J Malaysia, 1985 Jun;40(2):101-6.
    PMID: 3834279
    226 peritoneal dialyses were performed on 100 patients. 28 patients presented with acute renal failure. Uraemia was the most frequent indication for dialysis. Peritonitis was an important complication and Acinetobacter species accounted for 51.5% of the positive cultures. Other complications included poor dialysate drainage and hypokalemia. Mortality was mainly due to causes unrelated to peritoneal dialysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  3. Ahluwalia HS
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Jun;19(4):316-7.
    PMID: 4220859
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology*
  4. Tan YM, Abdullah M, Goh KL
    Gastrointest Endosc, 2001 May;53(6):671-3.
    PMID: 11323604
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  5. Kyaw K
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Dec;35(6):653-4.
    PMID: 7761900
    A 15-year-old Chinese girl, with abdominal cocoon, is reported. The literature (in English) concerning the condition was reviewed. Also, a possible cause is suggested and the various terms used for this condition are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  6. Jarmin R, Alwi RI, Shaharuddin S, Salleh KM, Gunn A
    Asian J Surg, 2004 Oct;27(4):342-4.
    PMID: 15564193
    A young man with HIV presented with biliary peritonitis secondary to spontaneous common bile duct perforation. Investigation revealed that the perforation was due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the bile duct is uncommon and usually presents with obstructive jaundice due to stricture. Bile duct perforation due to tuberculosis is extremely rare. Its management is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  7. Ramesh JC, Chow TWP, Yik YI, Ramanujam TM
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Dec;54(4):528-30.
    PMID: 11072477
    The management of a case of antenatally diagnosed meconium peritonitis (MP) due to intrauterine intestinal perforation secondary to bowel atresia is reported. The literature is reviewed with reference to the significance and outcome of antenatally diagnosed MP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  8. Cheong IKS, Lim VKE, Ujang K
    Med J Malaysia, 1981 Mar;36(1):17-9.
    PMID: 7321932
    38 episodes of peritonitis in 28 patients were recorded among 97 patients undergoing a total of 159 peritoneal dialysis at the Nephrology Unit, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between November 1979 to June 1980. Of these only 14 episodes were associated with a positive bacterial culture. Organism of the Moraxella-Acinetobacter group were responsible in 8 episodes. There were 16 positive cultures in patients who had no clinical evidence of peritonitis. The interpretation of bacterial peritonitis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis must be made on the basis of clinical findings and bacteriological reports.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology*
  9. Chuah SY
    Singapore Med J, 1996 Feb;37(1):86-90.
    PMID: 8783921
    Percutaneous liver biopsy is widely used for the diagnosis and management of liver diseases. With the advancement in medical technology, there are now different approaches to performing liver biopsy, using various biopsy needles. This review highlights the differences between these various techniques. It re-examines in detail, the contraindications and complications of liver biopsy. Haemorrhage accounts for about 50% of all major complications and is the main cause of mortality. About 25% of complications are pulmonary in nature. The rest consists mainly of infective complications. Day case liver biopsy has been repeatedly shown to be safe in selected patients, but is underpracticed. Routine practice of image-guided biopsy is advocated, even in the absence of discrete lesion. Medicine is constantly evolving. New indications for liver biopsy, eg of transplanted liver, are to be expected. Conversely, with the advent in other less invasive modalities of investigation, some indications will disappear from the list.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  10. Lee J, Sachithanandan S, Raman K
    Gastroenterology, 2011 Nov;141(5):e1-2.
    PMID: 21946349 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2010.07.062
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology*
  11. Kamaliah MD, Roziawati Y
    PMID: 11289017
    A prospective observational study examing the incidence, predisposing factors and microbiological aspects of peritonitis complicating acute intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) was performed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, a referral hospital situated in Northeast Malaysia. Over a 7- month period, a total of 126 acute IPD treatments were included involving 69 patients. The majority of patients suffered from chronic or end stage renal failure (92.7%) and nearly half (47.8%) have underlying diabetes mellitus. Peritonitis occured in 25 treatment sessions giving a frequency of 19.8% of procedures performed. The mean interval between starting dialysis and the first sign of peritonitis was 3.5 days, with 12% of peritonitis occuring before day 3 of treatment. Frequent catheter manipulation and/or leakages were identified as significant predisposing factors for peritonitis and the risk of peritonitis was increased with longer duration of IPD. Gram-negative infections were seen twice more commonly than gram-positive infections. We recommend the use of cloxacillin in combination with either an aminoglycoside or a cephalosporin as empirical antibiotic coverage until culture reports are available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology*
  12. Tan HW, Kon SP, Chua CT, Ngeow NF
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Jun;47(2):128-33.
    PMID: 1494333
    Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), a widely used replacement therapy for end stage renal failure, is frequently complicated by bacterial peritonitis. The infecting organisms are mainly staphylococci and gram negative aerobes. Pefloxacin is a fluorinated quinolone with good in-vitro activity against these pathogens. The objective of this open non comparative study is to determine the effectiveness and safety of oral pefloxacin mesylate as a single first line antimicrobial treatment of CAPD peritonitis. 28 episodes of CAPD peritonitis were treated with a stat dose of pefloxacin 800 mg. followed by 400 mg. 12 hourly for about 15-18 days. A pefloxacin sensitive organism was isolated in 17 episodes. 11 episodes were culture negative. Treatment results showed a cure in seventeen (60.7%), no treatment response in seven (25%), and relapses in four (14.2%). Side effects encountered were not serious except for one incident of a generalized seizure. We conclude that oral pefloxacin is convenient, safe and effective enough as a single first line antimicrobial treatment for CAPD peritonitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  13. Kooi GH, Pit S
    Clin Ther, 1990 Jan-Feb;12(1):54-60.
    PMID: 2183940
    One hundred children with peritonitis resulting from a perforated appendix were treated with ceftazidime or netilmicin. Metronidazole was added to both groups to treat the anaerobic organisms commonly associated with the infecting aerobic organisms in peritonitis. Escherichia coli was the most common aerobe found in peritoneal pus. Wound infection occurred in nine patients of the netilmicin group and in none treated with ceftazidime (P less than 0.01). No bacterial resistance was evident in the ceftazidime group, but gram-positive streptococci found in eight patients were resistant to netilmicin. Thus it is recommended that an antibiotic of the penicillin group be added if netilmicin is used to treat peritonitis. The results indicate that ceftazidime was more effective than netilmicin in the treatment of children with peritonitis resulting from a perforated appendix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  14. Mukherjee AP
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Sep;24(1):21-3.
    PMID: 4243838
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  15. Mak WY, Ong LM, Goh BL, Bavanandan S, Mushahar L, Leong CT, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 03 08;9(3):e024589.
    PMID: 30852538 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024589
    INTRODUCTION: Peritonitis is a major complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), the risk of which is significantly influenced by the type of PD transfer system. Although the Y-disconnect and double-bag system is more efficient in preventing peritonitis compared with the spike system, little information is available to differentiate risks between different brands of the Y-disconnect double-bag system. A randomised controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a newly introduced system is needed to provide the necessary clinical evidence to guide policy decision-making.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is an open-label randomised controlled trial. A total of 434 patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing CAPD will be enrolled and randomised to either the intervention group, Stay Safe Link, or the control group, Stay Safe. All study subjects will be followed up and monitored for 1 year. The primary safety outcome is the rate of peritonitis while the primary efficacy outcomes are the delivered dialysis dose and ultrafiltration volume.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee, National Institute of Health Malaysia. A written informed consent will be obtained from all participating subjects prior to any trial-related procedure and the study conduct will adhere strictly to Good Clinical Practice. The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03177031; Pre-results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
  16. Liu WJ, Hooi LS
    Perit Dial Int, 2010 03 12;30(5):509-12.
    PMID: 20228175 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2009.00083
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the complications after Tenckhoff catheter insertion among patients with renal failure needing dialysis. ♢

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: The open, paramedian approach is the commonest technique to insert the 62-cm coiled double-cuffed Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter. All patients with catheters inserted between January 2004 and November 2007 were retrospectively analyzed for demographics and followed for up to 1 month for complications. We excluded patients whose catheters had been anchored to the bladder wall and who underwent concurrent omentectomy or readjustment without removal of a malfunctioning catheter (n = 7). Intravenous cloxacillin was the standard preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. ♢

    RESULTS: Over the 4-year study period, 384 catheters were inserted under local anesthetic into 319 patients [201 women (62.8%); mean age: 49.4 ± 16.7 years (range: 13 - 89 years); 167 (52.2%) with diabetes; 303 (95%) with end-stage renal disease] by 22 different operators. All Tenckhoff catheters were inserted by the general surgical (n = 223) or urology (n = 161) team. There were 29 cases (7.6%) of catheter migration, 22 (5.7%) of catheter obstruction without migration, 24 (6.3%) of exit-site infection, 12 (3.1%) of leak from the main incision, 14 (3.6%) of culture-proven wound infection, 11 (2.9%) post-insertion peritonitis, and 1 (0.3%) hemoperitoneum. No deaths were attributed to surgical mishap. ♢

    CONCLUSIONS: The most common complication was catheter migration. The paramedian insertion technique was safe, with low complication rates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology*
  17. Ong LM, Ch'ng CC, Wee HC, Supramaniam P, Zainal H, Goh BL, et al.
    Perit Dial Int, 2016 05 04;37(1):35-43.
    PMID: 27147287 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2015.00141
    ♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is one of the most common complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Understanding the risk factors of peritonitis in a multi-racial Asian population may help to improve outcomes on PD. ♦ METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study to identify risk factors for PD-related peritonitis over a 1-year period in 15 adult PD centers. All peritonitis episodes were independently adjudicated. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 1,603 participants with a mean age of 51.6 years comprising 52.7% females, 62.6% ethnic Malays, 27.0% Chinese, and 8.1% Indians were recruited. The overall peritonitis rate was 1 episode per 44.0 patient-months with 354 episodes recorded in 282 (17.6%) patients over 15,588 patient-months. Significant risk factors of peritonitis were severe obesity (incidence-rate ratio [IRR] 3.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 8.45), hypoalbuminemia (IRR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.46), Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage (IRR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.50), and use of Fresenius system (Fresenius Medical Care North America, Waltham, MA, USA) (IRR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.89). The risk of peritonitis was lower in those on automated PD compared with standard PD (IRR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.74), and in centers with a patient-staff ratio of 15 to 29.9 (IRR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90) and ≥ 30 (IRR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.80). Prevalent patients and exit-site care with topical antibiotics were also protective against peritonitis. Peritonitis rates varied between racial groups. The IRRs of overall peritonitis and gram-positive peritonitis in Chinese versus other racial groups were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.90) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.91), respectively. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Multiple patient, center, and PD-system factors influence the risk of peritonitis. In the Asian population, there are racial differences in the risk of peritonitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology*
  18. Andy Tang SO, Carolisna YI, Sakura D, Yeo ST, Koh KH
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):270-274.
    PMID: 31424032
    INTRODUCTION: Sarawak has a population that is geographically and characteristically widely varied. In this study we aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of our patient population who undergo continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to study the incidence, the microbiology and the outcome of CAPD peritonitis.

    METHODS: A retrospective record review of all CAPD patients on follow-up at the Miri Hospital, Sarawak, Malaysia from 2014 until 2017 was done.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the 4-year period, the overall peritonitis rate was 0.184 episodes per patient-year. Gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria each constituted one-third of the peritonitis; fungi (2.6%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (5.3%), polymicrobial (2.6%) and sterile culture (26.3%). The most commonly isolated gram-positive bacteria were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Our peritonitis rate is comparable to that of other centres i.e., Japan 0.195 and Indonesia 0.25. In comparison, countries like India (0.41), Korea (0.40) and Singapore (0.59) had relatively higher rate of PD-associated peritonitis. Two tuberculosis peritonitis patients died. The rate of catheter removal was approximately 20%. Gram-negative bacteria and MTB have a higher risk of catheter loss. About one-fifth used rainwater to clean their CAPD exit site. Out of this group, 33% did not boil the rainwater prior to usage.

    CONCLUSION: Patient's characteristics and microbial susceptibility vary in different places of practice. The high rates of culture-negative peritonitis and high mortality risks associated with TB peritonitis warrant special attention. In patients with refractory peritonitis, early catheter removal is warranted in order to reduce mortality and minimize damage to peritoneal membrane.

    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology*
  19. Shanmuganathan M, Goh BL, Lim C, NorFadhlina Z, Fairol I
    Perit Dial Int, 2016 9 24;36(5):574-5.
    PMID: 27659933 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2015.00287
    Patients with peritonitis present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. Shewanella algae peritonitis has not yet been reported in PD patients in the literature. We present the first 2 cases of Shewanella algae peritonitis in PD patients. Mupirocin cream is applied on the exit site as prophylactic antibiotic therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Peritonitis/etiology
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