In this study, nano-sized ITO supported Pt-Pd bimetallic catalyst was synthesized for the degradation of methyl parathion pesticide, a common extremely toxic contaminant in aqueous solution. On the characterization with different techniques, a beautiful scenario of honeycomb architecture composed of ultra-small nanoneedles or fine hairs was found. Average size of nanocatalyst also confirmed which was in the range of 3-5 nm. High percent degradation (94%) was obtained in 30 s using 1.5 × 10- 1 mg of synthesized nanocatalyst, 0.5 mM NaBH4, and 110 W microwave radiations power. Recyclability of nanocatalyst was efficient till 4th cycle observed during study of reusability. The supported Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocatalyst on ITO displayed many advantages over conventional methods for degradation of methyl parathion pesticide, such as high percent degradation, short reaction time, small amount of nanocatalyst, and multitime reusability. Graphical abstract Schematic illustration of reaction for degradation of methyl parathion.
Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.
The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.
A new sol-gel hybrid coating, polydimethylsiloxane-2-hydroxymethyl-18-crown-6 (PDMS-2OHMe18C6) was prepared in-house for use in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The three compositions produced were assessed for its extraction efficiency towards three selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) based on peak area extracted obtained from gas chromatography with electron capture detection. All three compositions showed superior extraction efficiencies compared to commercial 100 microm PDMS fiber. The composition showing best extraction performance was used to obtain optimized SPME conditions: 75 degrees C extraction temperature, 10 min extraction time, 120 rpm stirring rate, desorption time 5 min, desorption temperature 250 degrees C and 1.5% (w/v) of NaCl salt addition. The method detection limits (S/N=3) of the OPPs with the new sol-gel hybrid material ranged from 4.5 to 4.8 ng g(-1), which is well below the maximum residue limit set by Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Commission. Percentage recovery of OPPs from strawberry, green apple and grape samples with the new hybrid sol-gel SPME material ranged from 65 to 125% with good precision of the method (%RSD) ranging from 0.3 to 7.4%.
A simple and effective multiresidue method based on precipitation at low temperature followed by matrix solid-phase dispersion-sonication was developed and validated to determine dimethoate, malathion, carbaryl, simazine, terbuthylazine, atrazine and diuron in palm oil using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by low temperature method were optimized by studying the effect of type and volume of organic solvent (acetonitrile, acetonitrile:n-hexane (3:2 v/v) and acetone) and time of freezing to obtain high recovery yield and low co-extract fat residue in the final extract. The optimal conditions for matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) were obtained using 5 g of palm oil, 2 g of primary secondary amine (PSA) as dispersing sorbent, 1 g of graphitized carbon black (GCB) as clean-up sorbent and 15 mL of acetonitrile as eluting solvent under conditions of 15 min ultrasonication at room temperature. Method validation was performed in order to study sensitivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. Average recoveries at three concentration levels (25, 50 and 100 μg kg(-1)) were found in the range of 72.6-91.3% with relative standard deviations between 5.3% and 14.2%. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 1.5 to 5 μg kg(-1) and from 2.5 to 9 μg kg(-1), respectively.
This study investigates how field practices in handling and applying pesticides influence the long-term patterns of professional agricultural operators' exposure to pesticides. It presents the first use of a comprehensive pesticide application dataset collected on behalf of the European Food Safety Authority with 50 operators selected to cover arable and orchard cropping systems in Greece, Lithuania and the UK. Exposure was predicted based on the harmonised Agricultural Operator Exposure Model (AOEM) and compared with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOELs). The amount of pesticides handled by individual operators across a cropping season was largest in the UK arable and orchard systems (median 580 and 437kg active substance, respectively), intermediate for the arable systems in Greece and Lithuania (151 and 77kg, respectively), and smallest in the Greek orchard system (22kg). Overall, 30 of the 50 operators made at least one application within a day with predicted exposure greater than the AOEL. The rate of AOEL exceedance was greatest in the Greek cropping systems (8 orchard operators, 2.8-16% of total applications; 7 arable operators, 1.1-14% of total applications), and least for the Lithuanian arable system (2 operators, 2.9-4.5% of total applications). Instances in Greece when predicted exposure exceed the AOEL were strongly influenced by the widespread use of wettable powder formulations (>40% of the total pesticide active substance handled for 11 of the 20 Greek operators). In contrast, the total area of land treated with an active substance on a single day was more important in the UK and Lithuania (95th percentile observed value was 132 and 19haday-1 for UK arable and orchard systems, respectively). Study findings can be used to evaluate current assumptions in regulatory exposure calculations and to identify situations with potential risk that require further analysis including measurements of exposure to validate model estimations.
Food quality and food safety are major challenges affecting agricultural and industrial aspects of production. Many contaminants from different sources contaminate foods and drinks, leading to disastrous health problems like gene mutations and cancer. Previously, many different methods have been used for the analysis of these contaminants. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been the most well-known conventional technique used, but its limitations are its tediousness, time required, and the use of large quantities of toxic organic solvents. These limitations have led to the search for other, efficient techniques that are more environmentally friendly. Hence, this review highlights recent advances in liquid-phase (single-drop, hollow fiber, and dispersive liquid-liquid) microextraction procedures for food and drink analyses. Such modifications can be justified for solving limitations associated with the traditional LLE method. The objective of this review is to serve as a reference platform for providing effective management tools for solving problems of pollution, clean-up, and control of food quality and safety globally.
Occupational exposure to pesticide mixtures comprising active substance(s) and/or co-formulant(s) with known/possible endocrine-disrupting activity was assessed using long-term activity records for 50 professional operators representing arable and orchard cropping systems in Greece, Lithuania, and the UK. Exposure was estimated using the harmonised Agricultural Operator Exposure Model, and risk was quantified as a point of departure index (PODI) using the lowest no observed (adverse) effect level. Use of substances with known/possible endocrine activity was common, with 43 of the 50 operators applying at least one such active substance on more than 50% of spray days; at maximum, one UK operator sprayed five such active substances and 10 such co-formulants in a single day. At 95th percentile, total exposure was largest in the UK orchard system (0.041 × 10-2 mg kg bw-1 day-1) whereas risk was largest in the Greek cropping systems (PODI 0.053 × 10-1). All five cropping systems had instances indicating potential for risk when expressed at a daily resolution (maximum PODI 1.2-10.7). Toxicological data are sparse for co-formulants, so combined risk from complex mixtures of active substances and co-formulants may be larger in reality.
Nineteen pairs of gaseous and surface seawater samples were collected along the cruise from Malaysia to the south of Bay of Bengal passing by Sri Lanka between April 12 and May 4, 2011 on the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I to investigate the latest OCP pollution status over the equatorial Indian Ocean. Significant decrease of α-HCH and γ-HCH was found in the air and dissolved water phase owing to global restriction for decades. Substantially high levels of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, trans-chlordane (TC), and cis-chlordane (CC) were observed in the water samples collected near Sri Lanka, indicating fresh continental riverine input of these compounds. Fugacity fractions suggest equilibrium of α-HCH at most sampling sites, while net volatilization for DDT isomers, TC and CC in most cases. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-HCH and o,p'-DDT in the air and water samples were determined to trace the source of these compounds in the air. Racemic or close to racemic composition was found for atmospheric α-HCH and o,p'-DDT, while significant depletion of (+) enantiomer was found in the water phase, especially for o,p'-DDT (EFs = 0.310 ± 0.178). 24% of α-HCH in the lower air over the open sea of the equatorial Indian Ocean is estimated to be volatilized from local seawater, indicating that long-range transport is the main source.
A liquid-phase microextraction coupled with LC method has been developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (methidation, quinalphos and profenofos) in drinking water samples. In this method, a small amount (3 microL) of isooctane as the acceptor phase was introduced continually to fill-up the channel of a 1.5 cm polypropylene hollow fiber using a microsyringe while the hollow fiber was immersed in an aqueous donor solution. A portion of the acceptor phase (ca. 0.4 microL) was first introduced into the hollow fiber and additional amounts (ca. 0.2 microL) of the acceptor phase were introduced to replenish at intervals of 3 min until set end of extraction (40 min). After extraction, the acceptor phase was withdrawn and transferred into a 2 mL vial for a drying step prior to injection into a LC system. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were studied including the organic solvent, length of fiber, volume of acceptor and donor phase, stirring rate, extraction time, and effect of salting out. The proposed method provided good enrichment factors of up to 189.50, with RSD ranging from 0.10 to 0.29%, analyte recoveries of over 79.80% and good linearity ranging from 10.0 to 1.25 mg/L. The LOD ranged from 2.86 to 82.66 microg/L. This method was applied successfully to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in selected drinking water samples.
A method to determine six organochlorine and three pyrethroid pesticides in grape, orange, tomato, carrot and green mustard based on solvent extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up is described. The pesticides were spiked into the sample prior to analysis, extracted with ethyl acetate, evaporated and reconstituted with a solvent mixture of acetone:n-hexane (3:7). Three different sorbents (Strong Anion Exchanger/Primary Secondary Amine (SAX/PSA), Florisil and C18) were used for the clean-up step. Pesticides were eluted with 5mL of acetone:n-hexane (3:7, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). SAX/PSA was the sorbent, which provided chromatograms with less interference and the mean recoveries obtained were within 70-120% except for captafol. The captafol recoveries for grape were within acceptable range with C18 clean-up column.
Land application of sludge as fertilizers is a way of disposal and recycling of sludge. However, public concern has arisen due to the fact that organic contaminants in sludge may ultimately enter the food chain. Hence the need arises to analyse the organic contaminants such as PAHs and OCPs in sludge. In this study, Soxhlet was utilised as the extraction method and the extracts subjected to extensive cleanup via either silica columns or solid phase extraction cartridges prior to analysis using gas chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography. Sludge samples were collected from the drying beds of oxidation ponds in three locations in South Johore. OCPs such as heptachlor, dieldrin and pp-DDT were detected in low amounts (52-159 mg/kg) whereas PAHs such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene were detected in the range of 0.2-5.5 mg/kg dry mass. Subcritical water extraction (SWE) recovery studies of PAHs were also performed from spiked sludge samples. Although a recovery range of 41-68% was obtained using the SWE method, the results indicated the usefulness of the technique as an alternative to Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of PAHs in sludge samples.
A sensitive and selective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three organophosphorus pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon in three different food commodities (milk, apples, and drinking water) employing solid-phase extraction for sample pretreatment. Pesticide extraction from different sample matrices was carried out on Chromabond C18 cartridges using 3.0 mL of methanol and 3.0 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane/acetonitrile (1:1 v/v) as the eluting solvent. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using selected-ion monitoring mode. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.1-50 μg/L for chlorpyrifos, and 0.05-50 μg/L for both malathion and diazinon pesticides. Good repeatability and recoveries were obtained in the range of 78.54-86.73% for three pesticides under the optimized experimental conditions. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 μg/L, and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L for all three pesticides. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of three targeted pesticides in milk, apples, and drinking water samples each in triplicate. No pesticide was found in apple and milk samples, but chlorpyrifos was found in one drinking water sample below the quantification level.
Tanjung Karang, Selangor, is widely known for its paddy cultivation activity and hosts the third largest paddy field in Malaysia. Pesticides contamination in agriculture fields has become an unavoidable problem, as pesticides are used to increase paddy productivity and reduce plant disease. Human exposure to agrichemicals is common and could results in both acute and chronic health effects, such as acute and chronic neurotoxicity. This study aims to determine the concentrations of commonly used pesticides (azoxystrobin, buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, difenoconazole, fipronil, imidacloprid, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, propiconazole, pymetrozine, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, and trifloxystrobin) in personal air samples and their associated health risks among paddy farmers. Eighty-three farmers from Tangjung Karang, Selangor were involved in this study. A solid sorbent tube was attached to the farmer's breathing zone with a clip, and an air pump was fastened to the belt to collect personal air samples. Pesticides collected in the XAD-2 resin were extracted with acetone, centrifuged, concentrated via nitrogen blowdown and reconstituted with 1mL of 3:1 ultrapure water/HPLC-grade methanol solution. The extract was analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were detected with a maximum concentration reaching up to 462.5ngm-3 (fipronil). The hazard quotient (HQ) was less than 1 and the hazard index (HI) value was 3.86×10-3, indicating that the risk of pesticides related diseases was not significant. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for pymetrozine was at an acceptable level (LCR<10-6) with 4.10×10-8. The results reported in this study can be beneficial in terms of risk management within the agricultural community.
This study investigates the presence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in streams and the lake in the Sembrong Lake Basin in Malaysia. The catchment of Sembrong Lake has been converted to agricultural areas over the past 30 years, with oil palm plantations and modern agricultural farming being the main land use. Surface water samples were collected from eight sites comprising the stream and lake and analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In situ measurement of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were also undertaken at each site. Aldrin, endrin, δ-BHC, 4,4-DDT, methoxychlor and endosulfan were the main OCPs detected in the lake basin. The total OCP concentration ranged between 5.42 and 349.2 ng/L. The most frequently detected OCPs were δ-BHC, heptachlor and aldrin. The maximum values detected were 23.0, 43.2 and 50.4 ng/L respectively. The highest concentration of OCPs was attributed to 4,4-DDT, but such high residue was rare and only detected once. Other OCP residues were low. Significant differences in the mean values were observed between lake and stream for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and α-endosulfan concentration (p
Pesticides are of great concern because of their existence in ecosystems at trace concentrations. Worldwide pesticide use and its ecological impacts (i.e., altered environmental distribution and toxicity of pesticides) have increased over time. Exposure and toxicity studies are vital for reducing the extent of pesticide exposure and risk to the environment and humans. Regional regulatory actions may be less relevant in some regions because the contamination and distribution of pesticides vary across regions and countries. The risk quotient (RQ) method was applied to assess the potential risk of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), primarily focusing on riverine ecosystems. Using the available ecotoxicity data, aquatic risks from OPPs (diazinon and chlorpyrifos) in the surface water of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were evaluated based on general (RQm) and worst-case (RQex) scenarios. Since the ecotoxicity of quinalphos has not been well established, quinalphos was excluded from the risk assessment. The calculated RQs indicate medium risk (RQm = 0.17 and RQex = 0.66; 0.1 ≤ RQ 1 (high risk) was observed for both the general and worst cases of chlorpyrifos, but only for the worst cases of diazinon at all sites from downstream to upstream regions. Thus, chlorpyrifos posed a higher risk than diazinon along the Langat River, suggesting that organisms and humans could be exposed to potentially high levels of OPPs.
Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) employing oil-palm fiber activated carbon (OPAC) modified with magnetite (Fe3O4) and polypyrrole (OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy) was successfully used for the determination of two organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely endosulfan and dieldrin in environmental water samples. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The effects of three preparation variables, namely Fe3O4:OPAC ratio, amount of pyrrole monomer, and amount of FeCl3 oxidant were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) (R2 < 0.99, p-value < 0.001%). The optimum conditions were as follows: Fe3O4:OPAC ratio of 2:1 w/w, 1 g of FeCl3 and 100 μL of pyrrole monomer. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model prediction (> 90% agreement). Optimized OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy composite was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Four numerical parameters of MSPE procedure was optimized using BBD. The significance of the MSPE parameters were salt addition > sample solution pH > extraction time and desorption time. Under the optimized conditions (extraction time: 90 s, desorption time: 10 min, salt: 0%, and pH: 5.8), the method demonstrated good linearity (25-1000 ng L-1) with coefficients of determination, R2 > 0.991, and low detection limits for both endosulfan (7.3 ng L-1) and dieldrin (8.6 ng L-1). The method showed high analyte recoveries in the range of 98.6-103.5% for environmental water samples. The proposed OPAC-Fe3O4-PPy MSPE method offered good features such as sustainability, simplicity, and rapid extraction.
A new sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane was prepared as sorbent for solid-phase extraction. The extraction efficiency of the prepared sol-gel hybrid methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane was assessed by using three selected organophosphorus pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, and malathion. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for detection of organophosphorus pesticides. Several vital parameters were optimized to identify the best extraction conditions. Under the optimum extraction conditions, solid-phase extraction-methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane method showed good linearity range (0.05-1 μg/mL) with coefficient of determination more than 0.995. The limits of detection obtained were in the range of 0.01-0.07 μg/mL and limits of quantification ranging from 0.03 to 0.21 μg/mL. The limits of detection obtained for the developed method were 2.3-6.5× lower than the limits of detection of commercial octadecyl silica sorbent. Real samples analysis was carried out by applying the developed method on red apple and purple grape samples. The developed method exhibited good recoveries (88.33-120.7%) with low relative standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 3.3% compared to commercial octadecyl silica sorbent, which showed acceptable recoveries (70.3-100.2%) and relative standard deviations (6.3-8.8%). The solid-phase extraction-methyltrimethoxysilane-chloropropyltriethoxysilane method is presented as an alternative extraction method for determination of organophosphorus pesticides.