Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 274 in total

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  1. Chin KS
    Family Practitioner, 1974;1(3):27-28.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists
  2. Tan CK
    Family Practitioner, 1986;9:61-62.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists
  3. Bukhsh A, Khan TM, Lee SWH, Lee LH, Chan KG, Goh BH
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:339.
    PMID: 29692730 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00339
    Background: Comparative efficacy of different pharmacist based interventions on glycemic control of type 2 diabetes patients is unclear. This review aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different pharmacist based interventions on clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: A systematic search was conducted across five databases from date of database inception to September 2017. All randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of pharmacist based interventions on type 2 diabetes patients were included for network meta-analysis (NMA). The protocol is available with PROSPERO (CRD42017078854). Results: A total of 43 studies, involving 6259 type 2 diabetes patients, were included. NMA demonstrated that all interventions significantly lowered glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels compared to usual care, but there was no statistical evidence from this study that one intervention was significantly better than the other for reducing HbA1c levels. Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care showed maximum efficacy for reducing HbA1c levels [-0.86, 95% CI -0.983, -0.727; p < 0.001]. Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care was observed to be statistically significant in lowering levels of systolic blood pressure [-4.94; 95%CI -8.65, -1.23] and triglycerides levels [-0.26, 95%CI -0.51, -0.01], as compared to the interventions which involved diabetes education by pharmacist, and for body mass index (BMI) [-0.57; 95%CI -1.25, -0.12] in comparison to diabetes education by health care team involving pharmacist as member. Conclusion: The findings of this review demonstrate that all interventions had a significantly positive effect on HbA1c, but there was no statistical evidence from this study that one intervention was significantly better than the other for achieving glycemic control.Pharmacist based diabetes education plus pharmaceutical care showed maximum efficacy on HbA1c and rest of the clinical outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  4. Ahmed NO, Alrebdi SF, Abdulghani MAM, Baobaid MF
    The objective of this study is to explore physician’s perception toward clinical pharmacy services and role of clinical pharmacists in governmental hospitals at Al-Qassim region. An observational cross-sectional survey was conducted. Results: 150 males and 39 females participated giving 75.5% (189 of 250) response rate. Physicians perceptions were found to be high (equal or more than 90% of frequency) in some clinical pharmacy services such as patients’ education and counselling, monitoring of patients’ responses to drug therapy including toxicity/side effects and provision of drug information to healthcare professionals. The physicians showed low perception (less than 76%) in the taking of patients’ medication history on admission, by clinical pharmacists. Conclusion: Physicians’ perception toward clinical pharmacy services and the role of clinical pharmacists was not found to be completely favourable. The reason of this mixed responses and to the accommodating feelings of clinical pharmacy services in clinical setting appear to relate to the state of infrastructure and environments of hospitals. The infrastructure and environments of hospitals need to be updated for an improved accommodation clinical pharmacy services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  5. Mubarak N, Hatah E, Khan TM, Zin CS
    J Asthma Allergy, 2019;12:109-153.
    PMID: 31213852 DOI: 10.2147/JAA.S202183
    Objective: This systematic review aims to investigate the impact of collaborative practice between community pharmacist (CP) and general practitioner (GP) in asthma management. Methods: A systematic search was performed across 10 databases (PubMed, Medline/Ovid, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, PsycARTICLES®, Science Direct, Education Resource Information Centre, PRO-Quest), and grey literature using selected MeSH and key words, such as "community pharmacist", "general practitioner", and "medicine use review". The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed by Cochrane risk of bias tool. All studies reporting any of the clinical, humanistic, and economical outcomes using collaborative practice between CPs and GPs in management of asthma, such as CPs conducting medications reviews, patient referrals or providing education and counseling, were included. Results: A total of 23 studies (six RCTs, four C-RCT, three controlled interventions, seven pre-post, and three case control) were included. In total, 11/14 outcomes were concluded in favor of CP-GP collaborative interventions with different magnitude of effect size. Outcomes, such as asthma severity, asthma control, asthma symptoms, PEFR, SABA usage, hospital visit, adherence, and quality of life (QoL) (Asthma Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [AQLQ]; Living with Asthma Questionnaire [LWAQ]) demonstrated a small effect size (d≥0.2), while inhalation technique, ED visit, and asthma knowledge witnessed medium effect sizes (ES) (d≥0.5). In addition to that, inhalation technique yielded large ES (d≥0.8) in RCTs subgroup analysis. However, three outcomes, FEV, corticosteroids usage, and preventer-to-reliever ratio, did not hold significant ES (d<0.2) and, thus, remain inconclusive. The collaboration was shown to be value for money in the economic studies in narrative synthesis, however, the limited number of studies hinder pooling of data in meta-analysis. Conclusion: The findings from this review established a comprehensive evidence base in support of the positive impact of collaborative practice between CP and GP in the management of asthma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  6. Khatiwada AP, Shrestha S, Ozaki A, Shrestha R, Kc B
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2021 10;17(10):1858-1859.
    PMID: 34052104 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.05.008
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  7. Meshal A, Sarriff A, El-Shamly M
    Saudi Pharm J, 2015 Apr;23(2):210-4.
    PMID: 25972743 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.06.010
    This study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of a structured patient counseling program on clinical outcomes of asthma patients in Saudi Arabia. This cross sectional study enrolled 10 asthma patients and all were evaluated for their baseline knowledge on asthma, quality of life, compliance, patient satisfaction and drug related problems among randomly selected 5 (of the total 10) patients. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 46 (33.5-56.2) years. The baseline knowledge scores was 9 (8-11), the maximum possible scores to be 21. Cronbach alpha of the KQ was 0.65. The overall total median (IQR) compliance (Morisky) score was 4 (3-5), the maximum possible score was 5. The patient satisfaction median (IQR) score was 35.5 (32-46.25), the maximum possible score was 70. Of the total patients 3 (30%) had a history of allergy. There were total 18 allergens observed in these patients. There has been no drug-drug or drug-food interactions observed between among the prescribed drugs of the patients. Altogether 2 patients reported a total of 2 ADRs. The knowledge of the asthma patients was found to be poor. Missing the dose was the most commonly encountered drug taking behavior. The compliance was found to be good and the patient satisfaction was average.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists
  8. Sweeney LA, Molloy GJ, Byrne M, Murphy AW, Morgan K, Hughes CM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0144074.
    PMID: 26633191 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144074
    BACKGROUND: The oral contraceptive pill (OCP) remains the most popular form of prescription contraception in many countries, despite adherence difficulties for many. Uptake of long acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), which are less reliant on user adherence, remains low. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of, and attitudes towards, prescription contraception amongst samples of contraception users, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists.
    METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 18 contraception users, 18 GPs and 9 pharmacists. The study took place in Galway, Republic of Ireland between June and September 2014. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Overall, contraception users were more familiar with the OCP, and all the women interviewed began their prescription contraception journey using this method. All participants identified episodes of poor adherence throughout the reproductive life course. The identified barriers for use of LARCs were lack of information, misconceptions, lack of access and high cost. In contrast, GPs believed that adherence to the OCP was good and stated they were more likely to prescribe the OCP than other methods, as they were most familiar with this option. Barriers to prescribing LARCSs were time, cost to practice, training and deskilling. Pharmacists also believed that adherence to the OCP was generally good and that their role was limited to dispensing medication and providing information when asked.
    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: There are contrasting perspectives between contraception service providers and contraceptive users. Training for healthcare providers is required to support informed contraceptive choice and adherence. It is necessary to address the practice barriers of cost and lack of time, to promote better communication around adherence issues and prescription contraception options. There is a need for more easily-accessible public health information to promote awareness on all methods of prescription contraception.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  9. Janahiraman, Sivakami, Paraidathathu, Thomas
    MyJurnal
    This study was carried out to gauge the level of job satisfaction among pharmacists in Malaysia. Surveys forms developed after referring to published studies, were mailed to 1700 pharmacist. Analysis of responses from 405 respondents revealed significant differences in job satisfaction with age, position held and monthly salary. Pharmacist within the age group of 26 to 35 were less satisfied with their work as compared to the other pharmacist. A monthly salary of more than RM8000 and prospects of promotion within an organization contributed to a high level of satisfaction among pharmacist. Sector of work and length of service did not appear to influence job satisfaction. Further analysis indicated that motivator factors and hygiene factors had a significant influence on job satisfaction, whereas job stress contributed toward dissatisfaction at work. The results of the study supported Herzberg’s theory, which states the motivator factors were far more important than hygiene factors in providing job satisfaction. From this study, it appeared that more than 50% of the pharmacists who responded had at least a moderate level of job satisfaction. However, efforts can be taken by employers to further improve job satisfaction among Malaysian pharmacists.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  10. Ahmed A, Saqlain M, Tanveer M, Blebil AQ, Dujaili JA, Hasan SS
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2021 Aug 23;21(1):859.
    PMID: 34425816 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-021-06897-0
    BACKGROUND: The pharmacist's role shifts from dispensing to bedside care, resulting in better patient health outcomes. Pharmacists in developed countries ensure rational drug use, improve clinical outcomes, and promote health status by working as part of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. However, clinical pharmacist services on healthcare utilization in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) like Pakistan are unclear. As a result, we aim to systematically review pharmacists' clinical roles in improving Pakistani patients' therapeutic, safety, humanistic, and economic outcomes.

    METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library for relevant articles published from inception to 28th February 2021. All authors were involved in the screening and selection of studies. Original studies investigating the therapeutic, humanistic, safety, and economic impact of clinical pharmacists in Pakistani patients (hospitalised or outpatients) were selected. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias in studies, and discrepancies were resolved through mutual consensus. All of the included studies were descriptively synthesised, and PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed.

    RESULTS: The literature search found 751 articles from which nine studies were included; seven were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and two were observational studies. Three RCTs included were having a low risk of bias (ROB), two RCTs were having an unclear ROB, while two RCTs were having a high ROB. The nature of clinical pharmacist interventions included one or more components such as disease-related education, lifestyle changes, medication adherence counselling, medication therapy management, and discussions with physicians about prescription modification if necessary. Clinical pharmacist interventions reduce medication-related errors, improve therapeutic outcomes such as blood pressure, glycemic control, lipid control, CD4 T lymphocytes, and renal functions, and improve humanistic outcomes such as patient knowledge, adherence, and health-related quality of life. However, no study reported the economic outcomes of interventions.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the studies included in this systematic review suggest that clinical pharmacists play important roles in improving patients' health outcomes in Pakistan; however, it should be noted that the majority of the studies have a high risk of bias, and more research with appropriate study designs is needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  11. Abubakar U, Tangiisuran B
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2020 06;21:148-153.
    PMID: 31628999 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2019.10.007
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the activities and barriers to hospital pharmacists' participation in antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) in Nigerian tertiary hospitals.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide online survey was conducted over a 6-week period between May and June 2019. Invitation was sent to all the Heads of pharmacy department or pharmacists in charge of infectious diseases (ID) or antimicrobial pharmacists in tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. A validated questionnaire that consist of 24-items was used for data collection.

    RESULTS: Forty-five hospitals were invited and 37 completed the survey (response rate, 82.2%). Five (13.5%) hospitals had a formal antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) team, with each of them having pharmacist representation. Regardless of the existence of an AMS team, hospital pharmacists have implemented AMS strategies, including evaluation of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions (54.1%) and monitoring of antimicrobial consumption (48.6%). The most common barriers to pharmacists' involvement in ASP were lack of training in AMS and ID (51.4%), lack of pharmacists with ID specialisation (40.5%) and lack of support from hospital administrators (37.8%). The majority of the pharmacists recommended training in AMS and ID (100%), participation on ward rounds (89.2%) and employment of more pharmacists (73%) as strategies to improve pharmacists' participation in ASP.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hospital pharmacists are actively involved in AMS activities despite the lack of established AMS teams in most tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. However, lack of training and personnel were major barriers to pharmacist's involvement in ASP.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  12. Rajiah K, Sivarasa S, Maharajan MK
    PMID: 33918990 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18094392
    Community pharmacists are responsible for providing the appropriate information on the use of medications to patients, which may enhance their medication adherence. The extent of control that patients have on their health care preferences creates many challenges for community pharmacists. This study aimed to determine the impact of pharmacist interventions and patient decisions on health outcomes concerning medication adherence and the quality use of medicines among patients attending community pharmacies. Appropriate studies were identified in a systematic search using the databases of Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed. The search included literature published between 2004 and 2019. The database searches yielded 683 titles, of which 19 studies were included after the full-text analysis with a total of 9313 participants. Metaprop command in Stata software version 14 was used for the analysis. This study was undertaken based on the general principles of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and subsequently reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) extension. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach was directly used to rate the quality of evidence (high, moderate, low, or very low). The results revealed the effective interaction between patients and community pharmacists, the importance of pharmacist intervention on medication adherence and quality use of medicine, and the role of community pharmacists in counselling patients. Decision/choice of patients in self-care and self-medication is a factor contributing to health outcomes. Effective interaction of community pharmacists with patients in terms of medication adherence and quality use of medicines provided a better health outcome among patients. The community pharmacists influenced the decision/choice of patients in self-care and self-medications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  13. Mubarak N, Raja SA, Khan TM, Zin CS
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2021 Mar;71(3):950-965.
    PMID: 34057955 DOI: 10.47391/JPMA.058
    Medicine use review is a tool to improve medication adherence and safety. Current narrative review was planned to explore global policies and practices of medicine use review by community pharmacists in chronic diseases and its impact and way forward for low- and middle-income countries. Key words, such as ″medicine use review″, ″medication therapy management″ and ″community pharmacy″ were used for search on PubMed and CINAHL databases for articles published from 2004 to 2019. Medicine use review has opened an avenue of ongoing collaboration between community pharmacists and general practitioners. High-income countries have witnessed a gradual yet cautious adoption of these services through effective policy shift. In terms of practices and impact, the situation in high-income countries was promising where on an average ″type-II″ medicine use review was widely in practice and had improved clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes in chronic disease. However, in low- and middle-income countries, a paucity of effective policies was noted. Nevertheless, an emergent recognition of the potential of community pharmacists to contribute to the management of chronic diseases was evident.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  14. Akbar Z, Saleem Z, Shaukat A, Farrukh MJ
    J Glob Antimicrob Resist, 2021 06;25:157-161.
    PMID: 33789207 DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2021.03.013
    OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial resistance is a major health concern worldwide. Community pharmacists can play an important role in rational antibiotic use. This study aimed to evaluate the perception and practices of community pharmacists regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in Lahore, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists in Lahore from 1 November 2017 to 31 December 2017. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Non-probability convenience sampling was performed to select community pharmacists. Descriptive statistics were applied and Mann-Whitney U-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to compare independent groups using SPSS v.20.0. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Perception and practice scores were determined to access community pharmacist knowledge regarding AMS. A score of 0.5-1 was considered to be very good.

    RESULTS: The overall response rate was 70.9%. Sex, age, work experience and education level did not significantly influence the perception and practices of community pharmacists. Experienced pharmacists showed a better response to AMS. The majority of pharmacists strongly agreed that they educate patients on the use of antimicrobials and resistance-related issues.

    CONCLUSION: It was concluded that community pharmacists in Lahore have good perception regarding AMS and they are practicing it well. But there are several gaps in their practices that must be filled, such as dispensing without a prescription and dispensing for a longer duration than prescribed. Additionally, there should be strict implementation of guidelines for dispensing antibiotics in order to rationalise antibiotic use and decrease antimicrobial resistance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  15. Rosli MR, Wu DB, Neoh CF, Karuppannan M
    J Med Econ, 2021 5 15;24(1):730-740.
    PMID: 33989086 DOI: 10.1080/13696998.2021.1889573
    OBJECTIVE: Home medication review (HMR) programs could minimise patients' health-related costs and burdens, thereby enhancing the quality of life and well-being. The aim of this economic evaluation is to determine if home medication review by community pharmacists (HMR-CP) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a cost-effective intervention from the Malaysian healthcare provider perspective.

    METHODS: The economic evaluation was conducted alongside the randomised controlled trial (RCT) to estimate the intermediate cost-effectiveness of HMR-CP for patients with T2DM. A Markov model was then constructed to project the lifetime cost-effectiveness data beyond the RCT. The primary outcomes for the economic evaluation were HbA1c and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs).

    RESULTS: The intervention and health services costs throughout the 6-month HMR-CP trial were RM121.45 (USD28.64) [95%CI: RM115.89 to 127.08 (USD27.33-29.97)] per participant. At a 6-month follow-up, a significant reduction in HbA1c of 0.902% (95% CI: 0.388% to 1.412%) was noted in the HMR-CP group compared to the control group. The ICER of HMR-CP intervention versus standard care was RM178.82 (USD 42.17) [95%CI: RM86.77-364.03 (USD20.46-85.86)] per reduction of HbA1c. HMR-CP intervention [RM12,764.82 (USD3010.57)] was associated with an incremental cost of RM83.34 (USD19.66) over control group [RM12,682.95 (USD2,991.26)] with an additional of 0.07 QALY gained. The ICER associated with HMR-CP intervention was RM1,190.57 (USD280.79) per QALY gained, which was below the ICER threshold in Malaysia, indicating that HMR-CP was a cost-effective option.

    CONCLUSION: HMR-CP was a cost-effective intervention that had significantly reduced the HbA1c among the T2DM patients, although associated with higher mean total costs per participant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  16. Zakaria SF, Awaisu A
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2011 May 10;75(4):75.
    PMID: 21769151
    OBJECTIVE: To implement a shared learning approach through fourth-year students' mentorship of third-year students and to assess the perceptions of the mentored students on the value of their shared learning experience.

    DESIGN: We introduced the shared learning experience in clinical pharmacy and pharmacotherapeutic practice experiences involving 87 third-year and 51 fourth-year students. Both student groups undertook the practice experiences together, with third-year students working in smaller groups mentored by fourth-year students.

    ASSESSMENT: A majority of the students (> 75%) believed that they learned to work as a team during their practice experiences and that the shared learning approach provided an opportunity to practice their communication skills. Similarly, most respondents (> 70%) agreed that the new approach would help them become effective members of the healthcare team and would facilitate their professional relationships in future practice. Almost two-thirds of the students believed that the shared learning enhanced their ability to understand clinical problems. However, about 31% of the pharmacy students felt that they could have learned clinical problem-solving skills equally well working only with peers from their own student group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacy students in the current study generally believed that the shared-learning approach enhanced their ability to understand clinical problems and improved their communication and teamwork skills. Both groups of students were positive that they had acquired some skills through the shared-learning approach.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  17. Hassali MA, Khan TM, Shafie AA
    Inform Prim Care, 2010;18(3):213-6.
    PMID: 21396245
    This study aimed to identify the types of drug information resources used by community pharmacists in daily practice in Penang, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  18. Rajiah K, Lim WK, Madeline Teoh PL, Binti Mas'od MA, Lim WY, Poh Chou LL, et al.
    Int J Clin Pract, 2021 Sep;75(9):e14096.
    PMID: 33619786 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.14096
    BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists play a significant part in providing oral healthcare advice as there are significant connections between oral healthcare and body system healthcare.

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the knowledge, attitudes and practice of community pharmacists in managing oral healthcare problems.

    METHODS: A systematic review was conducted through Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Studies regarding knowledge, attitudes and practice of management of dental care by community pharmacists between 1990 and 2019 were included.

    RESULTS: Forest plot was performed to access knowledge, attitudes and practice of community pharmacist on oral healthcare. The results showed there were 44% of community pharmacists have a lack of knowledge on oral healthcare to provide an appropriate recommendation to patients with dental problems. Eighty-eight per cent of community pharmacists were willing to improve their knowledge of oral healthcare. There were 86% of them recognised that their role was significant in oral health. However, there were 59% of community pharmacists who had poor attitude in providing oral health information.

    CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacists were lacking knowledge on oral health mainly because of paucity in providing appropriate training courses. This has led to poor practices towards oral healthcare as they were unable to provide suitable products recommendations to the patients. This has led the community pharmacists into lack of attitudes in providing oral health information. However, most of the community pharmacists were conscious of their role in the oral healthcare system and were willing to improve their knowledge of oral healthcare.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
  19. Wahab MSA, Sakthong P, Winit-Watjana W
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2020 04;16(4):475-487.
    PMID: 31255476 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.06.014
    BACKGROUND: The factors associated with the provision of pharmacist's care (PCare) for herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) users are multidimensional. These factors should be investigated to assess the needs for community pharmacists (CPs) to provide the service. However, at present, there are no validated and reliable theory-based instruments to measure the factors.

    OBJECTIVES: The study aims to develop and validate scales (direct and indirect) based on a modified Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to measure factors associated with the provision of PCare for HDS users by Thai CPs.

    METHOD: Item generation for the scales was based on the theoretical constructs of the modified TPB framework, literature review, and authors' previous qualitative study. Draft items were then subjected to content validity and face validity. Psychometric testing was carried out among CPs in Bangkok, Thailand. Refinement of the scales utilized factor analysis and validity was assessed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Internal consistency reliability and construct reliability were used to assess the scales' reliability.

    RESULTS: Initially, the direct and indirect scales contained 15 and 28 items, respectively and were reduced to 12 and 16 items, after experts' review. Factor analysis further reduced the number of items of the indirect scale to 13. For both scales, confirmatory factor analysis showed model-data fit. Each construct of the direct scale was significant predictors of intention. Moreover, each construct of the direct scale correlated positively and significantly with the respective construct of the indirect scale, signifying concurrent validity. No misfit item was identified in the Rasch analysis and the majority of items were invariant across gender. Internal consistency reliability and construct reliability of the scales were acceptable.

    CONCLUSION: This study presents the development and validation of theoretically-grounded scales to measure the factors associated with the provision of PCare for HDS users by Thai CPs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmacists*
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