Removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution was investigated using modified palm shell activated carbon. Low Molecular Weight Polyethyleneimine (LMW PEI) was used for impregnation purpose. The maximum amount of LMW PEI adsorbed on activated carbon was determined to be approximately 228.2mg/g carbon. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system using potassium dichromate K(2)Cr(2)O(7) as the source of Cr(VI) in the synthetic waste water and modified palm shell activated carbon as the adsorbent. The effects of pH, concentration of Cr(VI) and PEI loaded on activated carbon were studied. The adsorption data were found to fit well with the Freundlich isotherm model. This modified Palm shell activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for chromium ions.
The effects of polyethyleneimine (PEI) impregnation on the Pb(2+) adsorption kinetics of palm shell-activated carbon and pH profile of bulk solution were investigated. Adsorption data were fitted to four established adsorption kinetics models, namely, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion. It was found that PEI impregnation at 16.68 and 29.82 wt% PEI/AC increased the Pb(2+) uptake rate while the opposite was observed for PEI impregnation at 4.76 and 8.41 wt% PEI/AC. The increased uptake rates were due to higher concentration of PEI molecules on the surface of clogged pores as well as varying pore volumes. The adsorption kinetics data fitted the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model, implying chemisorption was the rate-controlling step. The bulk solution pH generally showed an increasing trend from the use of virgin to PEI-impregnated activated carbon.
This study deals with the removal of chromium species from aqueous dilute solutions using polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF) process. Three water soluble polymers, namely chitosan, polyethyleneimine (PEI) and pectin were selected for this study. The ultrafiltration studies were carried out using a laboratory scale ultrafiltration system equipped with 500,000 MWCO polysulfone hollow fiber membrane. The effects of pH and polymer composition on rejection coefficient and permeate flux at constant pressure have been investigated. For Cr(III), high rejections approaching 100% were obtained at pH higher than 7 for the three tested polymers. With chitosan and pectin, Cr(VI) retention showed a slight increase with solution pH and did not exceed a value of 50%. An interesting result was obtained with PEI. The retention of Cr(VI) approached 100% at low pH and decreased when the pH was increased. This behavior is opposite to what one can expect in the polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration of heavy metals. Furthermore, the concentration of polymer was found to have little effect on rejection. Permeate flux remained almost constant around 25% of pure water flux.
Aminoacylase I (E.C.184.108.40.206) was immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate beads coated with polyethyleneimine for the production of L-phenylalanine by the hydrolysis of a racemic mixture of N-acetyl-DL-phenylalanine. The operational stability in terms of batch operation and continuous reaction in packed-bed bioreactor were studied. Kinetic constants, Km and Vmax values of free and immobilized enzymes were studied. Polyethyleneimine treatment was found to enhance the operational stability of the enzyme though its activity was substantially reduced. When polyethyleneimine-coated calcium alginate beads were packed into packed bed bioreactor, it was stable for at least 25 days under continuous operation without appreciable loss of activity.
Chitosan-polyethyleneimine with calcium chloride as ionic cross-linker (CsPC) was synthesized as a new kind of adsorbent using a simple, green and cost-effective technique. The adsorption properties of the adsorbent for Acid Red 88 (AR88) dye, as a model analyte, were investigated in a batch system as the function of solution pH (pH 3-12), initial AR88 concentration (50-500 mg L-1), contact time (0-24 h), and temperature (30-50 °C). Results showed that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic model and the adsorption rate was governed by both intra-particle and liquid-film mechanism. Equilibrium data were well correlated with the Freundlich isotherm model, with the calculated maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of 1000 mg g-1 at 30 °C. The findings underlined CsPC to be an effective and efficient adsorbent, which can be easily synthesized via one-step process with promising prospects for the removal of AR88 or any other similar dyes from the aqueous solutions.
Efficient delivery of adequate active ingredients to targeted malignant cells is critical, attributing to recurrent biophysical and biochemical challenges associated with conventional pharmaceutical delivery systems. These challenges include drug leakage, low targeting capability, high systemic cytotoxicity, and poor pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Targeted delivery system is a promising development to deliver sufficient amounts of drug molecules to target cells in a controlled release pattern mode. Aptameric ligands possess unique affinity targeting capabilities which can be exploited in the design of high pay-load drug formulations to navigate active molecules to the malignant sites. This study focuses on the development of a copolymeric and multifunctional drug-loaded aptamer-conjugated poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylenimine (PLGA-PEI) (DPAP) delivery system, via a layer-by-layer synthesis method, using a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion approach. The binding characteristics, targeting capability, biophysical properties, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release profile of the DPAP system were investigated under varying conditions of ionic strength, polymer composition and molecular weight (MW), and degree of PEGylation of the synthetic core. Experimental results showed increased drug release rate with increasing buffer ionic strength. DPAP particulate system obtained the highest drug release of 50% at day 9 at 1 M NaCl ionic strength. DPAP formulation, using PLGA 65:35 and PEI MW of ∼800 Da, demonstrated an encapsulation efficiency of 78.93%, and a loading capacity of 0.1605 mg bovine serum albumin per mg PLGA. DPAP (PLGA 65:35, PEI MW∼25 kDa) formulation showed a high release rate with a biphasic release profile. Experimental data depicted a lower targeting power and reduced drug release rate for the PEGylated DPAP formulations. The outcomes from the present study lay the foundation to optimize the performance of DPAP system as an effective synthetic drug carrier for targeted delivery.
Recent advances and applications of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, namely, glucose-responsive hydrogels, protein-responsive hydrogels, and nucleic-acid-responsive hydrogels are highlighted. However, achieving the ultimate purpose of using biomolecule-responsive hydrogels in preclinical and clinical areas is still at the very early stage and calls for more novel designing concepts and advance ideas. On the way toward the real/clinical application of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, plenty of factors should be extensively studied and examined under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. For example, biocompatibility, biointegration, and toxicity of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels should be carefully evaluated. From the living body's point of view, biocompatibility is seriously depended on the interactions at the tissue/polymer interface. These interactions are influenced by physical nature, chemical structure, surface properties, and degradation of the materials. In addition, the developments of advanced hydrogels with tunable biological and mechanical properties which cause no/low side effects are of great importance.
We present an all-atom molecular dynamics study of the effect of a range of organic solvents (dichloromethane, diethyl ether, toluene, methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and tetrahydrofuran) on the conformations of a nanogel star polymeric nanoparticle with solvophobic and solvophilic structural elements. These nanoparticles are of particular interest for drug delivery applications. As drug loading generally takes place in an organic solvent, this work serves to provide insight into the factors controlling the early steps of that process. Our work suggests that nanoparticle conformational structure is highly sensitive to the choice of solvent, providing avenues for further study as well as predictions for both computational and experimental explorations of the drug-loading process. Our findings suggest that when used in the drug-loading process, dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene allow for a more extensive and increased drug-loading into the interior of nanogel star polymers of the composition studied here. In contrast, methanol is more likely to support shallow or surface loading and, consequently, faster drug release rates. Finally, diethyl ether should not work in a formulation process since none of the regions of the nanogel star polymer appear to be sufficiently solvated by it.
Commercial low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were UV/ozone treated and coated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) technique by alternating the deposition of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polymer solutions and antimicrobial silver (Ag). The effects of the initial pH of the PEI/PAA polymer solutions alternating layers (pH 10.5/4 or 9/6.5) on the antimicrobial activity of the developed LbL coatings combined with Ag against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were investigated. The results from fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and toluidine blue O assay showed that LDPE LbL coated using PEI/PAA polymer solutions with initial pH of 10.5/4 significantly increased the presence of carboxylic acid groups and after Ag attachment the coating had higher antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria compared to the LDPE LbL coated using PEI/PAA polymer solutions with initial pH of 9/6.5. The LDPE LbL coated films using non-modified pH PEI/PAA polymer solutions decreased the water contact-angle indicating an increased hydrophilicity of the film, also increased the tensile strength and roughness of LDPE LbL coated films compared to uncoated LbL samples. The LDPE LbL coated films attached with Ag(+) were UV/ozone treated for 20 min to oxidise Ag(+) to Ag(0). The presence of Ag(0) (Ag nanoparticles (NPs)) on the LDPE LbL coated films was confirmed by XRD, UV-vis spectrophotometer and colour changes. The overall results demonstrated that the LbL technique has the potential to be used as a coating method containing antimicrobial Ag NPs and that the manufactured films could potentially be applied as antimicrobial packaging.