Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Rowell TI
    Ind Med Gaz, 1881 Mar 01;16(3):91-94.
    PMID: 28999030
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons*
  2. Dara M, Acosta CD, Melchers NV, Al-Darraji HA, Chorgoliani D, Reyes H, et al.
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2015 Mar;32:111-7.
    PMID: 25809766 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.12.029
    Tuberculosis (TB) in penitentiary services (prisons) is a major challenge to TB control. This review article describes the challenges that prison systems encounter in TB control and provides solutions for the more efficient use of limited resources based on the three pillars of the post-2015 End TB Strategy. This paper also proposes research priorities for TB control in prisons based on current challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons*
  3. Beyrer C, Kamarulzaman A, McKee M, Lancet HIV in Prisoners Group
    Lancet, 2016 Sep 10;388(10049):1033-1035.
    PMID: 27427447 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30829-7
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisoners*; Prisons*
  4. Sheppard WS
    Malaya Medical Journal, 1911;9:52-55.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  5. Meyer JP, Muthulingam D, El-Bassel N, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2017 Dec;21(12):3527-3548.
    PMID: 28534199 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-017-1778-6
    The criminal justice (CJ) system can be leveraged to access women for HIV prevention and treatment programs. Research is lacking on effective implementation strategies tailored to the specific needs of CJ-involved women. We conducted a scoping review of published studies in English from the United States that described HIV interventions, involved women or girls, and used the CJ system as an access point for sampling or intervention delivery. We identified 350 studies and synthesized data from 42 unique interventions, based in closed (n = 26), community (n = 7), or multiple/other CJ settings (n = 9). A minority of reviewed programs incorporated women-specific content or conducted gender-stratified analyses. CJ systems are comprised of diverse access points, each with unique strengths and challenges for implementing HIV treatment and prevention programs for women. Further study is warranted to develop women-specific and trauma-informed content and evaluate program effectiveness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisoners/psychology*; Prisons*
  6. Adlina, S., Narimah, A.H.H., Ahmad Fahmi, A.Z., Iskandar, M.A., Nur Amirah, S., Nurul Farahiyah, A., et al.
    A cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2007 on stress and stress self management among the prisoners and wardens of a prison in Selangor. This study was conducted as part of an elective posting for second year medical students and the topic was chosen to add on to the body of knowledge on stress among prisoners and wardens. A self administered questionnaire was distributed by random sampling and the respondents consisted of 100 prisoners and 97 wardens. Majority of the prisoners did not have stress with reference to interpersonal factors such as conflict with cellmates, conflict with wardens and conflict with inmates, For interpersonal factors, majority of the prisoners experienced stress because they felt bored (78%), thought they had no bright future (63%) and they also had no visitors (61%). Stress resulted in physical effects, whereby 67% admitted that they experienced health problems and 64% experienced sleep disturbance. Emotional effects of stress experienced by the prisoners were sadness (67%), anxiousness (63%) and confusion (56%). The major spiritual effect was regret (84%) followed by feeling closer to God (78%) and feeling high spirited (59%). The major social effects experienced by
    the prisoners were low self esteem (63%) and embarrassment (58%). Methods of stress self management were prayers and conduct of religious activities (87%), sharing problems with friends (78%), doing recreational activities (77%), sleeping (72%) , doing a hobby (68) and seeking help from doctors (57%). As for the wardens, with reference to interpersonal factors, high level of stress was experience with reference ta prisoners behavior (82.5%) and problems with higher authorities (83.5 %), For intrapersonal factors, sleep disturbances (64%), career problems (76.3%), financial problems (73.2%) and feeling bored (75.3%) highly contributed to stress. Wardens physical effects were 38.1% health problems and 29.9% sleep disturbances. For emotional effects, must of them were depressed (54.6%), anxious (67%), angry (63.9%), confused (64.9%), frustrated (59.8%), threatened (53.6%) and patriotic (51.5%). The spiritual effect were feeling closer to God (86.6%), feeling responsible for duties (82.5%), regret doing the job (74.2%), feeling high spirited (58.8%). For social effects, low self esteem is the highest effect experienced (68%). Wardens managed stress by praying and conducting religious activities (91.8%), recreational activities (88.7%), doing a hobby (85.6%), sleeping (74.2%), and sharing problems (68%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  7. Razali S, Fisher J, Kirkman M
    Arch Womens Ment Health, 2019 02;22(1):151-158.
    PMID: 29569042 DOI: 10.1007/s00737-018-0832-3
    Although filicide is of serious concern, it is poorly understood in Malaysia. Our interviews with health and policy professionals revealed that they attribute responsibility for filicide to women's failure to comply with social norms and religious teachings. This research sought to understand the meaning of and background to filicide from the perspectives of women who have been convicted of filicide in Malaysia. In-depth interviews were conducted in person with all eligible and consenting women convicted of filicide and incarcerated in prisons or forensic psychiatric institutions. Women's accounts were translated into English and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis and interpreted using narrative theory. Interviews with nine women convicted of filicide yielded evidence that others were implicated in the crime but punished less severely, if at all, and that the women had experienced lifelong gender-based violence and marginalisation with minimal access to health and social care. These findings illuminate an inadequately understood phenomenon in Malaysia and reveal why existing strategies to reduce filicide, which reflect key stakeholders' views, have had little impact. They reveal the pervasive harm of violence against women and children and its link to filicide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  8. Mohd Alif Jasni, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Jal Zabdi Mohd Yusoff, Khairiyah Md Shahid, Noralina Omar, Zaiton Azman
    The return of ex-prisoners who were released from prison into an environment filled with fellow
    friends could lead to negative influences such as drug addiction and crime repetition among former
    prisoners. This paper has been derived from a doctorate study studying the repeatition of crimes that
    occurred among former prisoners in Malaysia. The findings of the study have found that former
    prisoners often return to their fellow members due to family absence. This study has been used
    qualitative methods by interviewing 16 ex-prisoners identified through the technique of snowball
    sampling. The finding revealed that all these former prisoners from different state were concentrated
    around the Chow Kit road. Addiction, as a result of invitation process by friends. This situation are
    make the study to proven relationship between the influence of friends and drug abused among the
    former prisoners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  9. Gill, J.S., Koh, O.H., Pillai, S.K.
    The problem of illicit drug use has been a long standing problem in Malaysia. It is well recognized that drug mis-use is associated with many social, economic and health problems, including mental health problems. Anxiety disorders have consistently been cited as the commonest type of psychiatric disorder in drug users. In Malaysia, many drug users are incarcerated in rehabilitation centres and prison. They form a different type of population as compared to the drug user in the general population, due to the effects of incarceration. With this in mind, a study was carried out in a rehabilitation centre, looking at anxiety disorders. Utilizing the SCID, we found current and lifetime diagnoses for anxiety disorders at 63.4% and 67.6% respectively. Suggestions are made in regards to our findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  10. Norzihan A, Rohany N, Mohd Suhaimi M, Nor Ba’yah Abdul K
    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural group counselling on anger and aggression among male prisoners in Malaysian prisons. A total of 40 male prisoners were involved in this study. Subjects were assigned into treatment group (N=20) and control group (N=20) through purposive sampling method. Subjects were then divided into small groups (two treatment groups) and (two control groups) which each group consisting of 10 prisoners. The treatment groups attended eight sessions of group counselling process. State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) and Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) were used as questionnaires to measure anger emotion and aggression behaviour. Data were analysed by using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 significant level. The results showed significant differences in the mean of pre-test and post-test on STAXI-2 scales such as state anger, trait anger and anger expression-out between the experimental group and control group. However, the results showed no significant differences for the scales of anger expression-in, anger control-out, and anger control-in between the groups. The results also showed significant differences in the mean of pre-test and post-test on aggression between the experimental group and control group. The implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  11. Al-Darraji HA, Tan C, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Occup Environ Med, 2015 Jun;72(6):442-7.
    PMID: 25794506 DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102695
    OBJECTIVES: Although prison employees share the same tuberculosis (TB) risk environment with prisoners, the magnitude of TB problems among prison employees is unknown in most resource-limited prisons. This survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and correlates of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among employees in Malaysia's largest prison.

    METHODS: Consented, full-time prison employees were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, history of working in the correctional system and TB-related risk. TST was placed intradermally and read after 48-72 h. Induration size of ≥10 mm was considered positive. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations with TST positivity.

    RESULTS: Of the 445 recruited prison employees, 420 (94.4%) had complete data. Most were young (median=30.0 years) men (88.8%) who had only worked at this prison (76.4%) for a median total employment period of 60 months (IQR 34.5-132.0). The majority were correctional officers, while civilian employees represented only 7.6% of the sample. Only 26 (6.2%) reported having ever been screened for TB since employment. Prevalence of TST positivity was 81% and was independently associated with longer (≥12 months) prison employment (AOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 15.9) and current tobacco smoking (AOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2).

    CONCLUSIONS: Latent TB prevalence was high in this sample, approximating that of prisoners in this setting, perhaps suggesting within prison TB transmission in this facility. Formal TB control programmes for personnel and prisoners alike are urgently needed within the Malaysian correctional system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons/statistics & numerical data*
  12. Aida SA, Aili HH, Manveen KS, Salwina WI, Subash KP, Ng CG, et al.
    Int J Prison Health, 2014;10(2):132-43.
    PMID: 25764076 DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-06-2013-0029
    The number of juvenile offenders admitted to Malaysian prisons is alarming. The purpose of this paper is to determine the presence of any psychiatric disorders and their association with personal characteristics of juvenile detainees in prisons across Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons/statistics & numerical data*
  13. Nik Farid ND, Che' Rus S, Dahlui M, Al-Sadat N
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Dec;54(12):695-701.
    PMID: 24356756
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the determinants of sexual intercourse initiation among incarcerated adolescents aged 12-19 years in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a sequential mixed-method research project that was conducted in two phases. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the first and second phases, respectively. Data was collected via a survey using self-reported questionnaires from 1,082 adolescents, and from in-depth interviews and the written essays of 29 participants. The participants were recruited from 22 welfare institutions in peninsular Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Among the study participants, 483 were male and 599 were female. Overall, 62.3% of the incarcerated adolescents had initiated sexual intercourse at least once. The mean age at first sexual intercourse for both genders was 14.0 years. Individual factors found to be associated with previous sexual intercourse were the female gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.74), previous alcohol use (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.10-2.94), previous illicit drug use (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.07-3.22), permissive attitude toward premarital sex (OR 4.34; 95% CI 2.17-8.70), and sexual abuse during childhood (OR 5.41; 95% CI 3.52-8.32). Qualitative findings revealed that the reasons for initiation of sexual intercourse among these adolescents were partner influence, inability to control sex drive, family issues, and the perception of sex as an expression of love.

    CONCLUSION: The determinants of sexual intercourse initiation among incarcerated Malaysian adolescents are comparable to those of developed countries. However, in Malaysia, sexual and reproductive health programmes for such adolescents should be tailored to address their specific needs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisoners/statistics & numerical data*; Prisons*
  14. Naning H, Al-Darraji HAA, McDonald S, Ismail NA, Kamarulzaman A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2018 04;30(3):235-243.
    PMID: 29502429 DOI: 10.1177/1010539518757229
    The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of tuberculosis (TB) treatment strategies interventions in an overcrowded and poorly ventilated prison with both high (5 months) and low (3 years) turnover of inmates against improved environmental conditions. We used a deterministic transmission model to simulate the effects of treatment of latent TB infection and active TB, or the combination of both treatment strategies. Without any intervention, the TB prevalence is estimated to increase to 8.8% for a prison with low turnover of inmates but modestly stabilize at 5.8% for high-turnover prisons in a 10-year period. Reducing overcrowding from 6 to 4 inmates per housing cell and increasing the ventilation rate from 2 to 12 air changes per hour combined with any treatment strategy would further reduce the TB prevalence to as low as 0.98% for a prison with low inmate turnover.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisoners/statistics & numerical data*; Prisons*
  15. Loeliger KB, Altice FL, Ciarleglio MM, Rich KM, Chandra DK, Gallagher C, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2018 11;5(11):e617-e628.
    PMID: 30197101 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(18)30175-9
    BACKGROUND: People transitioning from prisons or jails have high mortality, but data are scarce for people with HIV and no studies have integrated data from both criminal justice and community settings. We aimed to assess all-cause mortality in people with HIV released from an integrated system of prisons and jails in Connecticut, USA.

    METHODS: We linked pharmacy, custodial, death, case management, and HIV surveillance data from Connecticut Departments of Correction and Public Health to create a retrospective cohort of all adults with HIV released from jails and prisons in Connecticut between 2007 and 2014. We compared the mortality rate of adults with HIV released from incarceration with the general US and Connecticut populations, and modelled time-to-death from any cause after prison release with Cox proportional hazard models.

    FINDINGS: We identified 1350 people with HIV who were released after 24 h or more of incarceration between 2007 and 2014, of whom 184 (14%) died after index release; median age was 45 years (IQR 39-50) and median follow-up was 5·2 years (IQR 3·0-6·7) after index release. The crude mortality rate for people with HIV released from incarceration was 2868 deaths per 100 000 person-years, and the standardised mortality ratio showed that mortality was higher for this cohort than the general US population (6·97, 95% CI 5·96-7·97) and population of Connecticut (8·47, 7·25-9·69). Primary cause of death was reported for 170 individuals; the most common causes were HIV/AIDS (78 [46%]), drug overdose (26 [15%]), liver disease (17 [10%]), cardiovascular disease (16 [9%]), and accidental injury or suicide (13 [8%]). Black race (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·52, 95% CI 0·34-0·80), having health insurance (0·09, 0·05-0·17), being re-incarcerated at least once for 365 days or longer (0·41, 0·22-0·76), and having a high percentage of re-incarcerations in which antiretroviral therapy was prescribed (0·08, 0·03-0·21) were protective against mortality. Positive predictors of time-to-death were age (≥50 years; adjusted HR 3·65, 95% CI 1·21-11·08), lower CD4 count (200-499 cells per μL, 2·54, 1·50-4·31; <200 cells per μL, 3·44, 1·90-6·20), a high number of comorbidities (1·86, 95% CI 1·23-2·82), virological failure (2·76, 1·94-3·92), and unmonitored viral load (2·13, 1·09-4·18).

    INTERPRETATION: To reduce mortality after release from incarceration in people with HIV, resources are needed to identify and treat HIV, in addition to medical comorbidities, psychiatric disorders, and substance use disorders, during and following incarceration. Policies that reduce incarceration and support integrated systems of care between prisons and communities could have a substantial effect on the survival of people with HIV.

    FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prisoners/psychology; Prisoners/statistics & numerical data*; Prisons*
  16. Al-Darraji HA, Altice FL, Kamarulzaman A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Aug;21(8):1049-1058.
    PMID: 27197601 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12726
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed active tuberculosis (TB) cases among prisoners in Malaysia's largest prison using an intensified TB case-finding strategy.

    METHODS: From October 2012 to May 2013, prisoners housed in two distinct units (HIV-negative and HIV-positive) were approached to participate in the TB screening study. Consenting prisoners submitted two sputum samples that were examined using GeneXpert MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and liquid culture. Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected and correlates of active TB, defined as having either a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF or culture results, were assessed using regression analyses.

    RESULTS: Among the total of 559 prisoners, 442 (79.1%) had complete data; 28.7% were HIV-infected, 80.8% were men and the average age was 36.4 (SD 9.8) years. Overall, 34 (7.7%) had previously undiagnosed active TB, of whom 64.7% were unable to complete their TB treatment in prison due to insufficient time (<6 months) remaining in prison. Previously undiagnosed active TB was independently associated with older age groups (AOR 11.44 and 6.06 for age ≥ 50 and age 40-49 years, respectively) and with higher levels of immunosuppression (CD4 < 200 cells/ml) in HIV-infected prisoners (AOR 3.07, 95% CI 1.03-9.17).

    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of previously undiagnosed active TB in this prison highlights the inadequate performance of internationally recommended case-finding strategies and suggests that passive case-finding policies should be abandoned, especially in prison settings where HIV infection is prevalent. Moreover, partnerships between criminal justice and public health treatment systems are crucial to continue TB treatment after release.

    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  17. Azlin, B., Salina Akhtar, M. Y., Nik Ruzyanei, N. J., Hazli, Z., Normala, I.
    Introduction: In recent years there has been an increase in the number of young people in prison. This
    study is the first to look at the proportion of psychiatric disorders among young adult prisoners. Objective: The main objective is to determine the percentage of psychiatric disorders among young adult male prisoners Method: A cross sectional study of young adult male prisoners, with ages ranged between 18 and 21 years old, was conducted between September and December, 2008 at the Kajang Prison. A total of 225 inmates participated in the study which used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) as its instrument. Results: The percentage of psychiatric disorders was 60.0%. Alcohol and substance related disorders had the highest prevalence at 50.2%, followed by Major Depressive Disorders and Dysthymia at 16.9%. About 39.6% were observed to have antisocial personality disorder. Psychiatric disorders were found to have significant differences (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
  18. Mohammad Rahim Kamaluddin, Nadiah Syariani Md. Shariff, Geshina Ayu Mat Saat
    Introduction: Crime is an immoral act capable of tearing the well-being of society and the nation. Various factors have been accredited as potential factors for crime engagement for example natural inclination, nurture or a combination of these factors. Within the domain of natural inclination, lack of self-control is often viewed as the primary cause of crime and delinquency. However, there are no valid and reliable Malay language psychometric instruments to measure the level of self-control among Malaysians.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to validate the Self Control Scale (SCS) for use among Malay speaking populations. Henceforth the Malay language version is identified as SCS-M.
    Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 150 inmates incarcerated within two prisons in Peninsular Malaysia in June 2012. Forward and Backward translations of the original SCS were carried out followed by content and face validation processes. Exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's Alpha reliability analysis were performed.
    Result: Both content and face validation processes showed promising and good outcomes. Preliminary analysis for factor analysis supported factorability of the items. The factor loadings of SCS-M items did not correspond to the original six SCS dimensions. Since SCS is often administered as a unidimensional scale, a forced one factor analysis was performed and items with factor loadings exceeding 0.3 were retained. The result of internal consistency reliability of SCS-M demonstrated a good Cronbach's alpha value of 0.80.
    Conclusion: The findings supported that SCS-M is a valid and reliable unidimensional scale to measure the level of self-control among Malay speaking populations. It is anticipated that the emergence of SCS-M is vital for self-control assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Prisons
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