Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Azila NM
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Dec;57 Suppl E:52-7.
    PMID: 12733194
    This paper outlines issues related to curricular reforms, and strategies to be considered for planning and implementation so as to ensure that the change is institutionalised. In Malaysia, in general, some imminent curricular changes have been carried out to prepare graduates for future changes in the practice environment. Change of reform requires planning, with consideration of the directions in which the change is needed, and the possible educational approaches to be utilized. To ensure change can occur and be maintained there should be effort to induce a paradigm shift amongst teachers and administrators at all levels, there must be transparency and dissemination of information of the required change and why, there must be involvement of teachers in decision making to ensure better compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  2. Azer SA
    Med Educ, 2011 May;45(5):510.
    PMID: 21486331 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.03952.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  3. Kukkamalla A, Lakshminarayana SK
    Med Educ, 2011 Nov;45(11):1152-3.
    PMID: 21936865 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04107.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  4. Ciraj AM, Vinod P, Ramnarayan K
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):729-33.
    PMID: 21045402 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.72058
    Case-based learning (CBL) is an interactive student-centered exploration of real life situations. This paper describes the use of CBL as an educational strategy for promoting active learning in microbiology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  5. Prakash ES
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2010 Jun;34(2):93-6.
    PMID: 20522904 DOI: 10.1152/advan.00025.2010
    This study tested the possibility that interactive lectures explicitly based on activating learners' prior knowledge and driven by a series of logical questions might enhance the effectiveness of lectures. A class of 54 students doing the respiratory system course in the second year of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program in my university was randomized to two groups to receive one of two types of lectures, "typical" lectures (n = 28, 18 women and 10 men) or "constructivist" lectures (n = 26, 19 women and 7 men), on the same topic: the regulation of respiration. Student pretest scores in the two groups were comparable (P > 0.1). Students that received the constructivist lectures did much better in the posttest conducted immediately after the lectures (6.8 +/- 3.4 for constructivist lectures vs. 4.2 +/- 2.3 for typical lectures, means +/- SD, P = 0.004). Although both types of lectures were well received, students that received the constructivist lectures appeared to have been more satisfied with their learning experience. However, on a posttest conducted 4 mo later, scores obtained by students in the two groups were not any different (6.9 +/- 3 for constructivist lectures vs. 6.9 +/- 3.7 for typical lectures, P = 0.94). This study adds to the increasing body of evidence that there is a case for the use of interactive lectures that make the construction of knowledge and understanding explicit, easy, and enjoyable to learners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  6. Torke S, Abraham RR, Ramnarayan K, Upadhya S
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2007 Mar;31(1):118.
    PMID: 17327594
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  7. Nayak SB
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2006 Mar;30(1):48.
    PMID: 16481611
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  8. Salari M, Roozbehi A, Zarifi A, Tarmizi RA
    BMC Med Educ, 2018 Aug 10;18(1):195.
    PMID: 30097035 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-018-1305-0
    BACKGROUND: Nursing education in Iran has conventionally focused on lecture-based strategies. Improvements in teaching and learning over the years have led to an expansion of the pedagogies available to educators. Likewise, there has been a suggestion for a move toward more learner-centered teaching strategies and pedagogies that can result in improvement in learning. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Problem-Based Learning in developing cognitive skills in learning Pediatric Nursing among university students.

    METHODS: In this quasi-experimental, posttest-only nonequivalent control group design, the subjects were undergraduate students who had enrolled in Pediatric Nursing II at Islamic Azad University in Iran. The experiment was conducted over a period of eight weeks, one two-hour session and two two-hour sessions. Two experimental groups, Pure Problem-Based Learning (PPBL) and the Hybrid Problem- Based Learning (HPBL), and one Lecturing or Conventional Teaching and Learning (COTL) group were involved. In the PPBL group, PBL method with guided questions and a tutor, and in the HPBL group, problem-based learning method, some guided questions, minimal lecturing and a tutor were used. The COTL group, however, underwent learning using conventional instruction utilizing full lecture. The three groups were compared on cognitive performances, namely, test performance, mental effort, and instructional efficiency. Two instruments, i.e., Pediatric Nursing Performance Test (PNPT) and Paas Mental Effort Rating Scale (PMER) were used. In addition, the two-Dimensional Instructional Efficiency Index (IEI) formula was utilized. The statistical analyses used were ANOVA, ANCOVA, and mixed between-within subjects ANOVA.

    RESULTS: Results showed that the PPBL and HPBL instructional methods, in comparison with COTL, enhanced the students' overall and higher-order performances in Pediatric Nursing, and induced higher level of instructional efficiency with less mental effort (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  9. Jacob SA, Dhing OH, Malone D
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2019 04;83(3):6597.
    PMID: 31065163 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe6597
    Objective. To determine the perceptions of lecturers toward case-based learning (CBL) and to elicit their feedback and opinions regarding the design of CBL sessions within the pharmacy curricula. Methods. One-on-one interviews were conducted with 10 academic staff members involved in teaching an undergraduate Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) program. All sessions were audio-recorded and field notes were compiled. The recordings were transcribed, and thematic analysis of responses was performed. Results. Four key themes were identified: perceived benefits of CBL, challenges in implementing CBL within the curricula, characteristics of effective and engaging CBL, and relevance and implementation of CBL within the curriculum. Some of the specific benefits of CBL identified by participants included the applicability of knowledge learned to students' future role as pharmacists. Participants also identified challenges such as the design of CBL cases and course time constraints. Respondents also emphasized the need for more training for facilitators in how to design cases and facilitate sessions. Conclusion. While participants identified numerous benefits of CBL, they also identified challenges to implementing this learning method within the pharmacy school curriculum. Paying careful attention to selecting facilitators and providing appropriate facilitator training, in terms of facilitation and case design, is paramount in effectively implementing CBL sessions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  10. Prashanti E, Ramnarayan K
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2019 Jun 01;43(2):99-102.
    PMID: 30835147 DOI: 10.1152/advan.00173.2018
    In an era that is seemingly saturated with standardized tests of all hues and stripes, it is easy to forget that assessments not only measure the performance of students, but also consolidate and enhance their learning. Assessment for learning is best elucidated as a process by which the assessment information can be used by teachers to modify their teaching strategies while students adjust and alter their learning approaches. Effectively implemented, formative assessments can convert classroom culture to one that resonates with the triumph of learning. In this paper, we present 10 maxims that show ways that formative assessments can be better understood, appreciated, and implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  11. Lau MN, Kamarudin Y, Zakaria NN, Sivarajan S, Mohd Tahir NNZ, Bahar AD, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(7):e0254478.
    PMID: 34243187 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0254478
    Flipped classroom may overcome weaknesses of live demonstration in teaching orthodontic wire-bending. This study aims to compare the effectiveness between flipped classroom and live demonstration in transferring skills for fabricating Adams clasp. Forty third-year undergraduate dental students were assigned to two groups. The students in group LD (n = 20) attended a live demonstration while students in group FC (n = 20) attended a flipped classroom. Both groups were taught on skills to fabricate Adams clasp in a standardised way. Each student from both groups were asked to submit an Adams clasp for a blinded quality assessment by two trained and calibrated assessors using a 18-item rubric, followed by validated students' satisfaction questionnaires to evaluate their perceived satisfaction on the teaching method received. A crossover study was then conducted three weeks later where LD attended a flipped classroom while FC attended a live demonstration. Students' satisfaction questionnaires were again collected from each student for blinded analysis. Mean scores for the quality of Adams clasp were 9.775 and 9.125 for LD and FC, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the two groups. Statistically significant association was found for one statement on the questionnaire, "I found the classroom arrangements conducive for the wire-bending activity" (p = 0.010). No significant differences were found between the two groups for other statements (p > 0.05). In conclusion, within the limitations of the study, flipped classroom is equally effective as conventional live demonstration in transferring orthodontic wire-bending skills for fabrication of Adams clasp. However, students perceived the classroom arrangements during the flipped classroom significantly more conducive for teaching orthodontic wire-bending.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods
  12. Lim WK
    BMC Med Educ, 2012;12:89.
    PMID: 23009729 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-89
    Problem-based learning (PBL) has become the most significant innovation in medical education of the past 40 years. In contrast to exam-centered, lecture-based conventional curricula, PBL is a comprehensive curricular strategy that fosters student-centred learning and the skills desired in physicians. The rapid spread of PBL has produced many variants. One of the most common is 'hybrid PBL' where conventional teaching methods are implemented alongside PBL. This paper contends that the mixing of these two opposing educational philosophies can undermine PBL and nullify its positive benefits. Schools using hybrid PBL and lacking medical education expertise may end up with a dysfunctional curriculum worse off than the traditional approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  13. Selvarajah G, Selvarajah S
    Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 2016 07 08;44(4):381-90.
    PMID: 26899144 DOI: 10.1002/bmb.20964
    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and computer-animated video, we included a model building activity using pipe cleaners. Biotechnology undergraduates (n = 108) used the model to simulate Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. Based on student perception, an average of 12.85 and 78.35% students claimed that they completely and partially understood the two concepts, respectively. A test conducted to ascertain their understanding about the two concepts showed that 66.1% of the students provided the correct response to the three multiple choice questions. A majority of the 108 students attributed the inclusion of model building to their better understanding of Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. This underlines the importance of incorporating model building, particularly in concepts that require spatial visualization. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):381-390, 2016.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  14. De Matteis CI, Randall MD, Harvey EJ, Morris A, Winkler GS, Boardman HF
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2019 02;83(1):6508.
    PMID: 30894766 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe6508
    Objective. To design an integrated dyspepsia module for first year pharmacy students that combines clinical and professional practice with fundamental sciences in five different science subject areas. Methods. The approaches used in designing this module are described with emphasis on strategies adopted to integrate science and practice, and the new ways of working adopted by the design team. Students' views and experiences of the module and its integration were explored using questionnaires. Results. A high proportion of students reported positive views and experiences of the module, the integration and its impact (as self-reported) on their learning and practice. The assessment of student performance indicated learning and attainment was at an appropriate level for a first-year module. Both the student grades and research results indicate a positive student learning experience. Conclusion. The dyspepsia module provides a flexible and effective template for the integration of science and practice in theme-based modules, with students reporting positively about the integration, including their perception of its contribution to improving their learning and understanding. New and more collaborative ways of working are required when designing integrated modules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  15. Lee Chin K, Ling Yap Y, Leng Lee W, Chang Soh Y
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2014 Oct 15;78(8):153.
    PMID: 25386018 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe788153
    To determine whether human patient simulation (HPS) is superior to case-based learning (CBL) in teaching diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and thyroid storm (TS) to pharmacy students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods
  16. Malik AS, Malik RH
    Med Teach, 2012;34(3):198-204.
    PMID: 22364451 DOI: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.588741
    Retaining lectures in problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum places new demands on lecturers. In addition to subject knowledge, the lecturers must know the overall aims of the lectures, their context in the course, their relation to the subsequent examinations and the underlying educational philosophy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
  17. Bhardwaj A, Nagandla K, Swe KM, Abas AB
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2015 12 2;13(49):12-8.
    PMID: 26620743
    BACKGROUND: E-learning is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to provide online education and learning. E- Learning has now been integrated into the traditional teaching as the concept of 'blended learning' that combines digital learning with the existing traditional teaching methods to address the various challenges in the field of medical education. Structured e-learning activities were started in Melaka Manipal Medical College in 2009 via e-learning platform (MOODLE-Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment).

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study is to investigate the faculty opinions toward the existing e-learning activities, and to analyse the extent of adopting and integration of e-learning into their traditional teaching methods.

    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among faculties of Medicine and Dentistry using pre-tested questionnaires. The data was analyzed by using the statistical package for social science, SPSS, version 16.0.

    RESULTS: The result of our survey indicates that majority of our faculty (65.4%) held positive opinion towards e-learning. Among the few, who demonstrated reservations, it is attributed to their average level of skills and aptitude in the use of computers that was statistically significant (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Our study brings to light the need for formal training as perquisite to support e-learning that enables smooth transition of the faculty from their traditional teaching methods into blended approach. Our results are anticipated to strengthen the existing e-learning activities of our college and other universities and convincingly adopt e-learning as a viable teaching and learning strategy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Problem-Based Learning/methods*
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