The growing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) will continue to be sight threatening factors. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is a widespread cause of visual impairment in the world and a range of hyperglycemia-linked pathways have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this condition. Despite understanding the polyol pathway flux, activation of protein kinase C (KPC) isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes induced vision loss are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to review molecular mechanisms that regulate cell survival and apoptosis of retinal cells and discuss new and exciting therapeutic targets with comparison to the old and inefficient preventive strategies. This review highlights the recent advancements in understanding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and molecular alterations, systemic metabolic factors, and aberrant activation of signaling cascades that ultimately lead to activation of a number of transcription factors causing functional and structural damage to retinal cells. It also reviews the established interventions and emerging molecular targets to avert diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors.
Choline kinase is the most upstream enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP and Mg2+ during the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. In humans, choline kinase (CK) is encoded by two separate genes, ckα and ckβ, which produce three isoforms, CKα1, CKα2, and CKβ. Previous studies have associated ckβ with muscle development; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the transcriptional regulation of ckβ has never been elucidated.
The direct feeding of Jatropha meal containing phorbol esters (PEs) indicated mild to severe toxicity symptoms in various organs of different animals. However, limited information is available on cellular and molecular mechanism of toxicity caused by PEs present in Jatropha meal. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic and mode of action of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal using human hepatocyte (Chang) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines. The results showed that isolated PEs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines with the CC(50) of 125.9 and 110.3 μg/mL, respectively. These values were compatible to that of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) values as positive control i.e., 124.5 and 106.3 μg/mL respectively. Microscopic examination, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation results confirmed cell death due to apoptosis upon treatment with PEs and PMA at CC(50) concentration for 24 h in both cell lines. The Western blot analysis revealed the overexpression of PKC-δ and activation of caspase-3 proteins which could be involved in the mechanism of action of PEs and PMA. Consequently, the PEs isolated form Jatropha meal caused toxicity and induced apoptosis-mediated proliferation inhibition toward Chang and Vero cell lines involving over-expression of PKC-δ and caspase-3 as their mode of actions.
The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in hydroxyapatite (HA)-induced phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. The cells were incubated with HA particles at various incubation time and the levels of PKC activity were determined from the cell lysate. To determine the role of PKC, particles were incubated with the cells pretreated with the various concentrations of bisindolylmaleimide, a PKC inhibitor, and phagocytosis was then assessed at 60 min. Latex beads were used as a control. Our results showed that following incubation with HA particles, the levels of PKC activity in RAW264.7 cells was highest at 7 min and then decreased to reach the baseline levels of the controls at 30 min. Pretreatment of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide significantly reduced phagocytosis of HA particles in a dose-dependent pattern. The results of our present study suggest therefore that ingestion of HA by RAW264.7 cells may depend on PKC activity that may act in the early stages of phagocytosis.
Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are widely accepted as key hallmarks of obesity-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional roles of an anti-inflammatory compound, celastrol, in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by antimycin A (AMA) in human skeletal muscle cells. We found that celastrol treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity of AMA-treated cells, apparently via PI3K/Akt pathways, with significant enhancement of mitochondrial activities. Furthermore, celastrol prevented increased levels of cellular oxidative damage where the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultures cells was greatly reduced. Celastrol significantly increased protein phosphorylation of insulin signaling cascades with amplified expression of AMPK protein and attenuated NF-κB and PKC θ activation in human skeletal muscle treated with AMA. The improvement of insulin signaling pathways by celastrol was also accompanied by augmented GLUT4 protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that celastrol may be advocated for use as a potential therapeutic molecule to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells.
Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved.
Nitric oxide (NO) may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease and, hence, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans surface-associated material (SAM) stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and NO production by the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Cells were stimulated with untreated or heat-treated A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM and with or without pre-treatment with L-N(6)-(1-Iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL) (an iNOS inhibitor), polymyxin B, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, genistein [a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor], bisindolylmaleimide [a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor], bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) [a phospholipase A(2) (PLA2) inhibitor] or wortmannin [phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor]. The iNOS activity and nitrite production in the cell cultures were determined. Untreated but not heat-treated A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM-stimulated both iNOS activity and nitrite production in RAW264.7 cells. L-NIL, IL-4, IL-10, genistein, bisindolylmaleimide, or BPB, suppressed but IFN-γ enhanced both iNOS activity and nitrite production by A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM-stimulated cells. Wortmannin and polymyxin B failed to alter both iNOS activity or nitrite production by A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM treated cells. Therefore, the present study suggests that a heat-sensitive protein constituent(s) of A. actinomycetemcomitans SAM stimulates both iNOS activity and nitrite production by RAW264.7 cells in a cytokine, PTK, PKC, and PLA(2) but not PI-3K-dependent fashion.
Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in carcinogenesis and displays variable expression profiles during cancer progression. Studies of dietary phytochemicals on cancer signalling pathway regulation have been conducted to search for potent signalling regulatory agents. The present study was designed to evaluate any suppressive effect of maslinic acid on PKC expression in human B-lymphoblastoid cells (Raji cells), and to identify the PKC isoforms expressed. Effects of maslinic acid on PKC activity were determined using a PepTag assay for non-radioactive detection of PKC. The highest expression in Raji cells was obtained at 20 nM PMA induced for 6 hours. Suppressive effects of maslinic acid were compared with those of four PKC inhibitors (H- 7, rottlerin, sphingosine, staurosporine) and two triterpenes (oleanolic acid and ursolic acid). The IC₅₀ values achieved for maslinic acid, staurosporine, H-7, sphingosine, rottlerin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were 11.52, 0.011, 0.767, 2.45, 5.46, 27.93 and 39.29 μM, respectively. Four PKC isoforms, PKC βI, βII, δ, and ζ, were identified in Raji cells via western blotting. Maslinic acid suppressed the expression of PKC βI, δ, and ζ in a concentration-dependent manner. These preliminary results suggest promising suppressive effects of maslinic acid on PKC activity in Raji cells. Maslinic acid could be a potent cancer chemopreventive agent that may be involved in regulating many downstream signalling pathways that are activated through PKC receptors.
This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of zerumbone in chemical behavioural models of nociception in mice. Zerumbone given through intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced dose-related antinociception when assessed on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. In addition, the i.p. administration of zerumbone exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of capsaicin and bradykinin. Likewise, zerumbone given by i.p. route reduced the nociception produced by i.pl. injection of glutamate and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The antinociception caused by zerumbone in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with l-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor). However, the antinociception of zerumbone was enhanced by methylene blue (non-specific gyanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Together, these results indicate that zerumbone produces pronounced antinociception against chemical models of nociception in mice. It also strongly suggests that the l-arginine-nitric oxide-cGMP-PKC-K(+) ATP channel pathways, the TRPV1 and kinin B2 receptors play an important role in the zerumbone-induced antinociception.
Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation plays an important part in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Emerging evidence supports a role for the transient receptor potential melastatin-related 2 (TRPM2) channel in Aβ-induced neuroinflammation, but how Aβ induces TRPM2 channel activation and this relates to neuroinflammation remained poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms by which Aβ42 activates the TRPM2 channel in microglial cells and the relationships to microglial activation and generation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a key cytokine implicated in AD. Exposure to 10-300 nM Aβ42 induced concentration-dependent microglial activation and generation of TNF-α that were ablated by genetically deleting (TRPM2 knockout ;TRPM2-KO) or pharmacologically inhibiting the TRPM2 channel, revealing a critical role of this channel in Aβ42 -induced microglial activation and generation of TNF-α. Mechanistically, Aβ42 activated the TRPM2 channel via stimulating generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of poly(ADPR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Aβ42 -induced generation of ROS and activation of PARP-1 and TRPM2 channel were suppressed by inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC) and NADPH oxidases (NOX). Aβ42 -induced activation of PARP-1 and TRPM2 channel was also reduced by inhibiting PYK2 and MEK/ERK. Aβ42 -induced activation of PARP-1 was attenuated by TRPM2-KO and moreover, the remaining PARP-1 activity was eliminated by inhibiting PKC and NOX, but not PYK2 and MEK/ERK. Collectively, our results suggest that PKC/NOX-mediated generation of ROS and subsequent activation of PARP-1 play a role in Aβ42 -induced TRPM2 channel activation and TRPM2-dependent activation of the PYK2/MEK/ERK signalling pathway acts as a positive feedback to further facilitate activation of PARP-1 and TRPM2 channel. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying Aβ-induced AD-related neuroinflammation.
Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, a wild edible ginger species or locally known as "lempoyang", commonly used in the Malays traditional medicine as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain and as a cure for swelling sores and cuts.