Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Rajakumar MK
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2002;1(2&3):74-8.
    Quality programs are difficult to implement where social support for healthcare costs are inadequate and there is no institutional support for quality programs to guide and assist the doctor in pratice. ‘Quality’ is not the good intention to do better, but the process of measurement of behavioral change against set targets. For the majority of the doctors of this region who practice under great constraints, this article outlines some quality activities that are entirely within their personal initiative and responsibility, but should make a real difference to the quality of care provided.nd responsibility, but should make a real difference to the quality of care you provide.
    Republished in: Republished in: Teng CL, Khoo EM, Ng CJ (editors). Family Medicine, Healthcare and Society: Essays by Dr M K Rajakumar, Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 2019: 68-74
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care
  2. Jayaram G, Yahya H
    Diagn. Cytopathol., 2002 Nov;27(5):322-4.
    PMID: 12412003
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care*
  3. Lee KN, Yoon SY, Cho HI
    PMID: 12755265
    The Asian Network for Clinical Laboratory Standardization (ANCLS) decided to start her First Inter-laboratory Quality Assurance survey at the business meeting during the Second Asian Colloquium on October 21-22, 2000 in Kobe, Japan. The first survey materials of Asian Quality Assurance Survey (AQuAS) were distributed in July 2001 to 21 hospitals in the field of chemistry and 22 hospitals in the field of hematology among total 24 participating laboratories from seven Asian countries: Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The survey methods in chemistry and in hematology were somewhat different. In chemistry the survey material was considered as unknown but handled similarly to the sample from the patient. Nineteen routine tests were performed only once. The hematology samples were considered as unknown but handled similarly to control or calibration material. Five parameters were tested five times repetitively and their average for each parameter was calculated. All the results were supposed to be sent back to the office within two weeks. Although it took more than two weeks, the return rate was 100%. The analysis was performed in several ways such as all the results together, by instruments and by methods. Mean, standard deviation (SD), standard deviation index (SDI), coefficient of variation (CV) and variance index score (VIS) were to be calculated in chemistry, and in hematology the same parameter were to be calculated except CV and VIS. In the first survey, the CV in chemistry was not calculated and the analysis by instrument or by methodology was also not attempted since there were not enough participating hospitals to do such analysis. In hematology the analysis was done by instrument only. The survey process was carried out successfully though there were some difficulties in communication tools, transportation methods and handling of specimens due to different weather conditions, and returning the report in the correct unit and to the correct place. The submitted data were acceptable for analysis. There were some differences in the units of measurement in different countries or laboratories. It was necessary to convert some of the units. Some laboratories apparently do not perform certain tests such as calcium, potasium and gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT). The gamma-GT is the most frequently not performed test. With the experience of this first survey, all the members involved in the survey have been trained well to do future surveys.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care*
  4. Reerink E, Nafisah bte Alihussein
    Med Educ, 1990 Jul;24(4):359-65.
    PMID: 2395428
    In the government hospitals of Malaysia quality assurance activities have been introduced since 1985. Local clinicians and other health care workers had been stimulated by the Ministry of Health to pursue these activities, but they found themselves untrained and ill-prepared for the job. With the help of the World Health Organization a programme of training courses has been set up and conducted, most recently, in February 1989. A model for teaching quality assurance was developed, geared towards the needs of the Malaysian clinicians and taking into account the recent progress made in the development of quality assurance approaches worldwide. Moreover, quality assurance results from one Malaysian hospital were used, thus increasing the relevance of the teaching. Results show that Malaysian clinicians have appreciated the training and have relaxed in their attitude towards quality assurance and the government's involvement in it. During the various courses pitfalls have been identified in the teaching of modern quality assurance in health care for audiences from developing and newly industrialized countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care*
  5. Sahan AK
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):284-6.
    PMID: 3670148
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care
  6. Mohd Zambri Mohamed Makhbul, Rashidah Burhanudin, Wan Nurazreena Wan Hassan
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2016;39(1):35-51.
    It is not uncommon for lateral cephalometric radiographs to be outsourced for orthodontic treatment, as not all orthodontic clinics in Malaysia have their own cephalometric radiograph machine. Since the quality of outsourced radiographs is not within the governance of the clinician, there is a need to monitor the quality of cephalometric radiographs received. Aim: To audit the quality of lateral cephalometric radiographs received at the Orthodontic Specialist Unit, Klinik Pergigian Cahaya Suria, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methodology: Lateral cephalometric records of patients with registration numbers up to 200 in 2015 were selected and assessed using a light box. The quality of good radiographs were based on 15 parameters: correct head position; presence of the scale; important structures centered on the film; patient’s name; date taken; patient’s identifier; label not obscuring radiograph; soft tissue visible; teeth in occlusion; good contrast; ‘A’ point identifiable; ‘B’ point identifiable; nasion identifiable; sella identifiable; incisors visible and their angulation measureable. Standard was set at 100%, as radiographs received should contain all parameters. Results: Five records were excluded (2 had no radiographs, 2 had digital radiographs, and 1 record could not be traced). 64.5% radiographs had all 15 parameters, 30.3%, 3.9% and 1.3% with 14, 13 and 12 parameters, respectively. Patient’s name, identifier, date taken, soft tissue visible, ‘B’ point identifiable, nasion identifiable were present in all radiographs (100%). Incisor visible and their angulation measurable were present in 99%; good contrast and ‘A’ point identifiable in 98%; presence of scale, important structures centred on films and sella identifiable in 97%, label not obscuring radiographs in 96%; correct head position in 86%; and teeth in occlusion in 88% of radiographs. Conclusion: There is a need to liaise with the radiology unit to improve the quality of radiographs taken.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care
  7. Hassan NB, Ismail HC, Naing L, Conroy RM, Abdul Rahman AR
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2010 Oct;70(4):500-13.
    PMID: 20840442 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03597.x
    The aims were to develop and validate a new Prescription Quality Index (PQI) for the measurement of prescription quality in chronic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/methods*; Quality Assurance, Health Care/standards
  8. Yusof MM, Kuljis J, Papazafeiropoulou A, Stergioulas LK
    Int J Med Inform, 2008 Jun;77(6):386-98.
    PMID: 17964851
    The realization of Health Information Systems (HIS) requires rigorous evaluation that addresses technology, human and organization issues. Our review indicates that current evaluation methods evaluate different aspects of HIS and they can be improved upon. A new evaluation framework, human, organization and technology-fit (HOT-fit) was developed after having conducted a critical appraisal of the findings of existing HIS evaluation studies. HOT-fit builds on previous models of IS evaluation--in particular, the IS Success Model and the IT-Organization Fit Model. This paper introduces the new framework for HIS evaluation that incorporates comprehensive dimensions and measures of HIS and provides a technological, human and organizational fit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/methods*; Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration*
  9. Nawawi H, Lim HH, Zakiah I
    PMID: 10926257
    An activity supportive of the MOH QA Programme, the National EQAS for clinical chemistry monitors for analytical performance in core routine biochemical testing by the pathology laboratories, with unsatisfactory performance scores serving to alert against deficiencies or problems and the scores in subsequent challenges providing the feedback of effectiveness of remedial actions taken. While unacceptable individual analyte performance score (variance index score, VIS) indicated problems in instruments, reagent and calibrators, or the use of inherently poorer methods, repeated occurrence of unsatisfactory OMRVIS was traceable to generally poor laboratory management of usually inadequately-equipment small laboratories. The outcome has been one of slow but gradual improvement in the overall performance of participating laboratories, with a move towards methods upgrading and standardization to achieve greater concordance of results. Presently, the programme is limited to 61 government and 4 private hospital laboratories in the country for 12 commonly assayed clinical biochemistry analytes. It is hoped that the NEQAS could be extended to the other private laboratories and that of academic institutions. However, this is dependent to a large extent on the manpower and financial support obtainable by the organizing body of the programme in the future. Belk and Sunderman, 1947 demonstrated that laboratories participating in an quality assessment scheme could rapidly and dramatically improve their analytical performance. In some countries, participation has become mandatory, and acceptable performance is a requirement in laboratory accreditation. The need and value of the NEQAP is, therefore, evident. While there may be limitations in the national programme. efforts are being made at improving the programme within the means and resources of the organising body. The goals of the NEQAP are not just to monitor performance but also to educate. On this, matters related to and supportive of these goals have also been pursued. The annual workshop/forum on quality controls had allowed exchange of information between representatives of participating laboratories and the organising body. Recently in the 1997 MOH Quality Improvement evaluation, Quality Control has been evaluated together with the other 17 such activities. The study on knowledge, attitude and practice has provided the necessary feedback and will be used for future planning in making efforts at increasing the effectiveness and benefits of the all QC activities including this NEQAP for clinical chemistry. In addition, there is a need to look into areas such as selection of methods and test systems, and improvement of continuing education, training as well as research in quality improvement as suggested by the Quality Improvement evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/methods; Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration*
  10. Barraclough S
    Int J Health Serv, 1997;27(4):643-59.
    PMID: 9399111
    The rapid growth of corporate investment in the Malaysian private hospital sector has had a considerable impact on the health care system. Sustained economic growth, the development of new urban areas, an enlarged middle class, and the inclusion of hospital insurance in salary packages have all contributed to a financially lucrative investment environment for hospital entrepreneurs. Many of Malaysia's most technologically advanced hospitals employing leading specialists are owned and operated as corporate business ventures. Corporate hospital investment has been actively encouraged by the government, which regards an expanded private sector as a vital complement to the public hospital system. Yet this rapid growth of corporately owned private hospitals has posed serious contradictions for health care policy in terms of issues such as equity, cost and quality, the effect on the wider health system, and the very role of the state in health care provision. This article describes the growth of corporate investment in Malaysia's private hospital sector and explores some of the attendant policy contradictions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/economics; Quality Assurance, Health Care/trends
  11. Han MC
    World Hosp Health Serv, 1997;33(2):8-13.
    PMID: 10174544
    The current status and directions for changes of issues related to quality care in health services in Asian countries--Malaysia, China, Singapore, Japan and Korea are overviewed. In countries with public sector dominated health care systems such as Malaysia. China and Singapore, governmental leadership in quality care is prominent along with legislative backup. Japan and Korea have private sector dominated health care systems and quality care activities are mainly carried out by non-governmental organisations. Hospital accreditation programs are in the developing stages in most countries, although China and Korea started in 1980. Most Asian countries are at the initial stages in quality care activities and focus has been placed on education and training. Asian countries are not exempted from efforts to enhance quality care activities and a new horizon in quality health care is emerging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/legislation & jurisprudence; Quality Assurance, Health Care/trends*
  12. Chan SC
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Sep;52(3):244-50.
    PMID: 10968093
    Adequacy of active resuscitation in collapsed inpatients aged 12 and above (excluding those with terminal illness) were studied in 6 Malaysian district hospitals for 3 months starting 1/1/93. Results showed 59.5% (25 out of 42 inpatients) were inadequately resuscitated measured by: failure of nurses to initiate resuscitation (24%), duration of resuscitation less than 30 minutes (42%) and incompletely equipped emergency trolleys (44%). Questionnaires revealed lack of knowledge and training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in medical staff. Regular cardiopulmonary resuscitation courses, regular spot checks on emergency trolleys and management protocols on active resuscitation are recommended. Each hospital should design its own criteria for adequacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care
  13. Mohd Ghazali RJ
    ISBN: 983-3038-10-7
    Citation: Mohd Ghazali RJ. A study on the adequacy of outpatient management of essential hypertension in MOH hospitals and health centres. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Health Management, Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2006
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care
  14. Pillay DI, Ghazali RJ, Manaf NH, Abdullah AH, Bakar AA, Salikin F, et al.
    Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2011;24(7):506-22.
    PMID: 22204085
    This is a national study which aims to determine the average waiting time in Malaysian public hospitals and to gauge the level of patient satisfaction with the waiting time. It also aims to identify factors perceived by healthcare providers which contribute to the waiting time problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/organization & administration*
  15. Jarrar M, Abdul Rahman H, Don MS
    Glob J Health Sci, 2016;8(6):44132.
    PMID: 26755459 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n6p75
    Demand for health care service has significantly increased, while the quality of healthcare and patient safety has become national and international priorities. This paper aims to identify the gaps and the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/standards*
  16. Devi CR
    J Surg Oncol, 2014 Nov;110(6):643-4.
    PMID: 25125148 DOI: 10.1002/jso.23746
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care*
  17. Ho EL, Ng KH, Wong JH, Wang HB
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):204-8.
    PMID: 16898312
    Malaysia's mammography QA practice was surveyed based on the Malaysian Ministry of Health and the American College of Radiology (ACR) requirements. Data on mammography unit, processor, image receptor, exposure factors, mean glandular dose (MGD), sensitometry, image quality and viewbox luminance were obtained. Mean developer temperature and cycle time were 34.1 +/- 1.8degreesC and 107.7 +/- 33.2 seconds. Mean base+fog level, speed index and contrast index were 0.20+/-0.01, 1.20+/-0.01 and 1.33+/-0.26 respectively. Eighty-six percent of the fifty centres passed the image quality test while 12.5% complied with ACR recommended viewbox luminance. Average MGD was 1.0+/-0.4 mGy. Malaysia is on the right track for QA but with room for total quality improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care*
  18. Ng KH, Jamal N, DeWerd L
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2006;121(4):445-51.
    PMID: 16709704
    The systematic monitoring of image quality and radiation dose is an ultimate solution to ensuring the continuously high quality of mammography examination. At present several protocols exist around the world, and different test objects are used for quality control (QC) of the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography. This situation may lead to differences in radiation image quality and dose reported. This article reviews the global QC perspective for the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography with regard to image quality and radiation dose. It points out issues that must be resolved in terms of radiation dose and that also affect the comparison.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/standards*
  19. Ayob Y
    Dev Biol (Basel), 2007;127:169-73.
    PMID: 17486890
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care/standards*
  20. Khoo JJ
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Mar;59(1):50-5.
    PMID: 15535336 MyJurnal
    A 4-year-review was carried out on intraoperative frozen section consultations in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru. Two hundred and fifteen specimens were received from 79 patients in the period between January 1999 and December 2002. An average of 2.72 specimens per patient was received. The overall diagnostic accuracy was high, 97.56%. The diagnoses were deferred in 4.65% of the specimens. False positive diagnoses were made in 3 specimens (1.46%) and false negative diagnoses in 2 specimens (0.98%). This gave an error rate of 2.44%. The main cause of error was incorrect interpretation of the pathologic findings. In the present study, frozen sections showed good sensitivity (97.98%) and specificity (97.16%). Despite its limitations, frozen section is still generally considered to be an accurate mode of intraoperative consultation to assist the surgeon in deciding the best therapeutic approach for his patient at the operating table. The use of frozen section with proper indications was cost-effective as it helped lower the number of reoperations. An audit of intraoperative frozen section from time to time serves as part of an ongoing quality assurance program and should be recommended where the service is available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Quality Assurance, Health Care*
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