METHODS AND RESULTS: APD in ∼50 isolated cells from subregions of the LV free wall of rabbit hearts were measured using a voltage-sensitive dye. When stimulated at 2 Hz, average APD90 value in cells from the basal epicardial region was 254 ± 25 ms (mean ± standard deviation) in 17 hearts with a mean interquartile range (IQR) of 53 ± 17 ms. Endo-epicardial and apical-basal APD90 differences accounted for ∼10% of the IQR value. Highly variable changes in APD occurred after IK(r) or ICa(L) block that included a sub-population of cells (HR) with an exaggerated (hyper) response to IK(r) inhibition. A set of 4471 AP models matching the experimental APD90 distribution was generated from a larger population of models created by random variation of the maximum conductances (Gmax) of 8 key ion channels/exchangers/pumps. This set reproduced the pattern of cell-specific responses to ICa(L) and IK(r) block, including the HR sub-population. The models exhibited a wide range of Gmax values with constrained relationships linking ICa(L) with IK(r), ICl, INCX, and INaK.
CONCLUSION: Modelling the measured range of inter-cell APDs required a larger range of key Gmax values indicating that ventricular tissue has considerable inter-cell variation in channel/pump/exchanger activity. AP morphology is retained by relationships linking specific ionic conductances. These interrelationships are necessary for stable repolarization despite large inter-cell variation of individual conductances and this explains the variable sensitivity to ion channel block.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an injectable HA hydrogel to maintain disc height and tissue hydration, promote structural repair, and attenuate inflammation and innervation in the lumbar discs.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previously, we have demonstrated that HA hydrogel alleviated inflammation, innervation, and pain to promote disc repair. Nevertheless, the effect of an injectable HA hydrogel in the lumbar disc in a weight-bearing animal model was not performed.
METHODS: We have adopted a surgically puncture-induced disc injury at lumbar levels in a rabbit model. The discs were grouped into sham, puncture with water injection, and puncture with HA hydrogel injection. Postoperatively, we measured changes in disc height using x-ray. We used magnetic resonance imaging to assess disc degeneration on tissue hydration after euthanasia. Post-mortem, we determined histological changes, innervation (PGP9.5) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) in the discs.
RESULTS: We have demonstrated a significant reduction of disc height and T2/T1ρ mapping with histological evidence of degenerative discs, increase of innervation and inflammation in puncture-induced disc injury over time. In the HA hydrogel group, disc height was increased at weeks four and eight. A slight increase of T2 mapping, but significantly in T1ρ mapping, was observed in the HA hydrogel group at week 8. We observed homogenous NP distribution and organised AF lamellae at week eight and a slight reduced innervation score in the treatment group. HA hydrogel significantly downregulated IL-6 expression at day 1. This, however, was only slightly reduced for IL-1β and TNF-α.
CONCLUSION: An injectable HA hydrogel had the protective effects in suppressing the loss of disc height, promoting tissue hydration for structural repair, and attenuating inflammation and innervation to prevent further disc degeneration.Level of Evidence: N/A.
PURPOSE: This study reports on the first finding of Psychoda larvae collected from decomposing rabbit carcasses placed in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia.
METHODS: The larvae were first observed on rabbit carcasses and were collected using tweezers and carefully preserved in 70% ethanol. They were subsequently mounted on microscopy slides using Hoyer's medium and identified as Psychoda sp. morphologically. The identification was also confirmed through a DNA barcoding analysis.
RESULTS: Psychoda sp. larvae were collected on day-10 post-mortem where the rabbit carcasses were at the advanced decay stage of decomposition. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences of the larvae had 90% similarity with the Psychoda spp. in the database.
CONCLUSION: The finding of these larvae on carrion may provide additional valuable insights into forensic entomology and may assist in death investigations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five male New Zealand White rabbits weighed between 1.5 and 4.0 kg were anesthetized and their livers were exposed. 18 liver biopsies were performed under control group (without tract ablation, n = 9) and study group (with tract ablation, n = 9) settings. The needle insertion depth (~3 cm) and rate of retraction (~3 mm/s) were fixed in all the experiments. For tract ablation, three different needle temperatures (100, 120 and 150 °C) were compared. The blood loss at each biopsy site was measured by weighing the gauze pads before and after blood absorption. The rabbits were euthanized immediately and the liver specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) for further histopathological examination (HPE).
RESULTS: The average blood loss in the study group was reduced significantly (p