OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the proximal thoracic (PT) flexibility and its compensatory ability above the "potential UIV."
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Shoulder and neck imbalance can be caused by overcorrection of the main thoracic (MT) curve due to inability of PT segment to compensate.
METHODS: Cervical supine side bending (CSB) radiographs of 100 Lenke 1 and 2 patients were studied. We further stratified Lenke 1 curves into Lenke 1-ve: PT side bending (PTSB) 80.0% of cases of the PT segment were unable to compensate at T3-T6. In Lenke 1+ve curves, 78.4% were unable to compensate at T6, followed by T5 (75.7%), T4 (73.0%), T3 (59.5%), T2 (27.0%), and T1 (21.6%). In Lenke 1-ve curves, 36.4% of cases were unable to compensate at T6, followed by T5 (45.5%), T4 (45.5%), T3 (30.3%), T2 (21.2%), and T1 (15.2%). A significant difference between Lenke 1-ve and Lenke 1+ve was observed from T3 to T6. The difference between Lenke 1+ve and Lenke 2 curves was significant only at T2.
CONCLUSION: The compensation ability and the flexibility of the PT segments of Lenke 1-ve and Lenke 1+ve curves were different. Lenke 1+ve curves demonstrated similar characteristics to Lenke 2 curves.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.
METHODS: Jordanian and Malaysian medical students from our institution were invited to participate in the study. General demographic data and factors affecting joint laxity were obtained from each participant using a printed questionnaire. Both knees were examined using the anterior drawer test while in 90° of flexion. Knee laxity was measured by three separate independent investigators through a knee laxity tester.
RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-six participants (95 females) were enrolled in the study. Among them, 108 Malaysians participated. The Jordanians had significantly higher knee laxity in both knees compared with the Malaysians. The mean average right knee laxity for Jordanians was 2.98 mm vs. 2.72 mm for Malaysians (P = 0.005). Similarly, the mean average left knee laxity for Jordanians was 2.95 mm, while for Malaysians, it was 2.62 mm (P = 0.0001). Furthermore, smokers had significantly more laxity in both knees. After performing a multivariate linear regression analysis for all factors, race was the only independent factor that affected knee laxity in both knees.
CONCLUSIONS: Race is directly associated with knee laxity. Jordanians tend to have more laxity in knee joints compared with Malaysians. Larger multi-center and genetic studies are recommended to establish the racial differences between different ethnic groups.
METHODS: Seventy clavicle fractures were non-surgically treated in the Orthopedics Department at the Tuanku Ja'afar General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Seremban, Malaysia, an average of six months after injury. The clavicle fractures were treated conservatively with an arm sling and a figure-eight splint for three weeks. No attempt was made to reduce displaced fractures, and the patients were allowed immediate free-shoulder mobilization, as tolerated. They were prospectively evaluated clinically and radiographically. Shoulder function was evaluated using the Constant scoring technique.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant functional outcome impairments in non-surgically treated clavicle fractures that correlated with the fracture type (comminution), the fracture displacement (21 mm or more), shortening (15 mm or more) and the fracture union (malunion).
CONCLUSION: This article reveals the need for surgical intervention to treat clavicle fractures and improve shoulder functional outcomes.