Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 58 in total

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  1. Lee W, Syed Atif A, Tan SC, Leow CH
    J Immunol Methods, 2017 08;447:71-85.
    PMID: 28502720 DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2017.05.001
    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  2. Chua CL, Sam IC, Chan YF
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1426:51-61.
    PMID: 27233260 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3618-2_5
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus which poses a major threat to global public health. Definitive CHIKV diagnosis is crucial, especially in distinguishing the disease from dengue virus, which co-circulates in endemic areas and shares the same mosquito vectors. Laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serological or molecular approaches. The E2 glycoprotein is a good candidate for serological diagnosis since it is the immunodominant antigen during the course of infection, and reacts with seropositive CHIKV sera. In this chapter, we describe the generation of stable clone Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells expressing secreted, soluble, and native recombinant CHIKV E2 glycoprotein. We use direct plasmid expression in insect cells, rather than the traditional technique of generating recombinant baculovirus. This recombinant protein is useful for serological diagnosis of CHIKV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  3. Mirzadeh A, Saadatnia G, Golkar M, Babaie J, Noordin R
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2017 05;133:66-74.
    PMID: 28263855 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2017.03.001
    SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The refolding process was performed through three methods, namely dialysis in the presence of chemical additives along with reduced/oxidized glutathione and drop-wise dilution methods with reduced/oxidized glutathione or reduced DTT/oxidized glutathione. Ellman's assay and ELISA showed that the protein folding obtained by the dialysis method was the most favorable, probably due to the correct folding. Subsequently, serum samples from individuals with chronic infection (n = 76), probable acute infection (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 81) were used to determine the usefulness of the refolded rtSRS3 for Toxoplasma serodiagnosis. The results of the developed IgG-ELISA showed a diagnostic specificity of 91% and a sensitivity of 82.89% and 100% for chronic and acute serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, correctly folded rtSRS3 has the potential to be used as a soluble antigen for the detection of human toxoplasmosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  4. Ng WK, Lim TS, Lai NS
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2018 Jul;65(4):547-553.
    PMID: 29280199 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1636
    A critical challenge in producing an antibody-based assay with the highest reproducibility and sensitivity is the strategy to immobilize antibodies to solid phase. To date, numerous methods of antibody immobilization were reported but each was subjected to its advantages and limitations. The current study proposes a new potential antibody binding protein, the human neonatal fragment crystallizable (Fc) receptor. This protein has shown its high affinity to the Fc of antibody either in vivo or in vitro. Human neonatal Fc receptor is a heterodimer constructed by p51 α-heavy chain and β2-microglobulin light chain; however, the binding sites toward the antibody are located in the p51 α-heavy chain. Hence, vector cloning and recombinant protein expression were carried out to express the p51 α-heavy chain of the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn-α). The recombinant protein expressed, hFcRn-α, was adopted to pin rabbit IgG against hepatitis B virus surface antigen to a solid phase. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was further developed to evaluate the efficiency of hFcRn-α-directed immobilization in antigen detection. The result was compared with the conventional physical adsorption method. The findings demonstrated that human neonatal Fc receptor was efficient in pinning antibodies and generating higher signals compared with the physical adsorption of antibody.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  5. Yunus MH, Arifin N, Balachandra D, Anuar NS, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2019 08;101(2):432-435.
    PMID: 31218996 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0053
    The conventional method of detecting Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples has poor diagnostic sensitivity. Detection of Strongyloides-specific antibodies increases the sensitivity; however, most tests are ELISAs that use parasite extract which may cross-react with the sera of other helminth infections. To improve the serological diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, this study aimed at developing a sensitive and specific lateral flow rapid dipstick test. Two recombinant proteins, recombinant NIE (rNIE) and recombinant Ss1a (rSs1a), were used in preparing the dipstick, with gold-conjugated antihuman IgG4 as detector reagent. In parallel, the corresponding ELISA was performed. Both assays demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity of 91.3% (21/23) when tested with serum samples of patients with Strongyloides infection, and 100% specificity with 82 sera of asymptomatic (healthy) and those with other parasitic infections. The ELISA and dipstick test results were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.6114, P = 0.0019). The developed lateral flow dipstick test may improve the serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis and merit further validation studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  6. Lee PY, Gam LH, Yong VC, Rosli R, Ng KP, Chong PP
    J Appl Microbiol, 2014 Sep;117(3):854-65.
    PMID: 24909754 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12562
    This study was conducted to identify antigenic proteins of Candida tropicalis that are targeted by the host immune system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  7. Cheong FW, Lau YL, Fong MY, Mahmud R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2013 May;88(5):835-40.
    PMID: 23509118 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0250
    Plasmodium knowlesi is now known as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein (MSP) has been reported to be potential target for vaccination and diagnosis of malaria. MSP-1(33) has been shown to be immunogenic and its T cell epitopes could mediate cellular immune protection. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-133. In this study, an approximately 28-kDa recombinant P. knowlesi MSP-1(33) (pkMSP-1(33)) was expressed by using an Escherichia coli system. The purified pkMSP-1(33) reacted with serum samples of patients infected with P. knowlesi (31 of 31, 100%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria (27 of 28, 96.43%) by Western blotting. The pkMSP-1(33) also reacted with P. knowlesi (25 of 31, 80.65%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria sera (20 of 28, 71.43%) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the non-malarial infection (49 of 52 in by Western blotting and 46 of 52 in the ELISA) and healthy donor serum samples (65 of 65 by Western blotting and ELISA) did not react with recombinant pkMSP-1(33).
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  8. Yap WB, Tey BT, Alitheen NB, Tan WS
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2012 Jan;113(1):26-9.
    PMID: 22024533 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2011.09.007
    The C-terminal domain of Nipah virus (NiV) nucleocapsid protein (NP₄₀₁₋₅₃₂) was inserted at the N-terminus and the immunodominant loop of hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). The stability of NP₄₀₁₋₅₃₂ increased tremendously when displayed on the HBc particles. These particles reacted specifically with the swine anti-NiV and the human anti-HBc antisera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  9. Kotresha D, Noordin R
    APMIS, 2010 Aug;118(8):529-42.
    PMID: 20666734 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2010.02629.x
    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human pathogen with a worldwide distribution. It is primarily of medical importance for pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Primary infection of the former is often associated with fetal infection, which can lead to abortion or severe neonatal malformation. Immunocompromised patients are at risk of contracting the severe form of the disease that may be fatal. Thus, detection of T. gondii infection with high sensitivity and specificity is crucial in the management of the disease. Toxoplasmosis is generally diagnosed by demonstrating specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to toxoplasma antigens in the patient's serum sample. Most of the commercially available tests use T. gondii native antigens and display wide variations in test accuracy. Recombinant antigens have great potential as diagnostic reagents for use in assays to detect toxoplasmosis. Thus in this review, we address recent advances in the use of Toxoplasma recombinant proteins for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  10. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Vaccine, 2010 Jul 12;28(31):5005-11.
    PMID: 20546831 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.022
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, leading to relapse and recrudescence of melioidosis after cessation of antibiotic therapy. More effective immunotherapies are needed for better management of melioidosis. We evaluated the prophylactic potential of the immunogenic outer membrane protein Omp85 as a vaccine against murine melioidosis. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant Omp85 (rOmp85) triggered a Th2-type immune response. Up to 70% of the immunized animals were protected against infectious challenge of B. pseudomallei with reduced bacterial load in extrapulmonary organs. Mouse anti-rOmp85 promoted complement-mediated killing and opsonophagocytosis of B. pseudomallei by human polymorphonuclear cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei Omp85 is potentially able to induce protective immunity against melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  11. Rapeah S, Dhaniah M, Nurul AA, Norazmi MN
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):461-9.
    PMID: 21399587 MyJurnal
    Macrophages are involved in innate immunity against malaria due to their ability to phagocytose infected erythrocytes and produce inflammatory cytokines, which are important for controlling parasite growth during malaria infection. In this study, the ability of a recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine expressing the 19-kDa C-terminus of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1-C) of Plasmodium falciparum, to stimulate the phagocytic activity and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the macrophage cell line J774A.1 was measured at varying times. The results demonstrate the ability of the rBCG construct to activate the inflammatory action of macrophages, which is important as a first-line of defence in clearing malaria infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  12. Wong SK, Tan WS, Omar AR, Tan CS, Yusoff K
    Acta Virol., 2009;53(1):35-41.
    PMID: 19301949
    Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays a vital role in the viral infectivity, host immunity, and disease diagnosis. A portion of the HN gene encoding the ectodomain (nt 142-1739) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli yielding an insoluble HN protein and a soluble NusA-HN protein containing N-utilization substance A (NusA) fusion component. Both recombinant proteins were purified and used for immunization of chickens. The recombinant HN protein induced higher antibody titers as compared to the recombinant NusA-HN protein. These antibodies were able to react in immunoblot analysis with the corresponding recombinant proteins as well as with the HN protein of NDV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  13. Fong MY, Lau YL, Zulqarnain M
    Biotechnol Lett, 2008 Apr;30(4):611-8.
    PMID: 18043869
    The surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene of the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, was cloned and extracellularly expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The effectiveness of the secreted recombinant SAG2 (rSAG2-S) as a serodiagnosis reagent was assessed by western blots and ELISA. In the western blot assay, rSAG2-S reacted with all Toxoplasma-antibody positive human serum samples but not with Toxoplasma-negative samples. In the ELISA, rSAG2-S yielded sensitivity rates ranging from 80% (IgG negative, IgM positive) to 100% (IgG positive, IgM negative). In vivo experiments showed that serum from mice immunized with rSAG2-S reacted specifically with the native SAG2 of T. gondii. These mice were protected when challenged with live cells of T. gondii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  14. Lim CS, Goh SL, Kariapper L, Krishnan G, Lim YY, Ng CC
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2015 Aug 25;448:206-10.
    PMID: 26164385 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2015.07.008
    Development of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) often utilizes synthetic peptides or recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli as immobilized antigens. Because inclusion bodies (IBs) formed during recombinant protein expression in E. coli are commonly thought as misfolded aggregates, only refolded proteins from IBs are used to develop new or in-house diagnostic assays. However, the promising utilities of IBs as nanomaterials and immobilized enzymes as shown in recent studies have led us to explore the potential use of IBs of recombinant Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen p18 (VCA p18) as immobilized antigens in ELISAs for serologic detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  15. Yeo AS, Rathakrishnan A, Wang SM, Ponnampalavanar S, Manikam R, Sathar J, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:420867.
    PMID: 25815314 DOI: 10.1155/2015/420867
    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  16. Teh AY, Amerizadeh A, Osman S, Yunus MH, Noordin R
    Pathog Glob Health, 2016 Oct-Dec;110(7-8):277-286.
    PMID: 27697019
    The IgG avidity assay is an important tool in the management of suspected toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. This study aimed to produce new Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins and to assess their usefulness in an IgG avidity assay. Toxoplasma positive and negative serum samples were used, the former were categorized into low (LGA) and high (HGA) IgG avidity samples. Immunoblots were performed on 30 T. gondii cDNA clones to determine the reactivity and IgG avidity to the expressed proteins. Two of the clones were found to have diagnostic potential and were analyzed further; AG12b encoded T. gondii apical complex lysine methyltransferase (AKMT) protein and AG18 encoded T. gondii forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-containing protein. The His-tagged recombinant proteins, rAG12b and rAG18, were expressed and tested with LGA and HGA samples using an IgG avidity western blot and ELISA. With the IgG avidity western blot, rAG12b identified 86.4% of LGA and 90.9% of HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 81.8% of both LGA and HGA samples. With the IgG avidity ELISA, rAG12b identified 86.4% of both LGA and HGA samples, whereas rAG18 identified 77.3% of LGA and 86.4% of HGA serum samples. This study showed that the recombinant antigens were able to differentiate low avidity and high avidity serum samples, suggesting that they are potential candidates for use in the Toxoplasma IgG avidity assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  17. Kuo IC, Cheong N, Trakultivakorn M, Lee BW, Chua KY
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2003 Mar;111(3):603-9.
    PMID: 12642844
    BACKGROUND: Dual sensitization by Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites is common in tropical and subtropical countries. The human IgE cross-reactivity between clinical important group 5 allergens, Blo t 5 and Der p 5, remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of the IgE cross-reactivity between Blo t 5 and Der p 5 by using sera from a large cohort of asthmatic children in subtropical and tropical countries.

    METHODS: Purified recombinant Blo t 5 and Der p 5 were produced in Pichia pastoris and tested against sera from 195 asthmatic children. The IgE cross-reactivity was examined by direct, inhibitory and competitive human IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as skin prick tests.

    RESULTS: The Blo t 5 IgE responses were 91.8% (134 of 146) and 73.5% (36 of 49) for Taiwanese and Malaysian sera, respectively. The Blo t 5 specific IgE titers were significantly higher than those of Der p 5 (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  18. Leow CY, Willis C, Chuah C, Leow CH, Jones M
    Parasite Immunol., 2020 03;42(3):e12693.
    PMID: 31880816 DOI: 10.1111/pim.12693
    AIMS: Schistosomes infect approximately 250 million people worldwide. To date, there is no effective vaccine available for the prevention of schistosome infection in endemic regions. There remains a need to develop means to confer long-term protection of individuals against reinfection. In this study, an annexin, namely annexin B30, which is highly expressed in the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni was selected to evaluate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a mouse model.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Bioinformatics analysis showed that there were three potential linear B-cell epitopes and four conformational B-cell epitopes predicted from annexin B30, respectively. Full-length annexin B30 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). In the presence of adjuvants, the soluble recombinant protein was evaluated for its protective efficacy in two independent vaccine trials. Immunization of CBA mice with recombinant annexin B30 formulated either in alum only or alum/CpG induced a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine profile but no significant protection against schistosome infection was detected.

    CONCLUSION: Recombinant annexin B30 did not confer significant protection against the parasite. The molecule may not be suitable for vaccine development. However, it could be an ideal biomarker recommended for immunodiagnostics development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  19. Lai JY, Klatt S, Lim TS
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2019 May;39(3):380-394.
    PMID: 30720351 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2019.1566206
    Through the discovery of monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology, profound successes in medical treatment against a wide range of diseases have been achieved. This has led antibodies to emerge as a new class of biodrugs. As the "rising star" in the pharmaceutical market, extensive research and development in antibody production has been carried out in various expression systems including bacteria, insects, plants, yeasts, and mammalian cell lines. The major benefit of eukaryotic expression systems is the ability to carry out posttranslational modifications of the antibody. Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies is one of these important modifications, due to its influence on antibody structure, stability, serum half-life, and complement recruitment. In recent years, the protozoan parasite Leishmania tarentolae has been introduced as a new eukaryotic expression system. L. tarentolae is rich in glycoproteins with oligosaccharide structures that are very similar to humans. Therefore, it is touted as a potential alternative to mammalian expression systems for therapeutic antibody production. Here, we present a comparative review on the features of the L. tarentolae expression system with other expression platforms such as bacteria, insect cells, yeasts, transgenic plants, and mammalian cells with a focus on mAb production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  20. Kaku Y, Park ES, Noguchi A, Inoue S, Lunt R, Malbas FF, et al.
    J Virol Methods, 2019 07;269:83-87.
    PMID: 30954461 DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.03.009
    A novel indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for detection of IgM against Nipah virus (NiV) was developed using HeLa 229 cells expressing recombinant NiV nucleocapsid protein (NiV-N). The NiV IFAT was evaluated using three panels of sera: a) experimentally produced sera from NiV-N-immunized/pre-immunized macaques, b) post-infection human sera associated with a Nipah disease outbreak in the Philippines in 2014, and c) human sera from a non-exposed Malaysian population. Immunized macaque sera showed a characteristic granular staining pattern of the NiV-N expressed antigen in HeLa 229 cells, which was readily distinguished from negative-binding results of the pre-immunized macaque sera. The IgM antibody titers in sequential serum samples (n = 7) obtained from three Nipah patients correlated well with previously published results using conventional IgM capture ELISA and SNT serology. The 90 human serum samples from unexposed persons were unreactive by IFAT. The IFAT utilizing NiV-N-expressing HeLa 229 cells to detect IgM antibody in an early stage of NiV infection is an effective approach, which could be utilized readily in local laboratories to complement other capabilities in NiV-affected countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
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