Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

  1. Lee W, Syed Atif A, Tan SC, Leow CH
    J Immunol Methods, 2017 08;447:71-85.
    PMID: 28502720 DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2017.05.001
    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  2. Chua CL, Sam IC, Chan YF
    Methods Mol Biol, 2016;1426:51-61.
    PMID: 27233260 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3618-2_5
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus which poses a major threat to global public health. Definitive CHIKV diagnosis is crucial, especially in distinguishing the disease from dengue virus, which co-circulates in endemic areas and shares the same mosquito vectors. Laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on serological or molecular approaches. The E2 glycoprotein is a good candidate for serological diagnosis since it is the immunodominant antigen during the course of infection, and reacts with seropositive CHIKV sera. In this chapter, we describe the generation of stable clone Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells expressing secreted, soluble, and native recombinant CHIKV E2 glycoprotein. We use direct plasmid expression in insect cells, rather than the traditional technique of generating recombinant baculovirus. This recombinant protein is useful for serological diagnosis of CHIKV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  3. Mirzadeh A, Saadatnia G, Golkar M, Babaie J, Noordin R
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2017 05;133:66-74.
    PMID: 28263855 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2017.03.001
    SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The refolding process was performed through three methods, namely dialysis in the presence of chemical additives along with reduced/oxidized glutathione and drop-wise dilution methods with reduced/oxidized glutathione or reduced DTT/oxidized glutathione. Ellman's assay and ELISA showed that the protein folding obtained by the dialysis method was the most favorable, probably due to the correct folding. Subsequently, serum samples from individuals with chronic infection (n = 76), probable acute infection (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 81) were used to determine the usefulness of the refolded rtSRS3 for Toxoplasma serodiagnosis. The results of the developed IgG-ELISA showed a diagnostic specificity of 91% and a sensitivity of 82.89% and 100% for chronic and acute serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, correctly folded rtSRS3 has the potential to be used as a soluble antigen for the detection of human toxoplasmosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  4. Yunus MH, Arifin N, Balachandra D, Anuar NS, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2019 08;101(2):432-435.
    PMID: 31218996 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0053
    The conventional method of detecting Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples has poor diagnostic sensitivity. Detection of Strongyloides-specific antibodies increases the sensitivity; however, most tests are ELISAs that use parasite extract which may cross-react with the sera of other helminth infections. To improve the serological diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, this study aimed at developing a sensitive and specific lateral flow rapid dipstick test. Two recombinant proteins, recombinant NIE (rNIE) and recombinant Ss1a (rSs1a), were used in preparing the dipstick, with gold-conjugated antihuman IgG4 as detector reagent. In parallel, the corresponding ELISA was performed. Both assays demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity of 91.3% (21/23) when tested with serum samples of patients with Strongyloides infection, and 100% specificity with 82 sera of asymptomatic (healthy) and those with other parasitic infections. The ELISA and dipstick test results were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.6114, P = 0.0019). The developed lateral flow dipstick test may improve the serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis and merit further validation studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  5. Nakamura C, Liu MM, Goo YK, Zhang GH, Jia HL, Kumagai A, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Dec 01;37(4):1029-1037.
    PMID: 33612755 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.4.1029
    Previously, we have identified a gene encoding thrombospondin-related anonymous protein of Babesia gibsoni (BgTRAP), and have shown that the antisera raised against recombinant BgTRAP expressed in Escherichia coli inhibited the growth of parasites. In the present study, a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the BgTRAP (VV/BgTRAP) was constructed. A specific band with a molecular mass of 80 kDa, which is similar to that of native BgTRAP on the merozoites of B. gibsoni, was detected in the supernatant of VV/ BgTRAP-infected RK13 cells. Mice inoculated with VV/BgTRAP produced a specific antiBgTRAP response. The antiserum against VV/BgTRAP showed reactivity against the native BgTRAP on parasites. These results indicated that the recombinant vaccinia virus expressing BgTRAP might be a vaccine candidate against canine B. gibsoni infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  6. Azemi NFH, Misnan R, Keong BP, Mokhtar M, Kamaruddin N, Fah WC, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Oct;48(10):6709-6718.
    PMID: 34427887 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-021-06661-x
    BACKGROUND: Tropomyosin is a major allergen in crustaceans, including mud crab species, but its molecular and allergenic properties in Scylla olivacea are not well known. Thus, this study aimed to produce the recombinant tropomyosin protein from S. olivacea and subsequently investigate its IgE reactivity.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The tropomyosin gene was cloned and expressed in the Escherichia coli system, followed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting test to identify the allergenic potential of the recombinant protein. The 855-base pair of tropomyosin gene produced was found to be 99.18% homologous to Scylla serrata. Its 284 amino acids matched the tropomyosin of crustaceans, arachnids, insects, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, ranging from 79.03 to 95.77%. The tropomyosin contained 89.44% alpha-helix folding with a tertiary structure of two-chain alpha-helical coiled-coil structures comprising a homodimer heptad chain. IPTG-induced histidine tagged-recombinant tropomyosin was purified at the size of 42 kDa and confirmed as tropomyosin using anti-tropomyosin monoclonal antibodies. The IgE binding of recombinant tropomyosin protein was reactive in 90.9% (20/22) of the sera from crab-allergic patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has successfully produced an allergenic recombinant tropomyosin from S. olivacea. This recombinant tropomyosin may be used as a specific allergen for the diagnosis of allergy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology*
  7. Ng WK, Lim TS, Lai NS
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2018 Jul;65(4):547-553.
    PMID: 29280199 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1636
    A critical challenge in producing an antibody-based assay with the highest reproducibility and sensitivity is the strategy to immobilize antibodies to solid phase. To date, numerous methods of antibody immobilization were reported but each was subjected to its advantages and limitations. The current study proposes a new potential antibody binding protein, the human neonatal fragment crystallizable (Fc) receptor. This protein has shown its high affinity to the Fc of antibody either in vivo or in vitro. Human neonatal Fc receptor is a heterodimer constructed by p51 α-heavy chain and β2-microglobulin light chain; however, the binding sites toward the antibody are located in the p51 α-heavy chain. Hence, vector cloning and recombinant protein expression were carried out to express the p51 α-heavy chain of the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn-α). The recombinant protein expressed, hFcRn-α, was adopted to pin rabbit IgG against hepatitis B virus surface antigen to a solid phase. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was further developed to evaluate the efficiency of hFcRn-α-directed immobilization in antigen detection. The result was compared with the conventional physical adsorption method. The findings demonstrated that human neonatal Fc receptor was efficient in pinning antibodies and generating higher signals compared with the physical adsorption of antibody.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  8. Lee PY, Gam LH, Yong VC, Rosli R, Ng KP, Chong PP
    J Appl Microbiol, 2014 Sep;117(3):854-65.
    PMID: 24909754 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12562
    This study was conducted to identify antigenic proteins of Candida tropicalis that are targeted by the host immune system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  9. Cheong FW, Lau YL, Fong MY, Mahmud R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2013 May;88(5):835-40.
    PMID: 23509118 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0250
    Plasmodium knowlesi is now known as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein (MSP) has been reported to be potential target for vaccination and diagnosis of malaria. MSP-1(33) has been shown to be immunogenic and its T cell epitopes could mediate cellular immune protection. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-133. In this study, an approximately 28-kDa recombinant P. knowlesi MSP-1(33) (pkMSP-1(33)) was expressed by using an Escherichia coli system. The purified pkMSP-1(33) reacted with serum samples of patients infected with P. knowlesi (31 of 31, 100%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria (27 of 28, 96.43%) by Western blotting. The pkMSP-1(33) also reacted with P. knowlesi (25 of 31, 80.65%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria sera (20 of 28, 71.43%) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the non-malarial infection (49 of 52 in by Western blotting and 46 of 52 in the ELISA) and healthy donor serum samples (65 of 65 by Western blotting and ELISA) did not react with recombinant pkMSP-1(33).
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  10. Yap WB, Tey BT, Alitheen NB, Tan WS
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2012 Jan;113(1):26-9.
    PMID: 22024533 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2011.09.007
    The C-terminal domain of Nipah virus (NiV) nucleocapsid protein (NP₄₀₁₋₅₃₂) was inserted at the N-terminus and the immunodominant loop of hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). The stability of NP₄₀₁₋₅₃₂ increased tremendously when displayed on the HBc particles. These particles reacted specifically with the swine anti-NiV and the human anti-HBc antisera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  11. Kotresha D, Noordin R
    APMIS, 2010 Aug;118(8):529-42.
    PMID: 20666734 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2010.02629.x
    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human pathogen with a worldwide distribution. It is primarily of medical importance for pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Primary infection of the former is often associated with fetal infection, which can lead to abortion or severe neonatal malformation. Immunocompromised patients are at risk of contracting the severe form of the disease that may be fatal. Thus, detection of T. gondii infection with high sensitivity and specificity is crucial in the management of the disease. Toxoplasmosis is generally diagnosed by demonstrating specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to toxoplasma antigens in the patient's serum sample. Most of the commercially available tests use T. gondii native antigens and display wide variations in test accuracy. Recombinant antigens have great potential as diagnostic reagents for use in assays to detect toxoplasmosis. Thus in this review, we address recent advances in the use of Toxoplasma recombinant proteins for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  12. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Vaccine, 2010 Jul 12;28(31):5005-11.
    PMID: 20546831 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.022
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, leading to relapse and recrudescence of melioidosis after cessation of antibiotic therapy. More effective immunotherapies are needed for better management of melioidosis. We evaluated the prophylactic potential of the immunogenic outer membrane protein Omp85 as a vaccine against murine melioidosis. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant Omp85 (rOmp85) triggered a Th2-type immune response. Up to 70% of the immunized animals were protected against infectious challenge of B. pseudomallei with reduced bacterial load in extrapulmonary organs. Mouse anti-rOmp85 promoted complement-mediated killing and opsonophagocytosis of B. pseudomallei by human polymorphonuclear cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei Omp85 is potentially able to induce protective immunity against melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  13. Wong SK, Tan WS, Omar AR, Tan CS, Yusoff K
    Acta Virol., 2009;53(1):35-41.
    PMID: 19301949
    Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays a vital role in the viral infectivity, host immunity, and disease diagnosis. A portion of the HN gene encoding the ectodomain (nt 142-1739) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli yielding an insoluble HN protein and a soluble NusA-HN protein containing N-utilization substance A (NusA) fusion component. Both recombinant proteins were purified and used for immunization of chickens. The recombinant HN protein induced higher antibody titers as compared to the recombinant NusA-HN protein. These antibodies were able to react in immunoblot analysis with the corresponding recombinant proteins as well as with the HN protein of NDV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  14. Fong MY, Lau YL, Zulqarnain M
    Biotechnol Lett, 2008 Apr;30(4):611-8.
    PMID: 18043869
    The surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene of the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, was cloned and extracellularly expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The effectiveness of the secreted recombinant SAG2 (rSAG2-S) as a serodiagnosis reagent was assessed by western blots and ELISA. In the western blot assay, rSAG2-S reacted with all Toxoplasma-antibody positive human serum samples but not with Toxoplasma-negative samples. In the ELISA, rSAG2-S yielded sensitivity rates ranging from 80% (IgG negative, IgM positive) to 100% (IgG positive, IgM negative). In vivo experiments showed that serum from mice immunized with rSAG2-S reacted specifically with the native SAG2 of T. gondii. These mice were protected when challenged with live cells of T. gondii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  15. Yeo AS, Rathakrishnan A, Wang SM, Ponnampalavanar S, Manikam R, Sathar J, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:420867.
    PMID: 25815314 DOI: 10.1155/2015/420867
    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  16. Kuo IC, Cheong N, Trakultivakorn M, Lee BW, Chua KY
    J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2003 Mar;111(3):603-9.
    PMID: 12642844
    BACKGROUND: Dual sensitization by Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites is common in tropical and subtropical countries. The human IgE cross-reactivity between clinical important group 5 allergens, Blo t 5 and Der p 5, remains controversial.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of the IgE cross-reactivity between Blo t 5 and Der p 5 by using sera from a large cohort of asthmatic children in subtropical and tropical countries.

    METHODS: Purified recombinant Blo t 5 and Der p 5 were produced in Pichia pastoris and tested against sera from 195 asthmatic children. The IgE cross-reactivity was examined by direct, inhibitory and competitive human IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as skin prick tests.

    RESULTS: The Blo t 5 IgE responses were 91.8% (134 of 146) and 73.5% (36 of 49) for Taiwanese and Malaysian sera, respectively. The Blo t 5 specific IgE titers were significantly higher than those of Der p 5 (P

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  17. Lai JY, Klatt S, Lim TS
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2019 May;39(3):380-394.
    PMID: 30720351 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2019.1566206
    Through the discovery of monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology, profound successes in medical treatment against a wide range of diseases have been achieved. This has led antibodies to emerge as a new class of biodrugs. As the "rising star" in the pharmaceutical market, extensive research and development in antibody production has been carried out in various expression systems including bacteria, insects, plants, yeasts, and mammalian cell lines. The major benefit of eukaryotic expression systems is the ability to carry out posttranslational modifications of the antibody. Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies is one of these important modifications, due to its influence on antibody structure, stability, serum half-life, and complement recruitment. In recent years, the protozoan parasite Leishmania tarentolae has been introduced as a new eukaryotic expression system. L. tarentolae is rich in glycoproteins with oligosaccharide structures that are very similar to humans. Therefore, it is touted as a potential alternative to mammalian expression systems for therapeutic antibody production. Here, we present a comparative review on the features of the L. tarentolae expression system with other expression platforms such as bacteria, insect cells, yeasts, transgenic plants, and mammalian cells with a focus on mAb production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  18. Ooi A, Tan S, Mohamed R, Rahman NA, Othman RY
    J Biotechnol, 2006 Feb 24;121(4):471-81.
    PMID: 16271415
    A cucumber green mosaic mottle virus (CGMMV) full-length clone was developed for the expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The expression of the surface displayed HBsAg by the chimeric virus was confirmed through a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Assessment of the coat protein composition of the chimeric virus particles by SDS-PAGE analysis showed that 50% of the coat proteins were fused to the HBsAg. Biological activity of the expressed HBsAg was assessed through the stimulation of in vitro antibody production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC that were cultured in the presence of the chimeric virus showed up to an approximately three-fold increase in the level of anti HBsAg immunoglobulin thus suggesting the possible use of this new chimeric virus as an effective Hepatitis B vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  19. Rapeah S, Dhaniah M, Nurul AA, Norazmi MN
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):461-9.
    PMID: 21399587 MyJurnal
    Macrophages are involved in innate immunity against malaria due to their ability to phagocytose infected erythrocytes and produce inflammatory cytokines, which are important for controlling parasite growth during malaria infection. In this study, the ability of a recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine expressing the 19-kDa C-terminus of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1-C) of Plasmodium falciparum, to stimulate the phagocytic activity and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the macrophage cell line J774A.1 was measured at varying times. The results demonstrate the ability of the rBCG construct to activate the inflammatory action of macrophages, which is important as a first-line of defence in clearing malaria infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  20. Ambily R, Mini M, Siju J, Vamshikrishna S, Abhinay G, Gleeja VL, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Sep 01;36(3):654-663.
    PMID: 33597487
    A study was undertaken to evaluate the relevance of detecting IgM and IgG antibodies in diagnosis of canine leptospirosis in Kerala, a southern state of India, which is endemic for the disease. A total of 205 blood (35 from healthy vaccinated, 30 from healthy unvaccinated and 140 from diseased dogs) and 151 urine samples (11 from healthy vaccinated and 140 from diseased dogs) were collected from three districts of Kerala, Thrissur, Palakkad and Kozhikode with high incidence of leptospirosis. Recombinant LipL41 protein was used as antigen and IgG and IgM based ELISAs were standardized. The results were compared with the gold standard test, microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The MAT positive samples (146 samples) were divided into those having titre >1:800 and those between 1:100 and 1:400 in view that the former constituted the acute cases. It was found that IgM ELISA was more specific and sensitive in detecting acute cases (MAT >1:800) whereas IgG ELISA was less specific. In case of seroprevalence studies (MAT titre 1:100 to 1: 400), IgG ELISA was found to be more sensitive and specific than IgM ELISA. Receiver operating characteristic curves when plotted, revealed the accuracy of IgM ELISA in acute leptospirosis. Many samples were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting lipl41 gene was standardized and urine and blood samples from the same dogs were tested. PCR was found to be the specific test for the early detection of leptospires in blood even before seroconversion. However, PCR analysis of the urine samples was found to be insensitive. Hence, it can be concluded that the diagnostic strategies should be modified, and a combination of serological and molecular tests is recommended in endemic areas rather than simple detection of IgM or IgG antibodies, for the early detection of acute clinical cases of leptospirosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/immunology
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