Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

  1. Azri S, Ujang U, Abdullah NS
    Waste Manag Res, 2023 Mar;41(3):687-700.
    PMID: 36129019 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X221123489
    Despite the government's policies and objectives, Malaysia lags behind in sustainable waste management techniques, particularly recycling. Bins should be located conveniently to encourage recycling and reduce waste. The current model of bin location-allocation is mostly determined by distance. However, it has been identified that previous studies excluded an important factor: litter pattern identification. Litter pattern is important to identify waste generation hotspots and litter distribution. Thus, we proposed the within cluster pattern identification (WCPI) approach to optimize the recycle point distribution. WCPI gathers the information on litter distribution using geotagged images and analyses the pattern distribution. The optimal location for recycle bin can be identified by incorporating k-means clustering to the pattern distribution. Since k-means faces the non-deterministic polynomial-time-hard challenge of selecting the ideal cluster and cluster centre, WCPI used the total within-cluster sum of square on top of k-means clustering. The proposed location by WCPI is validated in terms of accessibility and suitability. Furthermore, this study provides further analysis of carbon footprint that can be reduced by simulating the data from geotagged images. The results show that 10,323.55 kg of carbon emission can be reduced if the litter is sent for recycling. Thus, we believe that locating bins at an optimal location will embark on consumer motivation to dispose of recycled waste, reduce litter and lessen the carbon footprint. At the same time, these efforts could transform Malaysia into a clean and sustainable nation that aims to achieve Agenda 2030.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods
  2. Teo PT, Anasyida AS, Basu P, Nurulakmal MS
    Waste Manag, 2014 Dec;34(12):2697-708.
    PMID: 25242607 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.08.015
    Recently, various solid wastes from industry such as glass waste, fly ash, sewage sludge and slag have been recycled into various value-added products such as ceramic tile. The conventional solutions of dumping the wastes in landfills or incineration, including in Malaysia are getting obsolete as the annual huge amount of the solid wastes would boost-up disposal cost and may cause permanent damage to the flora and fauna. This recent waste recycling approach is much better and greener as it can resolve problems associated with over-limit storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for ceramic tile to continuously sustain the nature. Therefore, in this project, an attempt was made to recycle electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste, obtained from Malaysia's steel making industry, into ceramic tile via conventional powder compaction method. The research work was divided into two stages. The first stage was to evaluate the suitability of EAF slag in ceramic tile by varying weight percentage of EAF slag (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%) and ball clay (40 wt.%, 50 wt.% and 60 wt.%), with no addition of silica and potash feldspar. In the second stage, the weight percentage of EAF slag was fixed at 40 wt.% and the percentage of ball clay (30 wt.% and 40 wt.%), feldspar (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) and silica (10 wt.% and 20 wt.%) added was varied accordingly. Results obtained show that as weight percentage of EAF slag increased up to 60 wt.%, the percentage of apparent porosity and water absorption also rose, with a reduction in tile flexural strength and increased porosity. On the other hand, limiting the weight percentage of EAF slag to 40 wt.% while increasing the weight percentage of ball clay led to a higher total percentage of anorthite and wollastonite minerals, resulting in higher flexural strength. It was found that introduction of silica and feldspar further improved the flexural strength due to optimization of densification process. The highest flexural strength, lowest apparent porosity and water absorption of EAF slag based tile was attained at the composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag--30 wt.% ball clay--10 wt.% feldspar--20 wt.% silica. The properties of ceramic tile made with EAF slag waste (up to 40 wt.%), especially flexural strength are comparable to those of commercial ceramic tile and are, therefore, suitable as high flexural strength and heavy-duty green ceramic floor tile. Continuous development is currently underway to improve the properties of tile so that this recycling approach could be one of the potential effective, efficient and sustainable solutions in sustaining our nature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  3. Sidique SF, Lupi F, Joshi SV
    J Environ Manage, 2013 Sep 30;127:339-46.
    PMID: 23810167 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.05.001
    Drop-off recycling is one of the most widely adopted recycling programs in the United States. Despite its wide implementation, relatively little literature addresses the demand for drop-off recycling. This study examines the demand for drop-off recycling sites as a function of travel costs and various site characteristics using the random utility model (RUM). The findings of this study indicate that increased travel costs significantly reduce the frequency of visits to drop-off sites implying that the usage pattern of a site is influenced by its location relative to where people live. This study also demonstrates that site specific characteristics such as hours of operation, the number of recyclables accepted, acceptance of commingled recyclables, and acceptance of yard-waste affect the frequency of visits to drop-off sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  4. Mohajerani A, Kadir AA, Larobina L
    Waste Manag, 2016 Jun;52:228-44.
    PMID: 26975623 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.03.012
    The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This paper proposes the use of bricks with 1% CB content throughout the brick-manufacturing industry. If bricks contained as little as 1% CB content, they would still provide a solution for the issue of CB recycling while maintaining properties very similar to those of a non-CB brick. Our calculations show that, theoretically, only 2.5% of the world's annual brick production is necessary to completely offset the worldwide, annual cigarette production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  5. He Y, Kiehbadroudinezhad M, Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha H, Gupta VK, Peng W, Lam SS, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2024 Feb 01;342:123081.
    PMID: 38072018 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2023.123081
    E-waste, encompassing discarded materials from outdated electronic equipment, often ends up intermixed with municipal solid waste, leading to improper disposal through burial and incineration. This improper handling releases hazardous substances into water, soil, and air, posing significant risks to ecosystems and human health, ultimately entering the food chain and water supply. Formal e-waste recycling, guided by circular economy models and zero-discharge principles, offers potential solutions to this critical challenge. However, implementing a circular economy for e-waste management due to chemical and energy consumption may cause environmental impacts. Consequently, advanced sustainability assessment tools, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), have been applied to investigate e-waste management strategies. While LCA is a standardized methodology, researchers have employed various routes for environmental assessment of different e-waste management methods. However, to the authors' knowledge, there lacks a comprehensive study focusing on LCA studies to discern the opportunities and limitations of this method in formal e-waste management strategies. Hence, this review aims to survey the existing literature on the LCA of e-waste management under a circular economy, shedding light on the current state of research, identifying research gaps, and proposing future research directions. It first explains various methods of managing e-waste in the circular economy. This review then evaluates and scrutinizes the LCA approach in implementing the circular bioeconomy for e-waste management. Finally, it proposes frameworks and procedures to enhance the applicability of the LCA method to future e-waste management research. The literature on the LCA of e-waste management reveals a wide variation in implementing LCA in formal e-waste management, resulting in diverse results and findings in this field. This paper underscores that LCA can pinpoint the environmental hotspots for various pathways of formal e-waste recycling, particularly focusing on metals. It can help address these concerns and achieve greater sustainability in e-waste recycling, especially in pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical pathways. The recovery of high-value metals is more environmentally justified compared to other metals. However, biometallurgical pathways remain limited in terms of environmental studies. Despite the potential for recycling e-waste into plastic or glass, there is a dearth of robust background in LCA studies within this sector. This review concludes that LCA can offer valuable insights for decision-making and policy processes on e-waste management, promoting environmentally sound e-waste recycling practices. However, the accuracy of LCA results in e-waste recycling, owing to data requirements, subjectivity, impact category weighting, and other factors, remains debatable, emphasizing the need for more uncertainty analysis in this field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods
  6. Zargar M, Ahmadinia E, Asli H, Karim MR
    J Hazard Mater, 2012 Sep 30;233-234:254-8.
    PMID: 22818590 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.06.021
    The ageing of the bitumen during storage, mixing, transport and laying on the road, as well as in service life, are the most important problems presented by the use of bitumen in pavements. This paper investigates the possibility of using waste cooking oil (WCO), which is a waste material that pollutes landfills and rivers, as an alternative natural rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen to a condition that resembles the original bitumen. With this target, the physical and chemical properties of the original bitumen, aged bitumen and rejuvenated bitumen were measured and compared by the bitumen binder tests - softening point, penetration, Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the behaviour of the WCO rejuvenated bitumen is investigated and compared with virgin bitumen after using the rolling thin film oven ageing process. In general, the results showed that using 3-4% of WCO the aged bitumen group 40/50 was rejuvenated to a condition that closely resembled the physical, rheological properties of the original bitumen (80/100), however, there was a difference in the tendency to ageing between the WCO rejuvenated bitumen and the virgin bitumen during mixing, transport and laying on the road.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods
  7. Shuokr Qarani Aziz, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Mohammed Jk Bashir, Mohd Suffian Yusoff
    Waste Manag Res, 2011 Aug;29(8):880-7.
    PMID: 21242179 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X10387462
    Solid waste collection and disposal are among the most vital services provided to about 700 770 residents of the city of Erbil in northern Iraq. As such, proper waste management systems that consider both the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste are strongly required to address the increasing amount of solid waste. Unfortunately, these essential data are not easily available. The present study sought to gather data on the quantity and composition of domestic solid waste collected from different quarters in Erbil, and the feasibility of recycling these wastes. The solid waste generation rate (GR), uncompacted density, and weight percentages of combustible and incombustible materials were determined based on the collected materials (i.e., food, plastic, paper, metal, glass and cloth). The results show that the average GR and uncompacted density were 0.654 kg capita(-1) day(-1) and 175.72 kg m(-3), respectively. The weight percentages of food, plastic, paper, metal, glass, and cloth as components of domestic solid waste were 79.34, 6.28, 5.9, 3.6, 3.42 and 1.45%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  8. Salmiaton A, Garforth AA
    Waste Manag, 2011 Jun;31(6):1139-45.
    PMID: 21324661 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2011.01.025
    Waste plastics contain a substantial number of valuable chemicals. The wastes from post-consumer as well as from industrial production can be recycled to valuable chemical feedstock, which can be used in refineries and/or petrochemical industries. This chemical recycling process is an ideal approach in recycling the waste for a better environment. Polymer cracking using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor concentrated on the used highly contaminated catalyst, E-Cat 2. Even though E-Cat 2 had low activity due to fewer acid sites, the products yielded were similar with amorphous ASA and were far better than thermal cracking. The high levels of heavy metals, namely nickel and vanadium, deposited during their lifetime as an FCC catalyst, did not greatly affect on the catalyst activity. It was also shown that E-Cat 2 could be used with and without regeneration. Although there was more deactivation when there was no regeneration step, the yield of gases (C(2)-C(7)) remained fairly constant. For the first time, these results indicate that "waste" FCC catalyst (E-Cat) is a good candidate for future feedstock recycling of polymer waste. The major benefits of using E-Cat are a low market price, the ability to tolerate reuse and regeneration capacity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  9. Lam SS, Wan Mahari WA, Ma NL, Azwar E, Kwon EE, Peng W, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2019 Sep;230:294-302.
    PMID: 31108440 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.054
    Used baby diaper consists of a combination of decomposable cellulose, non-biodegradable plastic materials (e.g. polyolefins) and super-absorbent polymer materials, thus making it difficult to be sorted and separated for recycling. Microwave pyrolysis was examined for its potential as an approach to transform used baby diapers into value-added products. Influence of the key operating parameters comprising process temperature and microwave power were investigated. The pyrolysis showed a rapid heating process (up to 43 °C/min of heating rate) and quick reaction time (20-40 min) in valorizing the used diapers to generate pyrolysis products comprising up to 43 wt% production of liquid oil, 29 wt% gases and 28 wt% char product. Microwave power and operating temperature were observed to have impacts on the heating rate, process time, production and characteristics of the liquid oil and solid char. The liquid oil contained alkanes, alkenes and esters that can potentially be used as chemical additives, cosmetic products and fuel. The solid char contained high carbon, low nitrogen and free of sulphur, thus showing potential for use as adsorbents and soil additives. These observations demonstrate that microwave pyrolysis has great prospect in transforming used baby diaper into liquid oil and char products that can be utilised in several applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  10. Thiagamani SMK, Nagarajan R, Jawaid M, Anumakonda V, Siengchin S
    Waste Manag, 2017 Nov;69:445-454.
    PMID: 28774586 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.07.035
    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  11. Hassana SR, Zwaina HM, Zamana NQ, Dahlanb I
    Environ Technol, 2014 Jan-Feb;35(1-4):294-9.
    PMID: 24600868
    Start-up period is considered to be the most unstable and difficult stage in anaerobic process and usually takes a long time due to slow-degree adaptation of anaerobic microorganisms. In order to achieve a shorter start-up period, a novel modified anaerobic baffled reactor (MABR) has been developed in this study, where each modified baffle has its own characteristics (form/shape) to facilitate a treatment ofrecycled paper mill effluent (RPME). The results ofphysico-chemical characteristics showed that effluent from recycled paper mill consisted of 4328mgL-1 chemical oxygen demand (COD), 669mg L-1 biochemical oxygen demand and 501mg L-1 volatile fatty acid. It also consisted of variety of heavy metals such as zinc, magnesium, iron and nickel at concentrations of 1.39, 12.19, 2.39 and 0.72 mgL-1, respectively. Performance of MABR during the start-up period showed that methane production reached 34.7% with COD removal of 85% at steady state. The result indicates that MABR was successfully operated during the start-up period in treating RPME within a period of less than 30 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  12. Pang YL, Abdullah AZ
    J Hazard Mater, 2012 Oct 15;235-236:326-35.
    PMID: 22939090 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.08.008
    Fe-doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanotubes were prepared using sol-gel followed by hydrothermal methods and characterized using various methods. The sonocatalytic activity was evaluated based on oxidation of Rhodamine B under ultrasonic irradiation. Iron ions (Fe(3+)) might incorporate into the lattice and intercalated in the interlayer spaces of TiO(2) nanotubes. The catalysts showed narrower band gap energies, higher specific surface areas, more active surface oxygen vacancies and significantly improved sonocatalytic activity. The optimum Fe doping at Fe:Ti=0.005 showed the highest sonocatalytic activity and exceeded that of un-doped TiO(2) nanotubes by a factor of 2.3 times. It was believed that Fe(3+) doping induced the formation of new states close to the valence band and conduction bands and accelerated the separation of charge carriers. Leached Fe(3+) could catalyze Fenton-like reaction and led to an increase in the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation. Fe-doped TiO(2) nanotubes could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for 4 cycles with minimal loss of Fe from the surface of the catalyst.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods
  13. Al-Amrani WA, Lim PE, Seng CE, Ngah WS
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Aug;118:633-7.
    PMID: 22704829 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.05.090
    The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate the role of mixed culture of biomass in the regeneration of mono-amine modified silica (MAMS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with Acid Orange 7 (AO7), (2) to quantify and compare the bioregeneration efficiencies of AO7-loaded MAMS and GAC using the sequential adsorption and biodegradation approach and (3) to evaluate the reusability of bioregenerated MAMS. The results show that considerably higher bioregeneration efficiency of AO7-loaded MAMS as compared to that of AO7-loaded GAC was achieved due to higher reversibility of adsorption of MAMS for AO7 and favorable pH factor resulting in more AO7 desorption. The progressive loss of adsorption capacity of MAMS for AO7 with multiple cycles of use suggests possible chemical and microbial fouling of the adsorption sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  14. Yeap KS, Mohd Yaacob N, Rao SP, Hashim NR
    Waste Manag Res, 2012 Dec;30(12):1251-60.
    PMID: 23103414 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X12465459
    This article presents lessons learned from a design project that explored the possibility of incorporating waste into the design of a school prototype. The authors worked with professional architects, a waste artist, environmental scientists and local waste operators to uncover new uses and applications for discarded items. As a result, bottles, aluminium cans, reclaimed doors, crushed concrete and second-hand bricks, etc. were identified, explored and integrated into the architectural design. This article serves as a catalyst that advocates the use of reclaimed materials in the field of design and planning. In particular, it highlights the challenges and issues that need to be addressed in carrying out design work with waste. Designers and practitioners interested in minimizing waste generation by proposing the use of reclaimed materials will find this article useful.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  15. Hansen SB, Olsen SI, Ujang Z
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Jan;104:358-66.
    PMID: 22137753 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.10.069
    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  16. Agamuthu P, Fauziah SH
    Waste Manag Res, 2011 Jan;29(1):13-9.
    PMID: 20880936 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X10383080
    Malaysia disposes of 28,500 tonnes of municipal solid waste directly into landfills daily. This fact alone necessitates sustainable landfills to avoid adverse impacts on the population and the environment. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the issues and challenges faced by waste managers in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia. Various factors influence the management of a landfill. Among them is the human factor, which includes attitude and public participation. Although Malaysia's economy is developing rapidly, public concern and awareness are not evolving in parallel and therefore participation towards sustainable waste management through the 'reduce, reuse and recycle' approach (3Rs) is severely lacking. Consequently, landfill space is exhausted earlier than scheduled and this is no longer sustainable in terms of security of disposal. Challenges also arise from the lack of funding and the increase in the price of land. Thus, most waste managers normally aim for 'just enough' to comply with the regulations. Investment for the establishment of landfills generally is minimized since landfilling operations are considered uneconomical after closure. Institutional factors also hamper the practice of sustainable landfilling in the country where 3Rs is not mandatory and waste separation is totally absent. Although there are huge obstacles to be dealt with in moving towards sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, recent developments in waste management policy and regulations have indicated that positive changes are possible in the near future. Consequently, with the issues solved and challenges tackled, landfills in Malaysia can then be managed effectively in a more sustainable manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods
  17. Afroz R, Masud MM
    Waste Manag, 2011 Apr;31(4):800-8.
    PMID: 21169007 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.10.028
    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods
  18. Sim EY, Wu TY
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Oct;90(13):2153-62.
    PMID: 20718020 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4127
    There is an urgent need globally to find alternative sustainable steps to treat municipal solid wastes (MSW) originated from mismanagement of urban wastes with increasing disposal cost. Furthermore, a conglomeration of ever-increasing population and consumerist lifestyle is contributing towards the generation of more MSW. In this context, vermicomposting offers excellent potential to promote safe, hygienic and sustainable management of biodegradable MSW. It has been demonstrated that, through vermicomposting, MSW such as city garbage, household and kitchen wastes, vegetable wastes, paper wastes, human faeces and others could be sustainably transformed into organic fertiliser or vermicompost that provides great benefits to agricultural soil and plants. Generally, earthworms are sensitive to their environment and require temperature, moisture content, pH and sometimes ventilation at proper levels for the optimum vermicomposting process. Apart from setting the optimum operational conditions for the vermicomposting process, other approaches such as pre-composting, inoculating micro-organisms into MSW and redesigning the conventional vermireactor could be introduced to further enhance the vermicomposting of MSW. Thus the present mini-review discusses the potential of introducing vermicomposting in MSW management, the benefits of vermicomposted MSW to plants, suggestions on how to enhance the vermicomposting of MSW as well as risk management in the vermicomposting of MSW.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  19. Oh KS, Poh PE, Chong MN, Chan ES, Lau EV, Saint CP
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Sep 05;148:161-70.
    PMID: 27185127 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.04.039
    Polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane (PCBM) was fabricated using biodegradable chitosan and alginate polymers for subsequent application in the treatment of bathroom greywater. In this study, the properties of PCBMs were studied and it was found that the formation of polyelectrolyte network reduced the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) from 242kDa in chitosan membrane to 2.71kDa in PCBM. The decrease in MWCO of PCBM results in better greywater treatment efficiency, subsequently demonstrated in a greywater filtration study where treated greywater effluent met the household reclaimed water standard of <2 NTU turbidity and <30ppm total suspended solids (TSS). In addition, a further 20% improvement in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved as compared to a single layer chitosan membrane. Results from this study show that the biodegradable PCBM is a potential membrane material in producing clean treated greywater for non-potable applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods*
  20. Isa MH, Ezechi EH, Ahmed Z, Magram SF, Kutty SR
    Water Res, 2014 Mar 15;51:113-23.
    PMID: 24412846 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2013.12.024
    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recycling/methods
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links