Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 234 in total

  1. Kim JH, Ajani PA, Murray SA, Kang SM, Kim SH, Lim HC, et al.
    Harmful Algae, 2023 Mar;123:102392.
    PMID: 36894213 DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2023.102392
    Pseudo-nitzschia pungens is a widely distributed marine pennate diatom. Hybrid zones, regions in which two different genotypes may interbreed, are important areas for speciation and ecology, and have been reported across the globe for this species. However, sexual reproduction between differing clades in the natural environment is yet to be observed and is difficult to predict. Here we carried out experiments using two mono-clonal cultures of P. pungens from different genotypes to measure the frequency and timing of sexual reproduction across varying biotic (growth phases and cell activity potential) and abiotic conditions (nutrients, light, turbulence). We found the mating rates and number of zygotes gradually decreased from exponential to late stationary growth phases. The maximum zygote abundance observed was 1,390 cells mL-1 and the maximum mating rate was 7.1%, both which occurred during the exponential growth phase. Conversely, only 9 cells mL-1 and a maximum mating rate of 0.1% was observed during the late stationary phase. We also found the higher the relative potential cell activity (rPCA) in parent cells, as determined by the concentration of chlorophyll a per cell and the ratio of colony formation during parent cultivations, revealed higher mating rates. Furthermore, sexual events were reduced under nutrient enrichment conditions, and mating pairs and zygotes were not formed under aphotic (dark) or shaking culture conditions (150 rpm). In order to understand the sexual reproduction of Pseudo-nitzschia in the natural environment, our results highlight that it is most likely the combination of both biotic (growth phase, Chl. a content) and abiotic factors (nutrients, light, turbulence) that will determine the successful union of intraspecific populations of P. pungens in any given region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction
  2. Horie Y, Nomura M, Ramaswamy BR, Harino H, Yap CK, Okamura H
    PMID: 36470400 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2022.109531
    Water pollution due to plasticizers is one of the most severe environmental problems worldwide. Phthalate plasticizers can act as endocrine disruptors in vertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether the non-phthalate bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DEHS) plasticizer can act as an endocrine disruptor by evaluating changes in the expression levels of thyroid hormone-related, reproduction-related, and estrogen-responsive genes of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to the plasticizer. Following the exposure, the gene expression levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone subunit beta (tshβ), deiodinase 1 (dio1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (trα) did not change. Meanwhile, DEHS suppressed dio2 expression, did not induce swim bladder inflation, and eventually reduced the swimming performance of Japanese medaka. These findings indicate that DEHS can potentially disrupt the thyroid hormone-related gene expression and metabolism of these fish. However, exposure to DEHS did not induce changes in the gene expression levels of kisspeptin 1 (kiss1), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh), follicle-stimulating hormone beta (fshβ), luteinizing hormone beta (lhβ), choriogenin H (chgH), and vitellogenin (vtg) in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first report providing evidence that DEHS can disrupt thyroid hormone-related metabolism in fish.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction
  3. Kamimura Y, Lee CY
    PLoS One, 2023;18(11):e0293701.
    PMID: 37917643 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0293701
    Many animals take advantage of the shaded, humid, and protected environments in subcortical spaces, i.e., thin spaces under the loosened bark of dead trees. Permanent inhabitants of subcortical spaces often show specialized morphologies, such as a miniaturized or dorsoventrally flattened body. However, the evolutionary consequences of these specialized morphologies on behavioral, ecological, and life-history traits have been little studied. We studied the mating biology and anatomy of Platylabia major (usually placed in the family Anisolabididae), which is an obligate inhabitant of subcortical spaces with a paper-like flattened body, and compared them with those of two thicker, spongiphorid earwigs, Nesogaster amoenus and Paralabellula curvicauda. Mating trials in various settings showed that Pl. major requires thin spaces sandwiched by two planes to accomplish genital coupling and insemination. In contrast, the thicker species, although also frequently found in subcortical spaces, could mate on a single horizontal plane due to the ability of the male to twist its abdomen through approximately 180°. Examination by micro-computed tomography and a reagent-based clearing technique revealed no substantive differences in the configuration of mid-abdominal musculature between the species. The dorsal and lateral muscles of Pl. major, which are almost parallel to the antero-posterior body axis for accommodation within the thin abdomen, seemed incapable of producing the power to twist the abdomen. The abdominal musculature conforms to a simple pattern in both male and female earwigs, which is repeated in each of the pregenital segments. We conclude that small differences in the range of motion of each abdominal segment can result in large differences in possible mating postures and positions. Surgical experiments also demonstrated that both right and left penises of Pl. major are competent and used for insemination with no lateral bias, as in most other earwigs with twin penises studied to date.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction*
  4. Suhaimi AH, Kobayashi MJ, Satake A, Ng CC, Lee SL, Muhammad N, et al.
    PeerJ, 2023;11:e16368.
    PMID: 38047035 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.16368
    Climatic factors have commonly been attributed as the trigger of general flowering, a unique community-level mass flowering phenomenon involving most dipterocarp species that forms the foundation of Southeast Asian tropical rainforests. This intriguing flowering event is often succeeded by mast fruiting, which provides a temporary yet substantial burst of food resources for animals, particularly frugivores. However, the physiological mechanism that triggers general flowering, particularly in dipterocarp species, is not well understood largely due to its irregular and unpredictable occurrences in the tall and dense forests. To shed light on this mechanism, we employed ecological transcriptomic analyses on an RNA-seq dataset of a general flowering species, Shorea curtisii (Dipterocarpaceae), sequenced from leaves and buds collected at multiple vegetative and flowering phenological stages. We assembled 64,219 unigenes from the transcriptome of which 1,730 and 3,559 were differentially expressed in the leaf and the bud, respectively. Differentially expressed unigene clusters were found to be enriched with homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes associated with response to biotic and abiotic stresses, nutrient level, and hormonal treatments. When combined with rainfall data, our transcriptome data reveals that the trees were responding to a brief period of drought prior to the elevated expression of key floral promoters and followed by differential expression of unigenes that indicates physiological changes associated with the transition from vegetative to reproductive stages. Our study is timely for a representative general flowering dipterocarp species that occurs in forests that are under the constant threat of deforestation and climate change as it pinpoints important climate sensitive and flowering-related homologs and offers a glimpse into the cascade of gene expression before and after the onset of floral initiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/genetics
  5. Cheong WH, Sta Maria FL
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):244-5.
    PMID: 4234380
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction
  6. Mohtar JA, Shahimin MFM
    Dev Genes Evol, 2022 Dec;232(5-6):125-136.
    PMID: 36190549 DOI: 10.1007/s00427-022-00697-0
    Spiders have emerged as one of the leading model organisms in many research fields due to their compelling biology. Often, scientific investigations involving the use of spiders face inevitable problems associated with the lack of specimens from laboratory stock, resulting in difficulties in yielding reproducible investigations for predictive research. Thus, several species of well-studied spiders, including Parasteatoda tepidariorum, have been successfully bred for such purposes. Crossopriza lyoni is a Haplogyne spider, globally distributed and widespread in human inhabitants, prompting interest in various studies over the last decades. Despite its scientific importance, no laboratory-bred C. lyoni has been documented. Therefore, we describe a successful captive breeding system of the species under controlled conditions to establish a laboratory stock culture. Methods for mating induction, egg collection and segregation, artificial embryo incubation, and colony husbandry are discussed. The technique presented is a simple and low-cost approach that is reliable for C. lyoni propagation in the laboratory over several generations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction
  7. Norazmi-Lokman NH, Purser GJ, Patil JG
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0147711.
    PMID: 26808521 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147711
    In most livebearing fish, the gravid spot is an excellent marker to identify brooding females, however its use to predict progress of embryonic development, brood size, timing of parturition and overall reproductive potential of populations remain unexplored. Therefore, to understand these relationships, this study quantified visual attributes (intensity and size) of the gravid spot in relation to key internal development in Gambusia holbrooki. Observations show that the colour of the gravid spot arises from progressive melanisation on the surface of the ovarian sac at its hind margin, rather than melanisation of the developing embryos or the skin of the brooding mother. More importantly, the gravid spot intensity and size were closely linked with both developmental stages and clutch size, suggesting their reliable use as external surrogates of key internal developmental in the species. Using predictive consistency of the gravid spot, we also determined the effect of rearing temperature (23 °C and 25 °C) on gestation period and parturition behaviour. The results show that gestation period was significantly reduced (F = 364.58; df = 1,48; P ˃ 0.05) at 25 °C. However there was no significant difference in average number of fry parturated in the two temperature groups (P<0.05), reaffirming that gravid spot intensity is a reliable predictor of reproductive output. The parturition in the species occurred predominantly in the morning and in contrast to earlier reports, tails of the fry emerged first with a few exceptions of head-first, twin and premature births. This study demonstrates utility of the gravid spot for downstream reproductive investigations in a live-bearing fish both in the field and laboratory. The reproducibility of the relationships (intensity with both developmental stage and clutch size), imply that they are also relevant to wild populations that experience varying temperature climes and stressors, significant deviations of which may serve as indicators of environmental health and climate variability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction*
  8. Arshat H
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Mar;44(1):1-2.
    PMID: 2626107
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction*
  9. Beck AJ, Lim BL
    Acta Trop, 1973;30(4):251-60.
    PMID: 4147874
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction*
  10. Heldstab SA, van Schaik CP, Müller DWH, Rensch E, Lackey LB, Zerbe P, et al.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc, 2021 02;96(1):66-88.
    PMID: 32964610 DOI: 10.1111/brv.12646
    Primates, like other mammals, exhibit an annual reproductive pattern that ranges from strictly seasonal breeding to giving birth in all months of the year, but factors mediating this variation are not fully understood. We applied both a categorical description and quantitative measures of the birth peak breadth based on daily observations in zoos to characterise reproductive seasonality in 141 primate species with an average of 941 birth events per species. Absolute day length at the beginning of the mating season in seasonally reproducing species was not correlated between populations from natural habitats and zoos. The mid-point of latitudinal range was a major factor associated with reproductive seasonality, indicating a correlation with photoperiod. Gestation length, annual mean temperature, natural diet and Malagasy origin were other important factors associated with reproductive seasonality. Birth seasons were shorter with increasing latitude of geographical origin, corresponding to the decreasing length of the favourable season. Species with longer gestation periods were less seasonal than species with shorter ones, possibly because shorter gestation periods more easily facilitate the synchronisation of reproductive activity with annual cycles. Habitat conditions with higher mean annual temperature were also linked to less-seasonal reproduction, independently of the latitude effect. Species with a high percentage of leaves in their natural diet were generally non-seasonal, potentially because the availability of mature leaves is comparatively independent of seasons. Malagasy primates were more seasonal in their births than species from other regions. This might be due to the low resting metabolism of Malagasy primates, the comparatively high degree of temporal predictability of Malagasy ecosystems, or historical constraints peculiar to Malagasy primates. Latitudinal range showed a weaker but also significant association with reproductive seasonality. Amongst species with seasonal reproduction in their natural habitats, smaller primate species were more likely than larger species to shift to non-seasonal breeding in captivity. The percentage of species that changed their breeding pattern in zoos was higher in primates (30%) than in previous studies on Carnivora and Ruminantia (13 and 10%, respectively), reflecting a higher concentration of primate species in the tropics. When comparing only species that showed seasonal reproduction in natural habitats at absolute latitudes ≤11.75°, primates did not differ significantly from these two other taxa in the proportion of species that changed to a less-seasonal pattern in zoos. However, in this latitude range, natural populations of primates and Carnivora had a significantly higher proportion of seasonally reproducing species than Ruminantia, suggesting that in spite of their generally more flexible diets, both primates and Carnivora are more exposed to resource fluctuation than ruminants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction*
  11. Barber CV, Yo JH, Rahman RA, Wallace EM, Palmer KR, Marshall SA
    Placenta, 2023 May;136:35-41.
    PMID: 37028223 DOI: 10.1016/j.placenta.2023.03.008
    Activin A is a two-subunit protein belonging to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. First discovered almost three decades ago, it has since been implicated in diverse physiological roles, ranging from wound repair to reproduction. After 30 years of research, altered activin A levels are now understood to be associated with the development of various diseases, making activin A a potential therapeutic target. In pregnancy, the placenta and fetal membranes are major producers of activin A, with significantly enhanced serum concentrations now recognised as a contributor to numerous gestational disorders. Evidence now suggests that circulating levels of activin A may be clinically relevant in the early detection of pregnancy complications, including miscarriage and preeclampsia. This review aims to summarise our current understanding of activin A as a potential diagnostic marker in common pregnancy pathologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/physiology
  12. Muul I, Liat LB
    J Mammal, 1974 May;55(2):393-400.
    PMID: 4833184
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction*
  13. Nasution S, Nuraini
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2023 Apr;26(5):213-223.
    PMID: 37859553 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2023.213.223
    <b>Background and Objective:</b> Bamboo clam <i>Solen lamarckii</i> is one of the bivalve's species that have important economic value in Indonesian waters. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of a species is essential for proper and sustainable fisheries management. Monthly variations in the gonad maturity level of the clams from the coastal waters of Bengkalis Island Indonesia, were examined. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Samples of the clam were collected monthly at the intertidal zone during low tide from May to September, 2020. A total of 239 specimens of which 116 females and 123 males were examined. Reproductive aspects observed in this study included sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, monthly gonadal maturity level and female fecundity. Mature female or near spawning phases were used for fecundity estimation. The sex ratios were analysed using a Chi-quadrat-Test, whereas to determine differences in fecundity between female individuals tested by Analysis of Variance. <b>Results:</b> Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and histological observation of both sexes's gonads, it can be concluded that early spawning occurred in August and the peak seemed to take place during October-November. The sex ratios were analysed using a Chi-quadrat-Test which was not different from parity. Gonad maturation time between males and females indicates synchrony and no hermaphrodites were observed in the collection. Females shell length range of 75.5 to 89.3 mm produced 4.63×103-7.43×103 eggs ind-1 female (N = 10). Females with a shell length between 75.5 and 89.3 mm had varying fecundities, but analysis of variance showed no significant difference (Sig>0.05). <b>Conclusion:</b> Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and histological analysis, <i>S. lamarckii</i> in Bengkalis waters spawned in August. Males and females showed spawning synchrony.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction*
  14. Thoa NP, Hamzah A, Nguyen NH
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2017 Sep;184:94-101.
    PMID: 28709735 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2017.07.003
    The present study examines genetic variation and correlated changes in reproductive performance traits in a red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) population selected over three generations for improved growth. A total of 328 breeding females (offspring of 111 sires and 118 dams) had measurements of body weight prior to spawning (WBS), number of fry at hatching (NFH), total fry weight (TFW) and number of dead fry (NDF) or mortality of fry including unhatched eggs at hatching (MFH). Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) analysis in a multi-trait model showed that there are heritable genetic components for all traits studied. The heritability for WBS was very high (0.80). The estimates for traits related to fecundity (NFH, TFW) and survival (NDF) were low and they were associated with high standard errors. Genetic correlations of WBS with other reproductive performance traits (NFH, TFW and NDF) were generally positive. However, NFH was negatively correlated genetically with TFW. As expected, body measurements during growth stage exhibited strong positive genetic correlations with WBS. The genetic correlations between body traits and reproductive performance (NFH, TFW, NDF) were not significant. Correlated responses in reproductive traits were measured as changes in least squares means between generations or spawning years. Except for WBS that increased with the selection programs, the phenotypic changes in other reproductive traits observed were not statistically significant (P>0.05). It is concluded that the selection program for red tilapia has resulted in very little changes in reproductive performance of the animals after three generations. However, periodic monitoring of genetic changes in fecundity and fitness related traits such as NDF or MFH should be made in selective breeding programs for red tilapia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/genetics; Reproduction/physiology*
  15. Naito Y, Kanzaki M, Numata S, Obayashi K, Konuma A, Nishimura S, et al.
    J Plant Res, 2008 Jan;121(1):33-42.
    PMID: 17943228
    We monitored the reproductive status of all trees with diameters at breast height (dbh) >30 cm in a 40-ha plot at Pasoh, west Malaysia, and investigated the individual fecundity of 15 Shorea acuminata Dyer (Dipterocarpaceae) trees using seed-trapping methods during two consecutive general flowering periods in 2001 (GF2001) and 2002 (GF2002). The proportion of flowering trees was higher, and not dependent on size, in GF2002 (84.2%), than in GF2001 (54.5%), when flowering mainly occurred in trees with a dbh < or =70 cm. Fecundity parameters of individual trees per event varied widely (221,000-35,200,000 flowers, 0-139,000 mature seeds, and 1.04-177 kg total dry matter mass of fruit (TDM) per tree). Monotonic increases with increasing tree size were observed for flower production and TDM amongst trees up to 90 cm in dbh, but not for mature seed production or for any of these parameters amongst larger trees. The pattern of reproductive investment during the two consecutive reproductive events clearly differed between medium-sized and large trees; the former concentrated their reproductive investment in one of the reproductive events whereas the latter allocated their investment more evenly to both reproductive events. Our results suggest size-related differences in the resource allocation pattern for reproduction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/physiology
  16. Nur Aida H, Abu Hassan A, Nurita AT, Che Salmah MR, Norasmah B
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Aug;25(2):117-25.
    PMID: 18948882
    A semi laboratory experiment using 3 cohorts of Aedes albopictus adults was performed to obtain age-specific mortality and fecundity information and to derive statistical estimates of some population growth parameters. Life expectancy was calculated for both males and females. The following population parameters were estimated: intrinsic rate of increase (rm= 0.21), net reproductive (replacement) rate (Ro= 68.70), age at mean cohort reproduction (To=10.55 days), birth rate (B=0.23), death rate (D=0.02) and generation time (G=20.14 days). The high rm/B (0.91) and B/D (11.50) ratios indicated the high colonizing ability of Ae. albopictus in nature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/physiology
  17. Rohani A, Khadri MS, Lee HL
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Dec;23(2):164-71.
    PMID: 17322818 MyJurnal
    A study was carried out to investigate correlation between presence of specific microalgal species and Leptoconops biting midge larvae in its breeding habitats. Sand samples containing microalgae were collected from the beach where the midges were most commonly biting and from sand beaches which are potential as breeding habitats of Leptoconops. The survey covered sand beaches from 12 seperate islands. At all sites, the Bacillariophyta constituted the largest representatives of the microalgae community with the majority from the Naviculaceae family. A total of 24 microalgal species were identified from the sand samples collected from the study sites. Sand samples from Kentot Kecil Island had the highest number of algal species (11.0) and the highest algae species diversity ( Shanon-Weiner Diversity Index, H' = 0.884). Besar Island (Johor) had the lowest number of algal species (2.0) whereas Tengol A Island had the lowest algae species diversity (H'=0.234). Highest similarity index was recorded between sand samples collected from Tengol A Island and Tengol B Island (75.0%) followed by Besar Island (Melaka) and Tengol B Island (62.0 %). The variation between other islands were relatively high. Virtually many kinds of algae were found where Leptoconops were breeding but Fragilaria intermedia, Mastigloia minuta and Navicula advena were particularly common.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/physiology
  18. Nettely T, Rajaee AH, Denil NA, Idris MH, Nesarul MH, Amin SMN, et al.
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):715-24.
    PMID: 28779731
    Samples of threadfin breams Nemipterus japonicus were collected from a village in Kuala Nyalau and a fish landing centre at Bintulu from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 360 individuals of N. japonicus (214 male and 146 female) were used in this reproductive study.? The total length (TL) of individuals were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and body weight (BW) was recorded to the nearest 0.1 g. Month-wise distribution of the sexes was significantly higher for males in September and March, while in the month of May the number of females was significantly higher (X(2) = 6.53; P < 0.05). Males showed a preponderance in the size-class of 19.0-20.9 cm (X(2) = 80.24; P < 0.001), 21.0 -22.9 cm (X(2) = 56.39; P < 0.001) and 23.0 -24.9 cm (X(2) = 17; P < 0.001). The gonadosomatic index (GSI) values of N. japonicus ranged from 0.07 to 0.19 for males and 0.34 to 4.99 for females. Females had higher GSI than males throughout the study period. For males, a higher GSI (0.11-0.19) was observed during January to February, while it was found to be higher (2.73-4.99) for females during January to March, indicating the spawning season. The present study revealed that ovarian maturity based on histological analysis of N. japonicus was classified into seven stages namely, immature (I), immature (II), maturing (III), mature (IV), ripe (V), spawning (VI) and spent (VII). The fecundity of N. japonicus was estimated to be within a range of 19221 to 85923 with higher GSI (3.08-6.78) from the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/physiology*
  19. Arshad A, Amani AA, Amin SMN, Yusoff FM
    J Environ Biol, 2016 07;37(4 Spec No):709-13.
    PMID: 28779730
    Parapenaeopsis sculptilis (Heller, 1862) locally referred to as ?udang kulit keras? in Malaysia has profound biological, ecological, aquacultural and conservational significance. The reproductive biology of this important penaeid from the coastal waters of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, was studied during the period between February 2012 to January 2013. Females outnumbered males with a sex ratio of M: F= 1:3 (P < 0.05). Four maturity stages of female gonads viz., immature, maturing, mature and spent stages were distinguished. The first stage of sexual maturity was attained at a length of 9.3 cm, and female P. sculptilis showed a peak gonadosomatic index during the month of April, August and October, indicating that P. sculptilis potentially breeds throughout the year. The findings of this study would greatly contribute towards the understanding of gonadal maturation, spawning season and breeding biology, which could be important for the effective population management of this prawn species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Reproduction/physiology
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