Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 100 in total

  1. Flaherty GT, Choi J
    J Travel Med, 2016 Feb;23(2):tav026.
    PMID: 26858274 DOI: 10.1093/jtm/tav026
    Photography is an integral component of the international travel experience. Self-photography is becoming a mainstream behaviour in society and it has implications for the practice of travel medicine. Travellers who take selfies, including with the use of selfie sticks, may be subject to traumatic injuries associated with this activity. This review article is the first in the medical literature to address this emerging phenomenon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  2. Gill, Jesjeet Singh, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Mohd Hussain Habil
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2007;8(2):64-70.
    Objectives: To determine the best possible programme that suits our local setting, to determine the average dose required, and to determine possible problems that can arise from implementing such a programme locally and how best to address them. Methods: The inclusion criteria were those above 18, a positive urine test, the presence of a supportive carer and willing to engage in the programme. Methadone was initiated and observations relating to dose, adverse events, relationship with carers, work performance, crime and high risk behaviours were monitored for 18 weeks. Results: Two thirds of the 45 subjects completed the trial over the 18 week period. No significant adverse events occurred and improvement in relationship with carers and work performance were noted with reduction in crime and high risk behaviours. Conclusion: Methadone is a safe and effective drug that can be used in the local Malaysian setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking
  3. Oxley J, Yuen J, Ravi MD, Hoareau E, Mohammed MA, Bakar H, et al.
    Ann Adv Automot Med, 2014 1 11;57:45-54.
    PMID: 24406945
    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25-29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking
  4. Koh KC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69 Suppl A:68-81.
    PMID: 25417954 MyJurnal
    Two hundred fifty seven articles related to HIV/AIDS were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. One hundred seventy one articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. This review of literature has been divided into six sections, namely, epidemiology, risk behaviour, clinical features and opportunistic infections, management, diagnosis and discussion. Wherever possible, the reviewed articles have been presented in a chronological order to provide a historical perspective to the reader as many of the results of earlier publications, which are common knowledge now, were relatively unknown then. Since the early days of the HIV epidemic in Malaysia, there have been rapid advances in the understanding and the management of the epidemic in Malaysia based on the insights derived from the results of these research. These insights are invaluable tools for policy makers, advocators, healthcare providers, researchers and everyone and anyone who are involved in the care of individuals with HIV/AIDS. Attempts have been made to identify gaps in certain research areas with the hope of providing directions for future research in HIV/AIDS in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking
  5. Rus RM, Daud A, Musa KI, Naing L
    Malays J Med Sci, 2008 Oct;15(4):28-34.
    PMID: 22589635
    The purpose of this study was to determine the sawmill workers' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 83 workers from 3 factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain the socio-demography, knowledge, attitude and practice level in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The weak areas identified in the knowledge section were treatment aspects (15.5%), signs and symptoms of NIHL (20.2%) and risk factors (31%). As for attitude; the prevention aspects were the lowest (25.3%), followed by risk taking attitude (26.2%), and causes of hearing loss (42.1%). Overall, the practice was not encouraging at all. It is important to have an education program to raise workers' awareness and to improve their attitude and practices towards noise-induced hearing loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking
  6. Gallo V, Vineis P, Cancellieri M, Chiodini P, Barker RA, Brayne C, et al.
    Int J Epidemiol, 2019 Jun 01;48(3):912-925.
    PMID: 30462234 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyy230
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to investigate the causality of the inverse association between cigarette smoking and Parkinson's disease (PD). The main suggested alternatives include a delaying effect of smoking, reverse causality or an unmeasured confounding related to a low-risk-taking personality trait.

    METHODS: A total of 715 incident PD cases were ascertained in a cohort of 220 494 individuals from NeuroEPIC4PD, a prospective European population-based cohort study including 13 centres in eight countries. Smoking habits were recorded at recruitment. We analysed smoking status, duration, and intensity and exposure to passive smoking in relation to PD onset.

    RESULTS: Former smokers had a 20% decreased risk and current smokers a halved risk of developing PD compared with never smokers. Strong dose-response relationships with smoking intensity and duration were found. Hazard ratios (HRs) for smoking <20 years were 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.07], 20-29 years 0.73 (95% CI 0.56-0.96) and >30 years 0.54 (95% CI 0.43-0.36) compared with never smokers. The proportional hazard assumption was verified, showing no change of risk over time, arguing against a delaying effect. Reverse causality was disproved by the consistency of dose-response relationships among former and current smokers. The inverse association between passive smoking and PD, HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.49-0.99) ruled out the effect of unmeasured confounding.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results are highly suggestive of a true causal link between smoking and PD, although it is not clear which is the chemical compound in cigarette smoking responsible for the biological effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking
  7. Lai CM, Mak KK, Cheng C, Watanabe H, Nomachi S, Bahar N, et al.
    Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw, 2015 Oct;18(10):609-17.
    PMID: 26468915 DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0069
    There has been increased research examining the psychometric properties on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in different populations. This population-based study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the IAT in adolescents from three Asian countries. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 2,535 secondary school students (55.9% girls) aged 12-18 years from Hong Kong (n=844), Japan (n=744), and Malaysia (n=947) completed a survey in 2012-2013 school year. A nested hierarchy of hypotheses concerning the IAT cross-country invariance was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Replicating past findings in Hong Kong adolescents, the construct of the IAT is best represented by a second-order three-factor structure in Malaysian and Japanese adolescents. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict factorial invariance was established across the three samples. No cross-country differences on Internet addiction were detected at the latent mean level. This study provided empirical support for the IAT as a reliable and factorially stable instrument, and valid to be used across Asian adolescent populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  8. Mutalip MH, Kamarudin RB, Manickam M, Abd Hamid HA, Saari RB
    Alcohol Alcohol., 2014 Sep-Oct;49(5):593-9.
    PMID: 25015981 DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agu042
    AIMS: To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia.
    METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking.
    CONCLUSION: There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  9. Shin W, Ismail N
    Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw, 2014 Sep;17(9):578-83.
    PMID: 25126969 DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0095
    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  10. Sullman MJ, Stephens AN, Yong M
    Accid Anal Prev, 2014 Oct;71:1-9.
    PMID: 24863369 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.019
    The present study examined the types of situations that cause Malaysian drivers to become angry. The 33-item version of the driver anger scale (Deffenbacher et al., 1994) was used to investigate driver anger amongst a sample of 339 drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the fit of the original six-factor model (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving, illegal driving and police presence), after removing one item and allowing three error pairs to covary, was satisfactory. Female drivers reported more anger, than males, caused by traffic obstruction and hostile gestures. Age was also negatively related to five (discourtesy, traffic obstructions, hostile gestures, slow driving and police presence) of the six factors and also to the total DAS score. Furthermore, although they were not directly related to crash involvement, several of the six forms of driving anger were significantly related to the crash-related conditions of: near misses, loss of concentration, having lost control of a vehicle and being ticketed. Overall the pattern of findings made in the present research were broadly similar to those from Western countries, indicating that the DAS is a valid measure of driving anger even among non-European based cultures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  11. Michalopoulos LM, Jiwatram-Negrón T, Choo MK, Kamarulzaman A, El-Bassel N
    BMC Public Health, 2016 06 02;16:464.
    PMID: 27250497 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3125-7
    BACKGROUND: Malaysian fishermen have been identified as a key-affected HIV population with HIV rates 10 times higher than national rates. A number of studies have identified that psychosocial and structural-level stressors increase HIV injection drug risk behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to examine psychosocial and structural-level stressors of injection drug use and HIV injection drug risk behaviors among Malaysian fishermen.

    METHODS: The study employs a cross-sectional design using respondent driven sampling methods. The sample includes 406 fishermen from Pahang state, Malaysia. Using multivariate logistic regressions, we examined the relationship between individual (depression), social (adverse interactions with the police), and structural (poverty-related) stressors and injection drug use and risky injection drug use (e.g.., receptive and non-receptive needle sharing, frontloading and back-loading, or sharing drugs from a common container).

    RESULTS: Participants below the poverty line had significantly lower odds of injection drug use (OR 0.52, 95 % CI: 0.27-0.99, p = 0.047) and risky injection drug use behavior (OR 0.48, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93, p = 0.030). In addition, participants with an arrest history had higher odds of injection use (OR 19.58, 95 % CI: 9.81-39.10, p risk behaviors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  12. Kanter J, Koh C, Razali K, Tai R, Izenberg J, Rajan L, et al.
    Int J STD AIDS, 2011 Jan;22(1):30-7.
    PMID: 21364064 DOI: 10.1258/ijsa.2010.010277
    This research aimed to determine HIV prevalence, risk behaviour and knowledge of transmission methods among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Venue-day-time sampling (VDTS) was applied to identify venues where men congregate to solicit sex from other men. Participants recruited from clubs, massage parlours, saunas and one park self-completed a computerized behavioural questionnaire, were administered an oral rapid HIV test and given the opportunity to return later to receive full counselling and learn their HIV status. A total of 517 men were enrolled into the study. The majority were Malays (47.0%) and Chinese (43.7%). Twenty tested HIV positive (3.9%). Significant predictors of HIV infection included having unprotected anal sex with a casual partner (44.9% of participants, odds ratio [OR] = 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.90; P = 0.027), having unprotected receptive anal sex (27.9%, OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.10-6.54; P = 0.030) and having group sex (33.3%, OR = 3.95; 95% CI 1.55-10.09; P = 0.004). One in five participants (20.1% and 19.5%) did not believe that HIV could be transmitted through insertive or receptive anal sex, respectively. Risk behaviour is high and knowledge of HIV transmission methods was low among MSM in Kuala Lumpur. Future prevention efforts should focus on providing risk reduction education to this community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  13. Anita S, Zahir WM, Sa'iah A, Rahimah MA, Sha'ari BN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Aug;62(3):227-33.
    PMID: 18246913 MyJurnal
    Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  14. Vlahov D, Wang C, Ompad D, Fuller CM, Caceres W, Ouellet L, et al.
    Subst Use Misuse, 2008;43(3-4):413-28.
    PMID: 18365941 DOI: 10.1080/10826080701203013
    To quantify the risk of death among recent-onset (< 5 years) injection drug users, we enrolled 2089 injection drug users (IDUs) age
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  15. Fauziah MN, Anita S, Sha'ari BN, Rosli BI
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Jun;58(2):268-72.
    PMID: 14569748
    A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and HIV-associated risk behavior was conducted in February 1998 among 6,324 drug users in 26 drug rehabilitation centres in Malaysia. The majority of respondents were males (97.3%) and Malays (77.8%), administered drugs intravenously (64.6%) and of these 65.4% shared needles. About 78.1% had sexual exposure, of which 55.1% had sex with girl friends, 31.3% with prostitutes and 4.6% with male partners. The HIV prevalence rate in the group was 12.1% and significantly high among injecting drug users (IDU); those sharing needles; those who started addiction at a young age (10-15 years); those who had sexual exposures and had sex with prostitutes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  16. Arasu GD
    PMID: 1341845
    The risk behavior in malaria has been identified as one of the factors contributing to malaria in Malaysia. The occurrence of malaria among illegal immigrants and indigenous groups, staying in risk prone areas where conditions are favorable for transmission, highlights the behavior pattern of these groups. In these areas the usual anti-malarial activities are less effective and thus there is a need to identify control measures suited to that particular condition and environment and to community groups. Some of the determinants contributing to the increase in malaria cases like man-vector contact, non-compliance to drugs, complications of the disease, and factors interfering with malaria control measures, factors favoring transmission and proposals to modify risk behavior, which can be applied in an endeavor to control the diseases, have been discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  17. Suarn S, Nor Adam M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):117-23.
    PMID: 8350785
    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  18. Wong LP
    BMC Public Health, 2011;11:446.
    PMID: 21649937 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-446
    This study sought to understand the factors associated with street racing among the illegal motorcycle racers in Malaysia or known as the "Mat Rempit".
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  19. Teh CH, Teh MW, Lim KH, Kee CC, Sumarni MG, Heng PP, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Aug 27;19(1):1177.
    PMID: 31455283 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7516-4
    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low fruit/vegetable intake have been identified as the major causes of chronic diseases. Such behaviours are usually instigated in adolescence and tend to persist into adulthood. Studies on the clustering of lifestyle risk behaviours among adolescents are scarce, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the present paper aimed to determine the clustering of lifestyle risk behaviours and its determinants among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were extracted from a cross-sectional study, the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) study, which was conducted from May to September 2013 across 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia. A two-stage proportionate-to-size sampling method was employed to select a total of 3578 school-going adolescents aged 16-17 years from 20 selected schools in urban and rural settlements, respectively. The MyAHRB study adopted a set of self-administered questionnaires adapted from the Global School-based Student's Health Survey (GSHS) and the Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance.

    RESULTS: The results from the analysis of 2991 school-going adolescents aged 16-17 years showed that 16 (in boys) and 15 (in girls) out of 32 combinations of lifestyle risk behaviours clustered. Girls (aOR 2.82, 95% CI: 2.32-3.43) were significantly more likely to have clustered risk behaviours than boys; however, no significant associated factors were observed among girls. In contrast, boys of Malay descent (aOR 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89) or boys who had at least three friends (aOR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) were less likely to engage in multiple risk behaviours.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated the clustering of multiple risk behaviours that occurred in both genders; these results suggest that multiple behaviour intervention programmes, instead of programmes based on siloed approaches, should be advocated and targeted to the high-risk sub-populations identified in the present study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
  20. Borhan MN, Ibrahim ANH, Aziz A, Yazid MRM
    Accid Anal Prev, 2018 Dec;121:94-100.
    PMID: 30237047 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.09.004
    In the context of road safety, risk-taking is undoubtedly one of the main contributory factors in road accidents. The actual forces which influence individuals to take such risks, nevertheless, are still not fully understood. To address this, this study was therefore conducted to investigate the relationship of the demographic, personal, and social factors of motorcyclists, with a specific focus on their risk-taking behavior at signalized intersections in Malaysia. This study adopted the quantitative method using cross-sectional questionnaire surveys and involved 251 respondents. The demographic factors were analyzed using the t-test and an ANOVA Scheffe Post-Hoc test, while the motorcyclists' personal and social characteristics were analyzed with multiple linear regression. The findings indicate that the individuals who were greater risk takers at signalized intersections were teenage motorcyclists (16-25 years old) who had finished their education before taking their high school diploma, and who also received a lower than average monthly income from private sector firms. The actual experience of accidents was also shown to be positively related to this risk-taking behavior. In addition, in term of personal and social factors, results showed that, for these individuals, there was a significant difference between the strength of peer influence and that of parental and spouse guidance. However, there was no significant difference in the risk-taking behavior of Malaysian motorcyclists riding at signalized intersections for the following factors: between genders, in terms of accident involvement, in terms of enforcement of traffic regulations, and prevention steps and confidence level after being involved in an accident.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk-Taking*
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