Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

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  1. Walker D
    Endod Prac, 1999 Feb;2(1):8-12.
    PMID: 10740482
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants*
  2. Daood U, Parolia A, Elkezza A, Yiu CK, Abbott P, Matinlinna JP, et al.
    Dent Mater, 2019 09;35(9):1264-1278.
    PMID: 31201019 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2019.05.020
    OBJECTIVE: To analyze effect of NaOCl+2% quaternary ammonium silane (QAS)-containing novel irrigant against bacteria impregnated inside the root canal system, and to evaluate its antimicrobial and mechanical potential of dentine substrate.

    METHODS: Root canal was prepared using stainless steel K-files™ and ProTaper™ and subjected to manual and ultrasonic irrigation using 6% NaOCl+2% CHX, 6% NaOCl+2% QAS and saline as control. For confocal-microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis before and after treatment, Enterococcus faecalis cultured for 7 days. Raman spectroscopy analysis was done across cut section of gutta percha/sealer-dentine to detect resin infiltration. Indentation of mechanical properties was evaluated using a Berkovich indenter. The contact angle of irrigants and surface free energy were evaluated. Mineralization nodules were detected through Alazarin red after 14 days.

    RESULTS: Control biofilms showed dense green colonies. Majority of E. faecalis bacteria were present in biofilm fluoresced red in NaOCl+2% QAS group. There was reduction of 484cm-1 Raman band and its intensity reached lowest with NaOCl+2% QAS. There was an increase in 1350-1420cm-1 intensity in the NaOCl+2% CHX groups. Gradual decrease in 1639cm-1 and 1609cm-1 Raman signal ratios were seen in the resin-depth region of 17μm>, 14.1μm> and 13.2μm for NaOCl+2% QAS, NaOCl+2% CHX and control groups respectively. All obturated groups showed an intact sealer/dentine interface with a few notable differences. 0.771 and 83.5% creep indentation distance for NaOCl+2% QAS ultrasonic groups were observed. Highest proportion of polar component was significantly found in the NaOCl+2% QAS groups which was significantly higher as compared to other groups. Mineralized nodules were increased in NaOCl+2% QAS.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Favorable antimicrobial and endodontic profile of the NaOCl+2% QAS solution might suggest clinical use for it for more predictable reduction of intracanal bacteria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants*
  3. Mohan RP, Pai AR
    J Conserv Dent, 2015 Jul-Aug;18(4):275-8.
    PMID: 26180409 DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.159717
    The aim was to assess the influence of two irrigation regimens having ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) as final irrigants, respectively, on the dentine wettability for AH Plus sealer by comparing its contact angle formed to the irrigated dentine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  4. Naicker D, Zilm P, Nagendrababu V, Rossi-Fedele G
    Eur Endod J, 2020 12;5(3):242-247.
    PMID: 33353919 DOI: 10.14744/eej.2020.70883
    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of osmotic stress on various bacteria in a planktonic milieu and the effect of exposure to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the microbial cells previously subjected to osmotic stress.

    METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia were suspended as follows: Iso-osmotic group 0.9% NaCl; Hypo-osmotic group "ultrapure water"; Hyper-osmotic group 9% NaCl solution for 120 hours before exposure to 0.0001% NaOCl for 10 minutes. Quantitative analyses of viable cells were performed at 0 and 120 hours and after exposure to NaOCl to obtain colony forming units (CFU/mL). A linear mixed-effects model was used to find the association between mean CFU/mL (logarithmic transformation) and the interaction of solution Group and Time (P<0.001).

    RESULTS: F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis and P. intermedia did not survive after 24 hours in any of the solutions and were excluded from further testing. For S. sanguinis there were significant differences at each time interval, when holding solution group constant. After 120 hours, the Hyper-osmotic group presented with the highest CFU/mL and was significantly different to the Iso-osmotic group (P<0.001). For E. Faecalis, there was a significant difference for each pairwise comparison of time (P<0.001) in mean CFU/mL between 0 hours and 120 hours for the Iso-osmotic and Hyper-osmotic groups. At 120 hours, no significant differences were found between the three groups. Significant differences were also found between 0 hours and Post-NaOCl administration, and between 120 hours and Post-NaOCl administration for all three groups (P<0.001). Exposure to NaOCl after hypo-osmotic stress was associated with significantly less CFU/mL for S. sanguinis compared to hyperosmosis and iso-osmosis (P<0.001) and for E. Faecalis only compared to hyperosmosis (P<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: S. sanguinis and E. faecalis were able to withstand osmotic stress for 120 hours. Hypo-osmotic stress before contact with NaOCl was associated with lower viable bacterial numbers, when compared to the other media for the above species. Hyper-osmotic stress was associated with higher viable bacterial numbers after NaOCl exposure for E. faecalis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  5. Kok ESK, Lim XJ, Chew SX, Ong SF, See LY, Lim SH, et al.
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 03 12;21(1):116.
    PMID: 33711992 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01470-x
    BACKGROUND: Compare antimicrobial efficacy of a quarternary ammonium silane (QAS)/k21 as an intracanal medicament against E. faecalis and C. albicans biofilms formed on root dentin.

    METHODOLOGY: Dentin blocks were sterilized and E. faecalis and C. albicans microbial colonies were counted for colony-forming-units against 2%k21, 2%CHX and Ca(OH)2 medicaments. Biofilm colonies after 7 days on dentin were analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy with live/dead bacterial viability staining. TEM was done to study dentin collagen matrix. Dentin discs from 3rd day and 7th day well plate was used for Raman spectra and observed under fluorescent-microscope. Docking studies were carried out on MMP-2 S1 binding-domain with k21.

    RESULTS: There was reduction of E. faecalis/C. albicans when k21, chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide were used with highest percentage in 2%k21 treated specimens. 2%k21 showed dense and regular collagen network with intact cross-banding and decreased Raman intensity for 2%k21 on 3rd day. NaOCl + k21 showed least adherence, whereas saline groups showed highest adherence of E. faecalis and C. albicans to root-canal dentin. Alizarin red staining of hDPSCs revealed calcium deposition in all groups with significant difference seen amongst 2%k21 groups. MMP-2 ligand binding was seen accurately indicating possible target sites for k21 intervention.

    CONCLUSION: 2%k21 can be considered as alternative intracanal medicament.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology
  6. Guivarc'h M, Ordioni U, Ahmed HM, Cohen S, Catherine JH, Bukiet F
    J Endod, 2017 Jan;43(1):16-24.
    PMID: 27986099 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2016.09.023
    INTRODUCTION: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) extrusion beyond the apex, also known as "a hypochlorite accident," is a well-known complication that seldom occurs during root canal therapy. These "accidents" have been the subject of several case reports published over the years. Until now, no publication has addressed the global synthesis of the general and clinical data related to NaOCl extrusion. The main purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of previously published case reports to identify, synthesize, and present a critical analysis of the available data. A second purpose was to propose a standardized presentation of reporting data concerning NaOCl extrusions to refine and develop guidelines that should be used in further case report series.

    METHODS: A review of clinical cases reporting NaOCl accidents was conducted in June 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist; it combined an electronic search of the PubMed database and an extensive manual search.

    RESULTS: Forty full-text articles corresponding to 52 case reports published between 1974 and 2015 were selected. Four main categories of data were highlighted: general and clinical information, clinical signs and symptoms of NaOCl extrusions, management of NaOCl extrusions, and healing and prognosis. Overall, up to now, clinical cases were reported in a very unsystematic manner, and some relevant information was missing.

    CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the potential causes, management, and prognosis of NaOCl accidents requires a standardization of reported data; this study proposes a template that can fulfill this objective.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants/adverse effects*
  7. Anand S, Rajan M, Venkateshbabu N, Kandaswamy D, Shravya Y, Rajeswari K
    Open Dent J, 2016;10:160-5.
    PMID: 27386000 DOI: 10.2174/1874210601610010160
    AIM: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Commiphora myrrha (Myrrh), Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice) with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis by using Real Time PCR.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of fifty teeth specimens (n=50) were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Specimens were divided into five groups (Group 1: Myrrh, Group 2: Neem, Group 3: Liquorice, Group 4: 2% CHX and Group 5: Saline (negative control)). The intracanal medicaments were packed inside the tooth. After 5 days, the remaining microbial load was determined by using real time PCR.

    RESULTS: Threshold cycle (Ct) values of Myrrh extract, Neem extract, Liquorice Extract, 2% CHX and saline were found to be 30.94, 23.85, 21.38, 30.93 and 17.8 respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Myrrh extract showed inhibition of E.faecalis equal to that of 2% CHX followed by Neem, Liquorice and Saline.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  8. Ibrahim, N.Z., Abdullah, M.
    Ann Dent, 2008;15(1):20-26.
    MyJurnal
    This study aim to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ozonated water against Enterococci faecalis biofilm. The bacterial biofilm was exposed to 2.62%, 1.31% NaOCl and 0.1 ppm ozonated water over a range of time periods. The presence of viable cells was determined by enumeration of colony forming units (CFU). All experiments were repeated four times (n=4). The effectiveness of the agents was compared using nonparametric Kruskal- Wallis test. The result revealed that 2.62% of NaOCl can completely kill E. faecalis biofilm in 15 minutes whereas 1.31 % NaOCl required a longer time to produce such effect. 0.1 ppm ozonated, however, did not exhibit any antimicrobial effect within the period of time tested. From this study, it can be concluded that 0.1 ppm ozonated water was not comparable with 2.62% and 1.31% NaOCl in antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis biofilm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  9. Venkateshbabu N, Anand S, Abarajithan M, Sheriff SO, Jacob PS, Sonia N
    Open Dent J, 2016;10:214-26.
    PMID: 27386007 DOI: 10.2174/1874210601610010214
    Complete eradication of microbial biofilms and elimination of the smear layer are the key factors during endodontic treatment. Various chemical irrigants have been proposed in the literature for the same. The major setback with these chemical irrigants is that they are not bio-friendly to the dental and peri-radicular tissues. In the recent years, research to use natural products for root canal disinfection has gained importance. The aim of this article is to compile various herbal products that have been used as an irrigants and intracanal medicaments in the field of Endodontics to eradicate the biofilm and remove smear layer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  10. Pai ARV
    Br Dent J, 2023 Apr;234(7):488.
    PMID: 37059753 DOI: 10.1038/s41415-023-5755-3
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  11. Chai WL, Hamimah H, Cheng SC, Sallam AA, Abdullah M
    J Oral Sci, 2007 Jun;49(2):161-6.
    PMID: 17634730
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of six groups of antibiotics and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in a membrane filter model. Two-day-old E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) biofilm was exposed to ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, erythr omycin, oxytetracycline, vancomycin, vancomycin followed by gentamicin, Ca(OH)(2), and phosphate-buffered saline (control). After 1 h of exposure, the antimicrobial activity was neutralized by washing each disc five times in PBS, and then the colony-forming units of the remaining viable bacteria on each disc were counted. The results revealed that only erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 showed 100% biofilm kill. An ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test (P < 0.05) detected significant differences among the test agents, except in the ampicillin group versus the co-trimoxazole group. It is concluded that erythromycin, oxytetracycline and Ca(OH)2 are 100% effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilm, whereas ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, vancomycin, and vancomycin followed by gentamicin are ineffective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology*
  12. Neelakantan P, Ahmed HMA, Wong MCM, Matinlinna JP, Cheung GSP
    Int Endod J, 2018 Aug;51(8):847-861.
    PMID: 29377170 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12898
    The aim of this systematic review was to address the question: Do different irrigating protocols have an impact on the dislocation resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based materials? The review was performed using a well-defined search strategy in three databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) to include laboratory studies performed between January 1995 and May 2017, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers analysed the papers, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data on teeth used, sample size, size of root canal preparation, type of MTA-based material, irrigants, canal filling method, storage method and duration, region of roots and the parameters of push-out testing (slice thickness, plunger dimensions and plunger loading direction), the main results and dislocation resistance values (in MPa). From 255 studies, 27 were included for full-text analysis. Eight papers that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review. There was a wide variation in dislocation resistance due to differences in irrigation sequence, time and concentration of irrigants, storage method and duration, and the parameters of push-out bond strength testing. A meta-analysis was not done but qualitative synthesis of the included studies was performed. No definitive conclusion could be drawn to evaluate the effect of irrigation protocols on dislocation resistance of MTA-based materials. Recommendations have been provided for standardized testing methods and reporting of future studies, so as to obtain clinically relevant information and to understand the effects of irrigating protocols on root canal sealers and their interactions with the dentine walls of root canals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology*
  13. Rusmah M, Rahim ZH
    ASDC J Dent Child, 1992 Mar-Apr;59(2):108-10.
    PMID: 1583191
    The medicaments used in this study were buffered glutaraldehyde and formocresol. Schiff's reagent was used in the quantification of aldehyde released into the collecting medium. The results of this study clearly show that formocresol diffused throughout the dentine and cementum within fifteen minutes following a pulpotomy procedure, whereas no diffusion of buffered glutaraldehyde was observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants/metabolism*; Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use
  14. Ahmad M, Roy RA, Kamarudin AG
    Endod Dent Traumatol, 1992 Oct;8(5):189-94.
    PMID: 1302678
    The steady acoustic streaming generated around straight and precurved oscillating ultrasonic files driven by the Piezon-Master 400 unit was examined in the free field and in small channels using a stereomicroscope. In addition, the effect of file-wall contact on streaming production was also investigated. The results indicated that the ultrasonic files can generate acoustic streaming both in the free field and in the small channel. Higher velocity streaming was observed when smaller size files were employed and when the file was precurved. Light file-wall contact did not totally inhibit streaming while severe file-wall contact inhibited movement of the file and, as a result, no streaming was observed. The positions and length scales of the streaming vortices appeared to be influenced by the presence of boundaries. In the free field, two rows of vortices were situated along the sides of the file while in the small channel, the vortices were positioned above the surface of the file. These results indicated that it is possible for acoustic streaming to occur in a confined space as in a root canal provided that severe file-wall contact is avoided. It is therefore recommended that light filing or allowing the file to freely vibrate during some stage of treatment should be carried out in order to generate streaming in the root canal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  15. Ahmad M
    Endod Dent Traumatol, 1990 Oct;6(5):230-1.
    PMID: 2133315
    The temperature rise of the irrigant in the root canal during free vibration of the ultrasonic file was studied in vitro in 10 human teeth. The mean temperature rise was found to be 0.6 degrees C. The minimal temperature increase may not significantly contribute to the effectiveness of ultrasonic root canal instrumentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  16. Mali S, Singla S, Tyagi P, Sharma A, Talreja N, Gautam A
    J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent, 2021 1 7;38(4):374-380.
    PMID: 33402620 DOI: 10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_315_20
    Aim and Objectives: The aim and objectives of this study are to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of Myristica fragrans - Nutmeg, Terminalia chebula - Myrobolan, Ocimum sanctum-tulsi, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the removal of the smear layer by the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Settings and Design: Endodontic treatment aims at disinfection and then obturation of root canal system in to prevent re-infection. Root canal irrigants play a pivotal role in the disinfection process. One of the important properties of an irrigant is the removal of complete smear layer and debris. Smear layer has the potential to protect bacteria within the dentinal tubules; therefore removal may be prudent. Smear layer removal increases the bond strength of resin sealers which results in better apical seal.

    Materials and Methods: Forty extracted single-rooted, primary teeth were allocated randomly into four groups of ten each: Group 1 - NaOCl, Group 2 - Nutmeg, Group 3 - Myrobolan, and Group 4 - Tulsi. Samples were stored in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) and then decoronated at the level of the cementoenamel junction. Working length was determined followed by appropriate irrigation. The roots were split into two halves with a chisel and were stored in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution for 24 h. After fixation, the samples were dehydrated in ethanol series (70, 90, and 95 and twice at 100%). Each specimen was mounted on Al stub and sputter coated with a 20 nm layer of gold. Samples were then examined using a SEM quantum 60 at magnification of ×2000.

    Results: Tulsi demonstrated the most statistically significant results followed by myrobolan and nutmeg extract. All herbal extracts were found to be significantly effective than 2.5% NaOCl.

    Conclusion: Tulsi, nutmeg and myrobolan can be effectively used as an irrigant in primary teeth.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  17. Karobari MI, Khijmatgar S, Noorani TY, Assiry A, Alharbi T
    J Conserv Dent, 2021 02 10;23(5):518-521.
    PMID: 33911363 DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_220_19
    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the role of clinical audit in improving endodontic treatment outcomes.

    Materials and Methods: An audit at the department of endodontics at dental specialty centre kingdom of Saudi Arabia was carried out. The audit was conducted by developing endodontics treatment and success predictors based on evidence, that can be measured for endodontic care. A total of 12 months' data was examined from the previous dental records. Ten clinical cards were which included root canal treatment were selected. The audit was carried out for a minimum of 50 teeth and a maximum of 200 teeth. The radiographs of record cards were studied and a single dentist completed the audit tool.

    Results: The vitality test was performed in 1.98% cases, intra-canal medicament was used and named in 3.96% cases, 3.96% the teeth were extracted due to endodontic failure. Further, in 6.93% of the cases that were identified had certain spaces but overall root canal filling was evaluated as satisfactory.

    Conclusion: The vitality test, type of intracanal medicament, and assessment of root canal filling were not done, but there was an overall performance of predictors for endodontic treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  18. Sidhu P, Shankargouda S, Rath A, Hesarghatta Ramamurthy P, Fernandes B, Kumar Singh A
    J Ayurveda Integr Med, 2018 11 01;11(1):82-88.
    PMID: 30391123 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaim.2017.12.004
    Oral health influences general well-being and quality of life. Oral diseases can be debilitating and are a major heath concern worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years for treating human diseases. Considering the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens and financial difficulties in developing countries, there is an urgent need for developing new antimicrobial compounds which are safe, efficient and cost effective. Liquorice also known as yashtimadhu, sweetwood or mulhatti is one such herbal remedy which has shown to have immense potential in treatment of orofacial diseases. Liquorice is rich in secondary metabolites which are used in cosmetics, foods, traditional and modern medicine. It has well known properties such as antiviral, glucocorticoid, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-ulcerative, anti-carcinogenic and many more. Liquorice extracts and liquorice bioactive ingredients such as glabridin, licoricidin, licorisoflavan A, licochalcone A, and glycyrrhizin have shown beneficial effects in preventing and treating oral diseases. This paper reviews the effects of liquorice and its constituents on oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis, candidiasis, recurrent aphthous ulcer and oral cancer and its use as a root canal medicament and summarizes the results of clinical trials that investigated the potential beneficial effects of liquorice and its constituents as a prevention and treatment modality in oral diseases. Clinical trials, case reports and review of literature evaluating the effect of liquorice on oral microorganisms and oral diseases are included. Literature pertaining to the effects of liquorice on systemic diseases have been excluded from this review of literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  19. Thomas AR, Mani R, Reddy TV, Ravichandran A, Sivakumar M, Krishnakumar S
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2019 Sep 01;20(9):1090-1094.
    PMID: 31797835
    AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial efficiency of a combination of 1% alexidine (ALX) and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against E. faecalis biofilm using a confocal scanning electron microscopy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An estimated 120 human root dentin disks were prepared, sterilized, and inoculated with E. faecalis strain (ATCC 29212) to develop a 3-weeks-old biofilm. The dentin discs were exposed to group I-control group: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 20); group II-1% ALX + 5.25% NaOCl (n = 40); group III-1% alexidine (ALX) (n = 40) (Sigma-Aldrich, Mumbai, India); group IV-negative control: saline (n = 20). After exposure, the dentin disks were stained with the fluorescent live/dead dye and evaluated with a confocal scanning electron microscope to calculate the proportion of dead cells. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05).

    RESULTS: The maximum proportion of dead cells were seen in the groups treated with the combination of 1% ALX + 5.25% NaOCl (94.89%) and in the control group 5.25% NaOCl (93.14%). The proportion of dead cells presented in the 1% ALX group (51.79%) and negative control group saline (15.10%) were comparatively less.

    CONCLUSION: The antibacterial efficiency of a combination of 1% ALX and 5.25% NaOCl was more effective when compared with 1% ALX alone.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Alexidine at 1% could be used as an alternative endodontic irrigant to chlorhexidine, as alexidine does not form any toxic precipitates with sodium hypochlorite. The disinfection regimen comprising a combination of 1% ALX and 5.25% NaOCl is effective in eliminating E. faecalis biofilms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
  20. Varadan P, Ganesh A, Konindala R, Nagendrababu V, Ashok R, Deivanayagam K
    Cureus, 2017 Oct 26;9(10):e1805.
    PMID: 29308333 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1805
    Introduction Root canal irrigants play an important role in reducing intracanal microorganisms, which in turn helps in achieving a successful outcome for the root canal treatment. Objective To compare the antibacterial efficacy of alexidine and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. Methods A total of 50 extracted single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into five groups after being infected with Enterococcus faecalis. The groups were based on irrigants used: Group I - 0.4% alexidine; Group II - 1% alexidine; Group III - 1.5% percent alexidine; Group IV - 2% alexidine; Group V - 2% chlorhexidine. Following irrigation, colony-forming units were determined from the dentinal shavings collected at 400 µm depth. Results Use of 2% alexidine reduced the bacteria effectively when compared to 0.4%, 1%, and 1.5% alexidine. A statistically significant difference was not observed between 2% alexidine and 2% chlorhexidine. Discussion Alexidine, due to its higher virulence factors for bacteria and better bacterial penetrability at 400 µm depth of dentin showed better eradication of Enterococcus faecalis in comparison to chlorhexidine. Conclusion The use of 2% alexidine against Enterococcus faecalis at 400 µm depth of dentin has efficacy comparable to chlorhexidine. Hence, alexidine can be used as an alternative irrigant for chlorhexidine during endodontic procedures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Root Canal Irrigants
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