METHODS: HA having nanorods structure were synthetized using ultrasonication with precipitation method. HA nanorods were characterized by TEM for average-size/shape. Following phosphoric acid demineralization, dentine specimens were treated with HA-nanorods with/without subsequent HIFU exposure for 5 s, 10 s and 20 s then stored in artificial saliva for 1-month. Dentine specimens were characterized using different SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the biochemical stability and HA-nanorods were examined using ATR-FTIR to observe attachment of nanoparticles. Also, surface nanoindentation properties were evaluated using AFM in tapping-mode.
RESULTS: HA-nanorods displayed well-defined, homogenous plate-like nanostructure. TEM revealed intact collagen-fibrils network structure with high density due to obliteration of interfibrillar spaces with clear evidence of remineralization in combined HA/HIFU treatment. With HA-nanorods treatment collagen-network structure was visible, consisting of fibrils interlaced into a compact pattern with evidence of minerals deposition. AFM investigation revealed clear mineral formation with the increase of HIFU exposure time. Bands associated with inorganic phase dominate well in HIFU exposed specimens with PO stretching within dentine mineral identified at 960 cm-1. Characteristic dentine structure for control and HIFU 20 s specimens is reflected as oscillatory mean Amide-I intensity with measurement giving a precise sinusoidal response of polarization angle β within dentinal tissue. Nanoindentation testing showed a gradual significant increase in elastic-modulus with the increase in HIFU exposure time after 1-month storage. FTIR spectrum of the HIFU exposed dentine displayed bands at 1650 cm-1, 1580 cm-1 and 1510 cm-1 that can be attributed to Amide-I, II and III.
SIGNIFICANCE: The synergetic effect of HIFU exposure on remineralization potential of demineralized dentine-matrix following nano-hydroxyapatite treatment was revealed. This synergetic effect is dependent on HIFU exposure time.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the wetting properties of 3 different commercially available denture base resin materials with artificial salivary substitute by using contact angle measurements and to compare these properties before and after thermocycling.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total 120 specimens were fabricated with 3 different denture base materials (n=40): heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate (DenTek), injection-molded nylon polyamide (Valplast), and microwave polymerized (VIPI WAVE). The advancing and receding contact angles were measured with a goniometer by using the WinDrop++ software program. The contact angle hysteresis was calculated from the advancing and receding contact angles values. The same specimens were subjected to thermocycling to measure the advancing and receding contact angles values. The comparative evaluation was carried out before and after thermocycling.
RESULTS: The mean ±standard deviation contact angles of the microwave-polymerized material were (62.40 ±1.21 degrees) advancing contact angle, (32.12 ±0.66 degrees) receding contact angle, and (30.28 ±1.40 degrees) contact angle of hysteresis. It was followed by the injection-molded nylon polyamide material, whose mean ±standard deviation contact angle values were (68.57 ±1.72 degrees) advancing contact angle, (43.02 ±1.39 degrees) receding contact angle, (26.27 ±2.05 degrees) contact angle hysteresis and high impact strength heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate material, whose mean ±standard deviation contact angle values were (69.81 ±0.16 degrees) advancing contact angle, (41.90 ±1.02 degrees) receding contact angle, and (27.91 ±0.97 degrees) contact angle hysteresis. The statistical analysis showed significant differences among contact angle values of the microwave-polymerized material as compared with the heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate and injection-molded nylon polyamide materials (Psaliva substitute than heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate and injection-molded nylon polyamide.
Materials and methods: Sixty (60) extracted sound Maxilla (Mx) and Mandibular (Mn) premolars were randomly divided into 2 groups (test and control). Artificial WSLs were produced on buccal surface of teeth and were immersed in artificial saliva for 8 weeks. Colour components (L∗, a∗, b∗) and surface roughness (Sa∗) were assessed on 40 teeth using colour difference meter RD-100 and Alicona® Infinite Focus profilometer respectively. The measurements were done at baseline (T1), directly after artificial WSLs (T2), after 24 hours immersed in saliva and application of resin (T3) and immersion in artificial saliva for 1 (T4), 2 (T5), 4 (T6), 6 (T7) and 8 (T8) weeks. SEM images analysis were carried out on 20 teeth in four time points.
Results: The values of L∗ (lightness), b∗ (yellow/blue) and Sa∗ (surface roughness) are gradually reduced to the baseline value. Whereas, the value of a∗ gradually increased with distinct treatment time to achieve the baseline value. The higher value of L∗ and Sa∗, the whiter the lesion suggesting higher degree of enamel demineralization and surface roughness. Lower L∗ values suggest a masking colour effect.
Conclusion: The material produced favorable esthetics on colour and the surface roughness of teeth at distinct treatment times. It is recommended to be used to improve WSL post orthodontic treatment.
Materials and methods: One conventional composite (Filtek Z350 [FZ]), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill [FB] and Tetric N Ceram [TN]) and a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative [BB]) were evaluated. Specimens (12 × 2 × 2 mm) were fabricated using customized stainless steel molds. Specimens were light-cured, removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into six groups. The groups (n = 10) were conditioned in the following mediums for 7 days at 37 °C: air (control), artificial saliva (SAGF), distilled water, 0.02 N citric acid, heptane, 50% ethanol-water solution. After conditioning, the specimens were rinsed, blotted dry, measured and subjected to flexural testing using a universal testing machine. Representative SEM images of the intact surfaces were obtained to appraise the degradation mechanism by dietary solvents. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA/Tukey's tests at significance level p
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the wettability of 3 different artificial saliva substitutes on heat-polymerized acrylic resin and to compare these properties with natural saliva and distilled water.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were prepared with 25×15×2 mm dimensions. The specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=30): human saliva, distilled water, Aqwet, Mouth Kote, and Stoppers 4. The advancing and receding contact angle values were measured by using a goniometer, and the contact angle hysteresis and equilibrium angle were calculated. One-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were performed to determine the difference between contact angle values among the groups (α=.05).
RESULTS: The means of the 5 groups differed significantly (Psaliva and Aqwet showed no significant difference for advancing contact angle, receding contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, or equilibrium contact angle, while comparison between the remaining groups indicated statistically significant (Psaliva substitutes used in this study (Aqwet, Mouth Kote, and Stoppers 4) had significantly better wetting properties than distilled water.
CONCLUSIONS: Human saliva had the lowest advancing, receding, and equilibrium contact angle values and the highest angle of hysteresis on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Aqwet had better wetting ability than the other artificial salivary substitutes tested and was comparable to the human saliva on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. All saliva substitutes have better wetting properties than distilled water.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HVGICs evaluated were Zirconomer [ZR] (Shofu), Equia Forte [EQ] (GC) and Riva [RV] (SDI). Sixty specimens (12mm x 2mm x 2mm) of each material were fabricated using customized Teflon molds. After initial set, the specimens were removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into 3 groups of 20. Half the specimens in each group were left uncoated while the remaining half was covered with the respective manufacturers' resin coating. The specimens were subsequently conditioned in distilled water, artificial saliva or citric acid at 37°C for 7 days. The uncoated and coated specimens (n=10) were then subjected to dynamic mechanical testing in flexure mode at 37°C with a frequency of 0.1 to 10Hz. Storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent data were subjected to normality testing and statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc test and Ttest at significance level p<0.05.
RESULTS: Mean storage modulus ranged from 1.39 ± 0.36 to 10.80 ± 0.86 GPa while mean loss modulus varied from 0.13 ± 0.03 to 0.70 ± 0.14 GPa after conditioning in the different mediums. Values for loss tangent ranged from 39.4 ± 7.75 to 213.2 ± 20.11 (x10 -3 ). Significant differences in visco-elastic properties were observed between mediums and materials. When conditioned in distilled water and artificial saliva,storage modulus was significantly improved when ZR, EQ and RV were uncoated. Significantly higher values were, however, observed with resin coating when the materials were exposed to citric acid.
CONCLUSION: The visco-elastic properties of HVGICs were influenced by both resin coating and chemical environment.
Methods: The posterior parts of the archwires were sectioned into 20 mm segments (N = 102) and divided among six groups. Four groups were treated with different pH levels and two served as controls. The specimens were immersed in individual test tubes containing 10 ml of artificial saliva adjusted to a pH of 6.75 or 3.5. The tubes were sealed and stored in a 37 °C water bath for 28 days. After 28 days, the specimens were ligated to brackets embedded in an acrylic block and subjected to mechanical stress using an electronic toothbrush for 210 s. The specimens were photographed, and images were measured for coating loss using AutoCAD® software. Surface morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Results: Significant coating loss (p
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty discs each of Fuji LX, Fuji VII and of Vitrebond were prepared in a plastic mould. Twenty discs of each material were coated for 30 seconds with a 10% solution of AgF. Five discs each of coated and uncoated material were placed individually in 4m1 of differing eluant solutions. The eluant solutions comprised deionized distilled water (DDW) and three separate acetate buffered solutions at pH 7, pH 5 and pH 3. After 30 minutes the discs were removed and placed in five vials containing 4m1 of the various solutions for a further 30 minutes. This was repeated for further intervals of time up to 216 hours, and all eluant solutions were stored. Fluoride concentrations in the eluant solutions were estimated using a fluoride specific electrode, with TISAB IV as a metal ion complexing and ionic concentration adjustment agent. Cumulative fluoride release patterns were determined from the incremental data.
RESULTS: The coating of AgF greatly enhanced the level of fluoride ion release from all materials tested. Of the uncoated samples, Vitrehond released the greater concentrations of fluoride ion, followed by Fuji VII. However, cumulative levels of fluoride released from coated samples of the GICs almost matched those from coated Vitrebond.
CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that a coating of 10% AgF on GICs and a resin modified GIC greatly enhanced the concentration of fluoride released from these materials. This finding might be applied to improving protection against recurrent caries, particularly in high caries risk patients, and in the atraumatic restorative technique (ART) of restoration placement.
METHODS: Dentine surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective in vitro ethanol and acetone adhesives modified with (m/m, 0, 1%, 2% and 3% ribose), restored with restorative composite-resin, and sectioned into resin-dentine slabs and beams to be stored for 24h or 12 months in artificial saliva. Bond-strength testing was performed with bond failure analysis. Pentosidine assay was performed on demineralized ribose modified dentine specimens with HPLC sensitive fluorescent detection. The structural variations of ribose-modified dentine were analysed using TEM and human dental pulpal cells were used for cell viability. Three-point bending test of ribose-modified dentine beams were performed and depth of penetration of adhesives evaluated with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The MMP-2 and cathepsin K activities in ribose-treated dentine powder were also quantified using ELISA. Bond strength data was expressed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Paired T tests were used to analyse the specimens for pentosidine crosslinks. The modulus of elasticity and dentinal MMP-2 and cathepsin K concentrations was separately analyzed using one-way ANOVA.
RESULTS: The incorporation of RB in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 1% improved the adhesive bond strength without adversely affecting the degree of polymerisation. The newly developed adhesive increases the resistance of dentine collagen to degradation by inhibiting endogenous matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins. The application of RB to acid-etched dentine helps maintain the mechanical properties.
SIGNIFICANCE: The incorporation of 1%RB can be considered as a potential candidate stabilizing resin dentine bond.