Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Foo, W.T., Yew, H.S., Liong, M.T., Azhar, M.E.
    The physical attributes (pH and colour), cooking yield, textural and mechanical properties (firmness, tensile and texture profiles analyses) and structural breakdown properties (multiple extrusion cell with added artificial saliva) of five yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) formulations were studied. Samples used were noodles with (a) typical formulation (control), (b) soy protein isolate (SPI), (c) soy protein isolate plus microbial transglutaminase enzyme (SPI/MTGase), (d) green banana pulp flour (GBPu) and (e) green banana peel flour (GBPe). Compared to other noodles SPI/MTGase noodle showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in terms of textural, mechanical and breakdown properties. Incorporating SPI, banana pulp and peel flours into the noodles had imposed some differences on most of the mechanical and textural parameters from the control YAN. However, these noodles could not be clearly distinguished in term of structural breakdown properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  2. Daood U, Fawzy AS
    Dent Mater, 2020 03;36(3):456-467.
    PMID: 32008748 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2020.01.005
    OBJECTIVE: The aim is to investigate the potential significance of combining minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods treatment for the remineralization of demineralized coronal dentine-matrix.

    METHODS: HA having nanorods structure were synthetized using ultrasonication with precipitation method. HA nanorods were characterized by TEM for average-size/shape. Following phosphoric acid demineralization, dentine specimens were treated with HA-nanorods with/without subsequent HIFU exposure for 5 s, 10 s and 20 s then stored in artificial saliva for 1-month. Dentine specimens were characterized using different SEM and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the biochemical stability and HA-nanorods were examined using ATR-FTIR to observe attachment of nanoparticles. Also, surface nanoindentation properties were evaluated using AFM in tapping-mode.

    RESULTS: HA-nanorods displayed well-defined, homogenous plate-like nanostructure. TEM revealed intact collagen-fibrils network structure with high density due to obliteration of interfibrillar spaces with clear evidence of remineralization in combined HA/HIFU treatment. With HA-nanorods treatment collagen-network structure was visible, consisting of fibrils interlaced into a compact pattern with evidence of minerals deposition. AFM investigation revealed clear mineral formation with the increase of HIFU exposure time. Bands associated with inorganic phase dominate well in HIFU exposed specimens with PO stretching within dentine mineral identified at 960 cm-1. Characteristic dentine structure for control and HIFU 20 s specimens is reflected as oscillatory mean Amide-I intensity with measurement giving a precise sinusoidal response of polarization angle β within dentinal tissue. Nanoindentation testing showed a gradual significant increase in elastic-modulus with the increase in HIFU exposure time after 1-month storage. FTIR spectrum of the HIFU exposed dentine displayed bands at 1650 cm-1, 1580 cm-1 and 1510 cm-1 that can be attributed to Amide-I, II and III.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The synergetic effect of HIFU exposure on remineralization potential of demineralized dentine-matrix following nano-hydroxyapatite treatment was revealed. This synergetic effect is dependent on HIFU exposure time.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  3. Jadhav V, Deshpande S, Radke U, Mahale H, Patil PG
    J Prosthet Dent, 2021 Oct;126(4):590-594.
    PMID: 33012529 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.07.014
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Xerostomia refers to the decrease in the quality and quantity of saliva. In denture wearers, xerostomia affects the retention of the denture because of lack of wettability of the denture base. However, which denture base resin materials are best wetted by artificial salivary substitutes is unclear.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the wetting properties of 3 different commercially available denture base resin materials with artificial salivary substitute by using contact angle measurements and to compare these properties before and after thermocycling.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total 120 specimens were fabricated with 3 different denture base materials (n=40): heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate (DenTek), injection-molded nylon polyamide (Valplast), and microwave polymerized (VIPI WAVE). The advancing and receding contact angles were measured with a goniometer by using the WinDrop++ software program. The contact angle hysteresis was calculated from the advancing and receding contact angles values. The same specimens were subjected to thermocycling to measure the advancing and receding contact angles values. The comparative evaluation was carried out before and after thermocycling.

    RESULTS: The mean ±standard deviation contact angles of the microwave-polymerized material were (62.40 ±1.21 degrees) advancing contact angle, (32.12 ±0.66 degrees) receding contact angle, and (30.28 ±1.40 degrees) contact angle of hysteresis. It was followed by the injection-molded nylon polyamide material, whose mean ±standard deviation contact angle values were (68.57 ±1.72 degrees) advancing contact angle, (43.02 ±1.39 degrees) receding contact angle, (26.27 ±2.05 degrees) contact angle hysteresis and high impact strength heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate material, whose mean ±standard deviation contact angle values were (69.81 ±0.16 degrees) advancing contact angle, (41.90 ±1.02 degrees) receding contact angle, and (27.91 ±0.97 degrees) contact angle hysteresis. The statistical analysis showed significant differences among contact angle values of the microwave-polymerized material as compared with the heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate and injection-molded nylon polyamide materials (Psaliva substitute than heat-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate and injection-molded nylon polyamide.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  4. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Rahman RA, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):1-3.
    PMID: 17378333
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they receive radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. Part I of this series reviews the management of xerostomia. The management of the effect of xerostomia to the dentition/oral cavity is discussed in Part II.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial/therapeutic use; Saliva, Artificial/chemistry
  5. Mohamed AM, Wong KH, Lee WJ, Marizan Nor M, Mohd Hussaini H, Rosli TI
    Saudi Dent J, 2018 Apr;30(2):142-150.
    PMID: 29628737 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2017.12.001
    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration on colour changes and surface roughness of artificial white spot lesions (WSLs) on maxillary and mandibular premolar.

    Materials and methods: Sixty (60) extracted sound Maxilla (Mx) and Mandibular (Mn) premolars were randomly divided into 2 groups (test and control). Artificial WSLs were produced on buccal surface of teeth and were immersed in artificial saliva for 8 weeks. Colour components (L∗, a∗, b∗) and surface roughness (Sa∗) were assessed on 40 teeth using colour difference meter RD-100 and Alicona® Infinite Focus profilometer respectively. The measurements were done at baseline (T1), directly after artificial WSLs (T2), after 24 hours immersed in saliva and application of resin (T3) and immersion in artificial saliva for 1 (T4), 2 (T5), 4 (T6), 6 (T7) and 8 (T8) weeks. SEM images analysis were carried out on 20 teeth in four time points.

    Results: The values of L∗ (lightness), b∗ (yellow/blue) and Sa∗ (surface roughness) are gradually reduced to the baseline value. Whereas, the value of a∗ gradually increased with distinct treatment time to achieve the baseline value. The higher value of L∗ and Sa∗, the whiter the lesion suggesting higher degree of enamel demineralization and surface roughness. Lower L∗ values suggest a masking colour effect.

    Conclusion: The material produced favorable esthetics on colour and the surface roughness of teeth at distinct treatment times. It is recommended to be used to improve WSL post orthodontic treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  6. Eweis AH, Yap AU, Yahya NA
    Saudi Dent J, 2018 Jul;30(3):232-239.
    PMID: 29942108 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2018.04.002
    Objective: This study investigated the effect of dietary solvents on flexural strength and modulus of bulk-fill composites.

    Materials and methods: One conventional composite (Filtek Z350 [FZ]), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill [FB] and Tetric N Ceram [TN]) and a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative [BB]) were evaluated. Specimens (12 × 2 × 2 mm) were fabricated using customized stainless steel molds. Specimens were light-cured, removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into six groups. The groups (n = 10) were conditioned in the following mediums for 7 days at 37 °C: air (control), artificial saliva (SAGF), distilled water, 0.02 N citric acid, heptane, 50% ethanol-water solution. After conditioning, the specimens were rinsed, blotted dry, measured and subjected to flexural testing using a universal testing machine. Representative SEM images of the intact surfaces were obtained to appraise the degradation mechanism by dietary solvents. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA/Tukey's tests at significance level p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  7. Jaiswal N, Patil PG, Gangurde A, Parkhedkar RD
    J Prosthet Dent, 2019 Mar;121(3):517-522.
    PMID: 30391058 DOI: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2018.03.037
    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The prosthodontic problems faced by a patient with xerostomia are of great concern. To aid in retention, artificial saliva substitutes should exhibit good wettability on the denture base.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the wettability of 3 different artificial saliva substitutes on heat-polymerized acrylic resin and to compare these properties with natural saliva and distilled water.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 150 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were prepared with 25×15×2 mm dimensions. The specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=30): human saliva, distilled water, Aqwet, Mouth Kote, and Stoppers 4. The advancing and receding contact angle values were measured by using a goniometer, and the contact angle hysteresis and equilibrium angle were calculated. One-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni multiple comparisons test were performed to determine the difference between contact angle values among the groups (α=.05).

    RESULTS: The means of the 5 groups differed significantly (Psaliva and Aqwet showed no significant difference for advancing contact angle, receding contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, or equilibrium contact angle, while comparison between the remaining groups indicated statistically significant (Psaliva substitutes used in this study (Aqwet, Mouth Kote, and Stoppers 4) had significantly better wetting properties than distilled water.

    CONCLUSIONS: Human saliva had the lowest advancing, receding, and equilibrium contact angle values and the highest angle of hysteresis on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Aqwet had better wetting ability than the other artificial salivary substitutes tested and was comparable to the human saliva on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. All saliva substitutes have better wetting properties than distilled water.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  8. Yap AU, Ong JE, Yahya NA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2021 01;113:104120.
    PMID: 33086137 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104120
    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effects of self-adhesive resin coatings on viscoelastic properties of highly viscous glass ionomer cements (HVGICs) using dynamic mechanical analysis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The HVGICs evaluated were Zirconomer [ZR] (Shofu), Equia Forte [EQ] (GC) and Riva [RV] (SDI). Sixty specimens (12mm x 2mm x 2mm) of each material were fabricated using customized Teflon molds. After initial set, the specimens were removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into 3 groups of 20. Half the specimens in each group were left uncoated while the remaining half was covered with the respective manufacturers' resin coating. The specimens were subsequently conditioned in distilled water, artificial saliva or citric acid at 37°C for 7 days. The uncoated and coated specimens (n=10) were then subjected to dynamic mechanical testing in flexure mode at 37°C with a frequency of 0.1 to 10Hz. Storage modulus, loss modulus and loss tangent data were subjected to normality testing and statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc test and Ttest at significance level p<0.05.

    RESULTS: Mean storage modulus ranged from 1.39 ± 0.36 to 10.80 ± 0.86 GPa while mean loss modulus varied from 0.13 ± 0.03 to 0.70 ± 0.14 GPa after conditioning in the different mediums. Values for loss tangent ranged from 39.4 ± 7.75 to 213.2 ± 20.11 (x10 -3 ). Significant differences in visco-elastic properties were observed between mediums and materials. When conditioned in distilled water and artificial saliva,storage modulus was significantly improved when ZR, EQ and RV were uncoated. Significantly higher values were, however, observed with resin coating when the materials were exposed to citric acid.

    CONCLUSION: The visco-elastic properties of HVGICs were influenced by both resin coating and chemical environment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  9. Chai WL, Ngeow WC, Ramli R, Rahman RA
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):4-6.
    PMID: 17378334
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral complications after radiation therapy. The management of xerostomia has been reviewed in Part I of this series. In this article, the management of dental caries, a sequalae of xerostomia following radiation therapy is reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial/therapeutic use; Saliva, Artificial/chemistry
  10. Abdulkader YC, Kamaruddin AF, Mydin RBSMN
    Saudi Dent J, 2020 Sep;32(6):306-313.
    PMID: 32874071 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2019.09.010
    Objectives: This study compared the effects of normal salivary pH, and acidic pH found in patients with poor oral hygiene, on the durability of aesthetic archwire coated with epoxy resin and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

    Methods: The posterior parts of the archwires were sectioned into 20 mm segments (N = 102) and divided among six groups. Four groups were treated with different pH levels and two served as controls. The specimens were immersed in individual test tubes containing 10 ml of artificial saliva adjusted to a pH of 6.75 or 3.5. The tubes were sealed and stored in a 37 °C water bath for 28 days. After 28 days, the specimens were ligated to brackets embedded in an acrylic block and subjected to mechanical stress using an electronic toothbrush for 210 s. The specimens were photographed, and images were measured for coating loss using AutoCAD® software. Surface morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Results: Significant coating loss (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  11. Peh KK, Wong CF
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 1999 May-Aug;2(2):53-61.
    PMID: 10952770
    To investigate the suitability of an SCMC (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose/polyethylene glycol 400/carbopol 934P) and an HPMC (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/polyethylene glycol 400/carbopol 934P) films as drug vehicle for buccal delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial/chemistry
  12. Arzmi MH, Dashper S, Catmull D, Cirillo N, Reynolds EC, McCullough M
    FEMS Yeast Res., 2015 Aug;15(5):fov038.
    PMID: 26054855 DOI: 10.1093/femsyr/fov038
    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  13. Bourgi R, Daood U, Bijle MN, Fawzy A, Ghaleb M, Hardan L
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 26;13(5).
    PMID: 33652596 DOI: 10.3390/polym13050704
    Enzymatic biodegradation of demineralized collagen fibrils could lead to the reduction of resin-dentin bond strength. Therefore, methods that provide protection to collagen fibrils appear to be a pragmatic solution to improve bond strength. Thus, the study's aim was to investigate the effect of ribose (RB) on demineralized resin-dentin specimens in a modified universal adhesive. Dentin specimens were obtained, standardized and then bonded in vitro with a commercial multi-mode adhesive modified with 0, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% RB, restored with resin composite, and tested for micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) after storage for 24 h in artificial saliva. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to analyze resin-dentin interface. Contact angles were analyzed using a contact angle analyzer. Depth of penetration of adhesives and nanoleakage were assessed using micro-Raman spectroscopy and silver tracing. Molecular docking studies were carried out using Schrodinger small-molecule drug discovery suite 2019-4. Matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) and cathepsin-K activities in RB-treated specimens were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The significance level was set at α = 0.05 for all statistical analyses. Incorporation of RB at 1% or 2% is of significant potential (p < 0.05) as it can be associated with improved wettability on dentin surfaces (0.5% had the lowest contact angle) as well as appreciable hybrid layer quality, and higher resin penetration. Improvement of the adhesive bond strength was shown when adding RB at 1% concentration to universal adhesive (p < 0.05). Modified adhesive increased the resistance of collagen degradation by inhibiting MMP-2 and cathepsin-K. A higher RB concentration was associated with improved results (p < 0.01). D-ribose showed favorable negative binding to collagen. In conclusion, universal adhesive using 1% or 2% RB helped in maintaining dentin collagen scaffold and proved to be successful in improving wettability, protease inhibition, and stability of demineralized dentin substrates. A more favorable substrate is created which, in turn, leads to a more stable dentin-adhesive bond. This could lead to more advantageous outcomes in a clinical scenario where a stable bond may result in longevity of the dental restoration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  14. Ariffin Z, Ngo H, McIntyre J
    Aust Dent J, 2006 Dec;51(4):328-32.
    PMID: 17256308
    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the extent to which a coating of 10% silver fluoride (AgF) on discs of glass jonomer cements (GIGs) would enhance the release of fluoride ion into eluting solutions at varying pH.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty discs each of Fuji LX, Fuji VII and of Vitrebond were prepared in a plastic mould. Twenty discs of each material were coated for 30 seconds with a 10% solution of AgF. Five discs each of coated and uncoated material were placed individually in 4m1 of differing eluant solutions. The eluant solutions comprised deionized distilled water (DDW) and three separate acetate buffered solutions at pH 7, pH 5 and pH 3. After 30 minutes the discs were removed and placed in five vials containing 4m1 of the various solutions for a further 30 minutes. This was repeated for further intervals of time up to 216 hours, and all eluant solutions were stored. Fluoride concentrations in the eluant solutions were estimated using a fluoride specific electrode, with TISAB IV as a metal ion complexing and ionic concentration adjustment agent. Cumulative fluoride release patterns were determined from the incremental data.

    RESULTS: The coating of AgF greatly enhanced the level of fluoride ion release from all materials tested. Of the uncoated samples, Vitrehond released the greater concentrations of fluoride ion, followed by Fuji VII. However, cumulative levels of fluoride released from coated samples of the GICs almost matched those from coated Vitrebond.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that a coating of 10% AgF on GICs and a resin modified GIC greatly enhanced the concentration of fluoride released from these materials. This finding might be applied to improving protection against recurrent caries, particularly in high caries risk patients, and in the atraumatic restorative technique (ART) of restoration placement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
  15. Daood U, Tsoi JKH, Neelakantan P, Matinlinna JP, Omar HAK, Al-Nabulsi M, et al.
    Dent Mater, 2018 08;34(8):1175-1187.
    PMID: 29779627 DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2018.05.005
    OBJECTIVE: Collagen fibrils aid in anchoring resin composite restorations to the dentine substrate. The aim of the study was to investigate effect of non-enzymatic glycation on bond strength and durability of demineralized dentine specimens in a modified two-step etch-and-rinse dentine adhesive.

    METHODS: Dentine surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, bonded with respective in vitro ethanol and acetone adhesives modified with (m/m, 0, 1%, 2% and 3% ribose), restored with restorative composite-resin, and sectioned into resin-dentine slabs and beams to be stored for 24h or 12 months in artificial saliva. Bond-strength testing was performed with bond failure analysis. Pentosidine assay was performed on demineralized ribose modified dentine specimens with HPLC sensitive fluorescent detection. The structural variations of ribose-modified dentine were analysed using TEM and human dental pulpal cells were used for cell viability. Three-point bending test of ribose-modified dentine beams were performed and depth of penetration of adhesives evaluated with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The MMP-2 and cathepsin K activities in ribose-treated dentine powder were also quantified using ELISA. Bond strength data was expressed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Paired T tests were used to analyse the specimens for pentosidine crosslinks. The modulus of elasticity and dentinal MMP-2 and cathepsin K concentrations was separately analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

    RESULTS: The incorporation of RB in the experimental two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive at 1% improved the adhesive bond strength without adversely affecting the degree of polymerisation. The newly developed adhesive increases the resistance of dentine collagen to degradation by inhibiting endogenous matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins. The application of RB to acid-etched dentine helps maintain the mechanical properties.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The incorporation of 1%RB can be considered as a potential candidate stabilizing resin dentine bond.

    Matched MeSH terms: Saliva, Artificial
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