A marked seasonality of births for the two main ethnic groups of peninsular Malaysia, far exceeding the cyclic fluctuations in births in the United States and Canada, was reported for the 1960s. A 36% excess of births over the average monthly number was observed among Malays each January. Among the ethnic Chinese in Malaysia a regular periodicity in the numbers of births was also found, but it was far less marked and the peak occurred in October or November. The peaks in both groups were due in large measure to conceptions that correlate with religious observances or holidays. Here I report on cyclic birth patterns in peninsular Malaysia for the period 1970-1985. Rapid economic development has occurred during this time and has brought with it demographic changes, such as a massive rise in contraceptive use and a decline in birth rates. These demographic changes have been accompanied by the loss of the pronounced seasonal pattern of births among the Malays. The seasonality of Malay births is now of roughly the same magnitude as the seasonality in the United States and Canada, whereas seasonality of births among the Chinese in Malaysia remains essentially unchanged.
An integrated source apportionment methodology is developed by amalgamating the receptor-oriented model (ROM) and source-oriented numerical simulations (SOM) together to eliminate the weaknesses of individual SA methods. This approach attempts to apportion and dissect the PM2.5 sources in the Yangtze River Delta region during winter. First, three ROM models (CMB, PMF, ME2) are applied and compared for the preliminary SA results, with information from PM2.5 sampling and lab analysis during the winter seasons. The detailed source category contribution of SOM to PM2.5 is further simulated using the WRF-CAMx model. The two pieces of information from both ROM and SOM are then stitched together to give a comprehensive information on the PM2.5 sources over the region. With the integrated approach, the detailed contributing sources of the ambient PM2.5 at different receptors including rural and urban, coastal and in-land, northern and southern receptors are analyzed. The results are compared with previous data and shows good agreement. This integrative approach is more comprehensive and is able to produce a more profound and detailed understanding between the sources and receptors, compared with single models.
The purpose of the investigation was to study the early spring plant diversity distributed in different vegetation types and their life forms, in relation to different altitudes. The investigation was carried out in accordance with itinerary method beginning from the shoreline up to the mountain. The results showed that 100% of the totally collected plants from the desert vegetation were therophytes; 100% from steppe vegetation were geophytes; 50 from forest were geophytes and the other 50% were hemicryptophytes. It is concluded that the life forms of early spring plants change depending on the altitude corresponding to changes in the air temperature as well as climatic and edaphic factors.
Samples of threadfin breams Nemipterus japonicus were collected from a village in Kuala Nyalau and a fish landing centre at Bintulu from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 360 individuals of N. japonicus (214 male and 146 female) were used in this reproductive study.? The total length (TL) of individuals were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and body weight (BW) was recorded to the nearest 0.1 g. Month-wise distribution of the sexes was significantly higher for males in September and March, while in the month of May the number of females was significantly higher (X(2) = 6.53; P < 0.05). Males showed a preponderance in the size-class of 19.0-20.9 cm (X(2) = 80.24; P < 0.001), 21.0 -22.9 cm (X(2) = 56.39; P < 0.001) and 23.0 -24.9 cm (X(2) = 17; P < 0.001). The gonadosomatic index (GSI) values of N. japonicus ranged from 0.07 to 0.19 for males and 0.34 to 4.99 for females. Females had higher GSI than males throughout the study period. For males, a higher GSI (0.11-0.19) was observed during January to February, while it was found to be higher (2.73-4.99) for females during January to March, indicating the spawning season. The present study revealed that ovarian maturity based on histological analysis of N. japonicus was classified into seven stages namely, immature (I), immature (II), maturing (III), mature (IV), ripe (V), spawning (VI) and spent (VII). The fecundity of N. japonicus was estimated to be within a range of 19221 to 85923 with higher GSI (3.08-6.78) from the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak.
Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a floor gully come with grating to prevent the oviposition of Aedes aegypti in the floor trap. In order to conduct the test, two containers were placed into a mosquito cage (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm). Both containers were filled with declorinated seasoned tap water and covered with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully, respectively. A total of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti females were then released into the cage and left for a week. All the eggs obtained from the test were allowed to remain inside the containers for the eggs to hatch. The number of hatched larvae was counted and recorded. Five replicates were conducted concurrently. There was a significant difference of Ae. aegypti larvae obtained between container with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully (p < 0.05). A total of 96.41% reduction of Ae. aegypti larvae was obtained in the container with floor gully c/w grating compared with the normal floor gully, indicating that the floor gully c/w grating used in this study was able to prevent oviposition of Ae. aegypti in holding water.
Seasonal variations of zooplankton community in terms of biomass and size-fractionated densities were studied in a tropical Sangga Kechil river, Matang, Perak from June 2010 to April 2011. Zooplankton and jellyfish (hydromedusae, siphonophores and ctenophores) samples were collected bimonthly from four sampling stations by horizontal towing of a 140-?m plankton net and 500 ?m bongo net, respectively. A total of 12 zooplankton groups consisting of six groups each of mesozooplankon (0.2 mm-2.0 mm) and macrozooplankton (2.0 mm-20.0 cm) were recorded. The total zooplankton density (12375?3339 ind m(-3)) and biomass (35.32?14.56 mg m(-3)) were highest during the northeast (NE) monsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon, respectively, indicating the presence of bigger individuals in the latter season. Mesozooplankton predominated (94%) over the macrozooplankton (6%) during all the seasons, and copepods contributed 84% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Macrozooplankton was dominated by appendicularians during most of the seasons (43%-97%), except during the NE monsoon (December) when chaetognaths became the most abundant (89% of the total macrozooplankton). BIO-ENV analysis showed that total zooplankton density was correlated with turbidity, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, which in turn was positively correlated to chlorophyll a. Cluster analysis of the zooplankton community showed no significant temporal difference between the SW and NE monsoon season during the study period (> 90% similarity). The present study revealed that the zooplankton community in the tropical mangrove estuary in the Straits of Malacca was dominated by mesoplankton, especially copepods.
Management is consistently facing fast-flowing and lots of changes in business, including in the inventory management. Especially for fast-moving inventories, the correct stocking, controlling, checking and safety stock calculation is highly needed to have an exquisite inventory management and to reduce the possibility of running out of inventory which leads to unavailability to meet the demand. One of the ways to overcome this is by doing an excellent and appropriate forecasting. Therefore, the objective of this concept paper is to analyse and recommend tools to improve inventory management using the appropriate time-series forecasting method. The firm studied in this study is serving its employees as customers that demand the routine items including stationeries and other routine products to support their job as auditors and consultants for its client. However, there are occasions when there is out-of-stock situation for fast-moving items, especially in the peak season period. Furthermore, the firm is only applying replenishment based on the used inventories from the previous month. Therefore, this study suggests to eliminate out-of-stock items situation by applying precaution initiatives such as time-series forecasting. This study is planned to employ 10 time-series forecasting methods such as moving average, exponential smoothing, regression analysis, Holt-Winters analysis, Seasonal analysis and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) using Risk Simulator Software. By simulating those methods, the most appropriate method is selected based on the forecasting accuracy measurement.
Understanding rainfall trend can be a first step in the planning and management of water resources
especially at the basin scale. In this study, standard tests are used to examine rainfall trends based on monthly, seasonal and mean annual series at the Niger-South Basin, Nigeria, between 1948 and 2008. Rainfall variability index showed that the decade 2000s was the driest (-2.1), while 1950s was the wettest (+0.8), with the decade 1980s being the driest in the second half of the last century, whereas the year 1983 was the driest throughout the series. Over the entire basin, rainfall variability was generally low, but higher intra-monthly than inter-annually. Annual rainfall was dominated by August, contributing about 15%, while December contributed the least (0.7%). On a seasonal scale, July-August-September (JJA) contributed over 40% of the annual rainfall, while rainfall was lowest during December-January-February (DJF) (4.5%). The entire basin displayed negative trends but only 15% indicated significant changes (α ‹ 0.1), while the magnitudes of change varied between -3.75 and -0.25 mm/yr. Similarly, only JJA exhibited insignificant upward trend, while the rest showed negative trends. About eight months of the year showed reducing trends, but only January trend was significant. Annual downward trend was generally observed in the series. The trend during 1948–1977 was negative, but it was positive for the 1978–2008 period. Hence, water resources management planning may require construction of water storage facilities to reduce summer flooding and prevent possible future water scarcity in the basin.
In paddy cultivation, harvesting is the most important operation, which needs suitable machinery. Thus, this study was carried out to compare field performances and energy and environmental effect between the conventional 5 m cutting width NEW HOLLAND CLAYSON 8080, 82 kW@2500 rpm combine harvester running on a total net area of 42.78 ha of plots for two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation seasons and the new mid-size 2.7 m cutting width WORLD STAR WS7.0, 76 kW@2600 rpm combine harvester running on a total net area of 16.95 ha of plots for two rice cultivation seasons. The conventional combine as compared to mid-size combine showed 14.4% greater mean fuel consumptions (21.13 versus 18.46 l/ha), 31.1% greater mean effective field capacity (0.69 versus 0.53 ha/h), 5.23% greater cornering time (turning time) percentage of total time (8.28% versus 3.05%) and 1.41% greater reversing time percentage of total time (7.2% versus 5.79%) but 20.90% lesser mean operational speed (3.24 versus 4.10 km/h), 11.69% lesser effective time percentage of total time (60.0%versus 71.69%h/ha), 10.8% lesser mean field efficiency (64.3% versus 72.1%). In terms of total energy use the conventional combine showed 24.64% greater mean total energy use in the harvesting operation (1445.81 versus 1160.00 MJ/ha), 14.46% greater mean fuel energy (1010.014 versus 882.39 MJ/ha), 56.47% greater mean machinery energy (431.32 versus 275.65 MJ/ha) and 59.25% greater mean human energy (3.48 and 2.18 MJ/ha), this cause 26.12% greater mean total Green House Gas emission (GHG) than the mid-size combine. The results revealed that the mid-size combine is more suitable in conducting the harvest operation in rice field in Malaysia than the conventional combine.
This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in air in several farming areas of Cameron Highlands. Samples of total suspended particulate were collected using a high volume air sampler (Model Graseby) from six different sampling sites around Cameron Highlands. Laboratory analysis of total suspended particulate was conducted by the standard method. High dosages of cypermethrin were used by farmers in the dry season. Results of the study showed that the concentrations of cypermethrin in total suspended particulate in the air samples were higher during the dry season (May-July 2004) compared to the rainy season (September-October 2004). There was a significant positive correlation between the concentrations of cypermethrin and total suspended particulate (p<0.05).
This study attempts to trace changes in the wet spells over Peninsular Malaysia based on the daily rainfall data from 32 selected rainfall stations which include four sub-regions; northwest, west, south and east, for the period of 1975 to 2004. Six wet spells indices comprising of the main characteristics (maximum, mean, standard deviation), the persistency of two consecutive wet days and the frequency of the short and long duration of wet spells will be used to identify whether or not these indices increase or decrease over Peninsular Malaysia during the monsoon seasons. The study indicates that the eastern areas of the peninsula could be considered as the wettest areas since almost all the indices of wet spells over these areas are higher than over the other regions during the northeast monsoon (NE). The Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test revealed that almost all of the stations located in the eastern areas of the peninsula exhibited a positive trend in the mean, variability and persistency of wet spells indices during the NE monsoon, while a negative trend was observed during the southwest monsoon (SW) in these areas. Moreover, these indices showed a positive trend, and at the same time a decreasing trend was observed in the frequency of the long wet spells in most stations located over the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia during the SW monsoon for the period of 1975 to 2004.
This study investigated the spatial pattern and trends of the daily rainfall data in Peninsular Malaysia based on seasonal rainfall indices. Five rainfall indices which describe the main characteristics of rainfall, the total amount of rainfall, frequency of wet days, rainfall intensity, extreme frequency, and extreme intensity, were employed in this study. The statistics of rainfall indices were calculated in terms of their means for four regions in Peninsular Malaysia for the period 1975 to 2004. The findings indicate that the southwest monsoon had the greatest impact on the western part of the Peninsula, particularly in characterizing the rainfall pattern of the northwest region. During this season, the northwest region could be considered as the wettest region since all rainfall indices tested are higher than in other regions of the Peninsula. Otherwise, the northwest region is denoted as the driest part of the Peninsula during the northeast monsoon period. The northwest region is less influenced by the northeast monsoon because of the existence of the Titiwangsa Range, which blocks the region from receiving heavy rainfall. On the other hand, it is found that the lowlands areas such as the eastern part of the Peninsula are strongly characterized by the northeast monsoonal flow. Based on the results of the Mann-Kendall test, as the trend of the total amount of rainfall and the frequency of wet days during the southwest monsoon decrease at most of the stations, the rainfall intensity increases. In contrast, increasing trends in both the total amount of rainfall and the frequency of wet days were observed at several stations during the northeast monsoon, which give rise to the increasing trend of rainfall intensity. The results for both seasons indicate that there are significantly decreasing trends in the frequency of wet days during the extreme events for most of the stations on the peninsula. However, a smaller number of significant trends was found for extreme intensity.
Groundwater irrigation is one of the alternative methods to irrigate the paddy crops beside surface water. The use of shallow tube well for paddy irrigation is able to overcome water scarcity especially during dry season and off planting season in Malaysia. The performance of a shallow tube well was evaluated based on well efficiency and pump efficiency. The study was conducted at Seberang Perak Integrated Agricultural Development Area (Seberang Perak IADA). In this study, on-off automatic water controller was installed in the field and connected to the pump system which gave the command to the pump to irrigate the field during pre-saturation and normal growth plantation period. Water level inside the pumping well and cultivation plot was observed and recorded by the water level transducers. The result of the study showed that the pumping well is moderately productive with the well efficiency between 91 and 94%. The submersible pump efficiency was 87.5%. The potential yield of the pumping well was 450 m3day-1 and it was enough and sufficient to irrigate 1 ha of paddy field.
Seasonal changes in Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) community was studied at rivers in Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. The rivers were visited monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 to sample aquatic insects using D-pond nets. More EPT were found in the wet season (10664 individuals) compared with the dry season (6599 individuals). In all rivers, ephemeropteran populations was highest during the wet season (z=-2.465, p=0.014). Meanwhile, the plecopteran population was low and almost constant throughout seasons in all rivers (z=-2.280, p=0.023). Trichopterans exhibited the highest peak of abundance in the dry season (z=-6.096, p=0.00). Concomitantly, higher diversity was recorded in the dry season (29 taxa) compared with 25 taxa recorded in wet season from all rivers. Tupah River had the most diverse EPT assemblage during the dry season. In wet season, the abundance of ephemeropterans genera such as Baetis, Platybaetis, Campsoneuria and Thalerosphyrus increased tremendously especially in Teroi River.
The seasonal variation of spider assemblages in botanical garden was investigated. The spiders were manually collected by diurnal and nocturnal session between two seasons. A total of 19 families from 65 genera and 96 species were recorded. Richness-estimator indicates the inventory were 67% complete within the botanical garden. The capture rate for web-weavers were higher compared with non-web weavers. The comparison value showed the species composition and abundance were similar between seasons. Spider abundance was not affected between wet and dry season in tropical countries.
Three short sediment cores (12-32 cm) from South China Sea off Southern Terengganu were collected during May (postNortheast monsoon) and September (pre-Northeast monsoon) 2007. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) obtained ranged from 0.41-2.23 and 0.38-2.31% during post and pre-monsoon, respectively. TOC concentration was found to decrease with depth and distance from the coast and river mouth. In particular, station with close proximity to the coast exhibits most pronounced variation of TOC with depth. Besides spatial variation, it is noted that the seasonal variations also considerably affect the distribution and concentrations of TOC, where both near and offshore sampling stations showed significant variations in TOC content during May and September sampling. These findings suggest the importance of terrestrial organic carbon flux, physical mixing and seasonal variations in regulating the concentration and distribution of the organic carbon in the study area.