A marked seasonality of births for the two main ethnic groups of peninsular Malaysia, far exceeding the cyclic fluctuations in births in the United States and Canada, was reported for the 1960s. A 36% excess of births over the average monthly number was observed among Malays each January. Among the ethnic Chinese in Malaysia a regular periodicity in the numbers of births was also found, but it was far less marked and the peak occurred in October or November. The peaks in both groups were due in large measure to conceptions that correlate with religious observances or holidays. Here I report on cyclic birth patterns in peninsular Malaysia for the period 1970-1985. Rapid economic development has occurred during this time and has brought with it demographic changes, such as a massive rise in contraceptive use and a decline in birth rates. These demographic changes have been accompanied by the loss of the pronounced seasonal pattern of births among the Malays. The seasonality of Malay births is now of roughly the same magnitude as the seasonality in the United States and Canada, whereas seasonality of births among the Chinese in Malaysia remains essentially unchanged.
The purpose of the investigation was to study the early spring plant diversity distributed in different vegetation types and their life forms, in relation to different altitudes. The investigation was carried out in accordance with itinerary method beginning from the shoreline up to the mountain. The results showed that 100% of the totally collected plants from the desert vegetation were therophytes; 100% from steppe vegetation were geophytes; 50 from forest were geophytes and the other 50% were hemicryptophytes. It is concluded that the life forms of early spring plants change depending on the altitude corresponding to changes in the air temperature as well as climatic and edaphic factors.
An integrated source apportionment methodology is developed by amalgamating the receptor-oriented model (ROM) and source-oriented numerical simulations (SOM) together to eliminate the weaknesses of individual SA methods. This approach attempts to apportion and dissect the PM2.5 sources in the Yangtze River Delta region during winter. First, three ROM models (CMB, PMF, ME2) are applied and compared for the preliminary SA results, with information from PM2.5 sampling and lab analysis during the winter seasons. The detailed source category contribution of SOM to PM2.5 is further simulated using the WRF-CAMx model. The two pieces of information from both ROM and SOM are then stitched together to give a comprehensive information on the PM2.5 sources over the region. With the integrated approach, the detailed contributing sources of the ambient PM2.5 at different receptors including rural and urban, coastal and in-land, northern and southern receptors are analyzed. The results are compared with previous data and shows good agreement. This integrative approach is more comprehensive and is able to produce a more profound and detailed understanding between the sources and receptors, compared with single models.
Ovitrap surveillance was conducted in a selected urban area and suburban area, ie. Taman Permai Indah(TPI) and Kampung Pasir Gebu (KPG) in Penang for 14 months. It was found that Aedes albopictus was the most abundant Aedes species in both study areas, even though a small percentage of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to breed simultaneously in the same ovitrap. This study indicated that the main dengue vector was Ae. albopictus. A strong correlation was found between rainfall and egg population in both of the study sites (r = 0.982 and r = 0.918).
Samples of threadfin breams Nemipterus japonicus were collected from a village in Kuala Nyalau and a fish landing centre at Bintulu from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 360 individuals of N. japonicus (214 male and 146 female) were used in this reproductive study.? The total length (TL) of individuals were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and body weight (BW) was recorded to the nearest 0.1 g. Month-wise distribution of the sexes was significantly higher for males in September and March, while in the month of May the number of females was significantly higher (X(2) = 6.53; P < 0.05). Males showed a preponderance in the size-class of 19.0-20.9 cm (X(2) = 80.24; P < 0.001), 21.0 -22.9 cm (X(2) = 56.39; P < 0.001) and 23.0 -24.9 cm (X(2) = 17; P < 0.001). The gonadosomatic index (GSI) values of N. japonicus ranged from 0.07 to 0.19 for males and 0.34 to 4.99 for females. Females had higher GSI than males throughout the study period. For males, a higher GSI (0.11-0.19) was observed during January to February, while it was found to be higher (2.73-4.99) for females during January to March, indicating the spawning season. The present study revealed that ovarian maturity based on histological analysis of N. japonicus was classified into seven stages namely, immature (I), immature (II), maturing (III), mature (IV), ripe (V), spawning (VI) and spent (VII). The fecundity of N. japonicus was estimated to be within a range of 19221 to 85923 with higher GSI (3.08-6.78) from the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a floor gully come with grating to prevent the oviposition of Aedes aegypti in the floor trap. In order to conduct the test, two containers were placed into a mosquito cage (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm). Both containers were filled with declorinated seasoned tap water and covered with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully, respectively. A total of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti females were then released into the cage and left for a week. All the eggs obtained from the test were allowed to remain inside the containers for the eggs to hatch. The number of hatched larvae was counted and recorded. Five replicates were conducted concurrently. There was a significant difference of Ae. aegypti larvae obtained between container with floor gully c/w grating and normal floor gully (p < 0.05). A total of 96.41% reduction of Ae. aegypti larvae was obtained in the container with floor gully c/w grating compared with the normal floor gully, indicating that the floor gully c/w grating used in this study was able to prevent oviposition of Ae. aegypti in holding water.
To discuss the cold resistance performance of different Herba Rhodiolae and successfully transplant Herba Rhodiolae to the Gansu plateau area for nursing, domestication and planting, this paper systematically studies six physiological and biochemical features of Rhodiola kirilowii, Rhodiola algida, Rhodiola crenulata and Herba Rhodiolae that are closely associated with cold resistance features and concludes with the cold resistance capability of Rhodiola kirilowii. In the selected six main indexes of the Herba Rhodiolae, the POD, SOD and CAT activity and MDA and Pro content in the leaf are the main physiological and biochemical indexes to indicate the cold resistance performance of four Herba Rhodiolae seedlings and can be regarded as the preliminary indexes to assess the winter performance of Herba Rhodiolae. The research work will provide the theoretical basis for the wild variants of Herba Rhodiolae and GAPJ base construction.
Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) .
Three drought yield QTLs, qDTY 2.2, qDTY 3.1, and qDTY 12.1 with consistent effect on grain yield under reproductive stage drought stress were pyramided through marker assisted breeding with the objective of improving the grain yield of the elite Malaysian rice cultivar MR219 under reproductive stage drought stress. Foreground selection using QTL specific markers, recombinant selection using flanking markers, and background selection were performed. BC1F3-derived lines with different combinations of qDTY 2.2 , qDTY 3.1, and qDTY 12.1 were evaluated under both reproductive stage drought stress and non-stress during the dry seasons of 2013 and 2014 at IRRI.
The composite nature of Ennore Creek, receiving polluted waters from Buckingham canal, River Kortalaiyar, and the presence of numerous industries rapidly degrade the coastal environment. In this study, multivariate statistical technique was used to assess the nature of pollution and to identify the factors responsible for the enrichment of trace metals in the creek sediments. Forty samples were collected during pre- and post-monsoon periods to evaluate the seasonal variations on the concentration of trace metals in the sediments. The results indicate that not much seasonal variation exists in the concentration of trace metals in the sediments of Ennore creek. Results of the cluster analysis illustrate that the enrichment of trace metals was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Meanwhile, correlation coefficient among the metals reveals that some of the metals (Fe and Al) derived were of natural origin. The complex data matrix of the sediment were interpreted after reduction to three factors and the results illustrate the extent of the influence of anthropogenic activities. The spatial distribution diagrams demonstrate and demarcate the region of enrichment of metals in the sediments of Ennore creek.
Various environmental samples (seawater, TSS, sediment, rainwater and fly ash) from eight different stations near Kapar coastal area were analyzed. The 210 Po activity concentrations in liquid samples (seawater and rainwater) varied between 0.34 ± 0.03 mBq L-1 to 22.44 ± 0.53 mBq L-1 . Whereas the concentrations in particulate samples (TSS, sediment and fly ash) varied between 43.79 ± 2.31 Bqkg-1 to 364.48 ± 5.43 Bqkg-1 . Results also showed the radioactivity in Kapar coastal is higher than most of Malaysian coast, reaching a factor of seven. This condition is mainly due to the operation of a coal-fired power plant nearby. This study also clarify the variability of 210 Po in environment was strongly influenced from rainfall events especially during wet seasons.
Forecasting a multiple seasonal data is differ from a usual seasonal data since it contains more than one cycle in a
data. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models have been used widely in load forecasting because of its usefulness in the
forecast a linear relationship with other factors but MLR has a disadvantage of having difficulties in modelling a nonlinear
relationship between the variables and influencing factors. Neural network (NN) model, on the other hand, is a good
model for modelling a nonlinear data. Therefore, in this study, a combination of MLR and NN models has proposed this
combination to overcome the problem. This hybrid model is then compared with MLR and NN models to see the performance
of the hybrid model. RMSE is used as a performance indicator and a proposed graphical error plot is introduce to see the
error graphically. From the result obtained this model gives a better forecast compare to the other two models.
In paddy cultivation, harvesting is the most important operation, which needs suitable machinery. Thus, this study was carried out to compare field performances and energy and environmental effect between the conventional 5 m cutting width NEW HOLLAND CLAYSON 8080, 82 kW@2500 rpm combine harvester running on a total net area of 42.78 ha of plots for two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation seasons and the new mid-size 2.7 m cutting width WORLD STAR WS7.0, 76 kW@2600 rpm combine harvester running on a total net area of 16.95 ha of plots for two rice cultivation seasons. The conventional combine as compared to mid-size combine showed 14.4% greater mean fuel consumptions (21.13 versus 18.46 l/ha), 31.1% greater mean effective field capacity (0.69 versus 0.53 ha/h), 5.23% greater cornering time (turning time) percentage of total time (8.28% versus 3.05%) and 1.41% greater reversing time percentage of total time (7.2% versus 5.79%) but 20.90% lesser mean operational speed (3.24 versus 4.10 km/h), 11.69% lesser effective time percentage of total time (60.0%versus 71.69%h/ha), 10.8% lesser mean field efficiency (64.3% versus 72.1%). In terms of total energy use the conventional combine showed 24.64% greater mean total energy use in the harvesting operation (1445.81 versus 1160.00 MJ/ha), 14.46% greater mean fuel energy (1010.014 versus 882.39 MJ/ha), 56.47% greater mean machinery energy (431.32 versus 275.65 MJ/ha) and 59.25% greater mean human energy (3.48 and 2.18 MJ/ha), this cause 26.12% greater mean total Green House Gas emission (GHG) than the mid-size combine. The results revealed that the mid-size combine is more suitable in conducting the harvest operation in rice field in Malaysia than the conventional combine.
This data article is constructed using avian (bird) counts from a recently identified trail in Kenyir rainforest, East Peninsular Malaysia. Avian chirps and naked eye visual were simultaneously used to locate the birds. After visual binocular and digital image inspection, identification of avian species were carried out using reference books. Data tabulation are divided by monsoon seasons and months before interpret using Shannon and Evenness indices. The highlights like feeding guilds, nativity, iconic species and statuses in the wild are presented with the data to increase its value. Within these, a total of 457 avian individuals from 36 avian family groups were recorded from which, 25 of these avian species occur as near threatened, vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered in the wild. Having these, the tabulated data becomes a calendar for seasonal availability of avian species which considers the 1.0 km trail suitable for bird watching, scientific study and ecotourism purposes.
Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are ecologically and medically important insects but they have been understudied in Malaysia. Accordingly, a study on the temporal variation in diversity and community structure of preimaginal blackflies was conducted for the first time in Malaysia. A total of 865 preimaginal blackflies were collected in 120 samplings from five streams across three monsoon seasons from February 2018 until January 2019. Ten species were recorded and most frequently collected species were Simulium cheongi, Simulium vanluni and Simulium jeffreyi. Relatively common species were Simulium roslihashimi, Simulium tani complex and Simulium trangense. No significant changes of rainfall was observed between three monsoon seasons as well as the seasons with species and physiochemical parameters except acidity (pH) (P 20%) indicated that S. vanluni and S. jeffreyi were commonly associated with wider, deeper and fast-flowing streams with low conductivity and larger streambed particle. In contrast, S. cheongi was associated with smaller, slower and small streambed particle. This first extensive bimonthly study has uncovered the species community structure as well as the changes of stream physicochemical parameters over time although they were not greatly and significantly influenced by the monsoon seasons. Species distribution, richness and abundance, however, were highly determined by the stream width, depth and velocity, therefore, were vital in shaping diversity and community structure of preimaginal blackflies.
Ability to possess ball during football matches are link to success. Domination of Johor Darul Ta’zim FC (JDT FC) in recent years in Malaysia Super League impressed many. The aim of this study was to compare the performance between JDT FC and their opponents in Malaysia Super League 2015 season. Successful and unsuccessful passes, ball possession rates, attempt on goal, shot on target, and goal scored were selected as Performance Indicator (P.I) in this study. Twelve matches from Malaysia Super League (MSL) season 2015 were selected. The video of 12 matches was obtained from Media Prima Sdn. Bhd., www.youtube.com and live recordings. Longo Match 1.0 match analysis software was used for post-coding. Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z was used to analyses the differences while Spearman's rho correlation test was utilized to determine the correlation. Percentage of successful passes (p=0.034), ball possessions rate (p=0.000), and goal scored (p=0.002) were significantly different between JDT FC and their opponents. There were also positive correlations between possessions and all variables except for unsuccessful passes. This study concluded that in Malaysian football matches, high percentage of successful passes, and high rate of ball possessions influenced total shot in football game.
In order to manage blue swimming crabs in Pangkajene Kepulauan, management measures are required. Since the environment which affects the abundance of the blue swimming crab varies seasonally, it is necessary to take into account the seasonal nature with the aim of developing a management strategy. The objectives of this study are to define the abundance of and fishing season of blue swimming crabs in the Pangkajene Kepulauan waters, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The fishing season was analysed using seasonal index analysis, while fish abundance was analysed by means of Equilibrium-Schaefer. The result of this study demonstrated that fishermen allocate their fishing gear all year, although the fish catch is seasonal. Based on analysis of the result, the fishing season for the blue swimming crabs is short. The peak fishing season starts in May and finishes in June. However, in order to enable their families to earn a living, fishermen operated their fishing gear throughout the year. As a result, both catch landing and effort were close to maximum sustainable yield (MSY). In order to reduce fishing pressure, it is necessary to reduce fishing gear and have a seasonal arrangement regarding fishing gear allocation.
Seasonal variations of zooplankton community in terms of biomass and size-fractionated densities were studied in a tropical Sangga Kechil river, Matang, Perak from June 2010 to April 2011. Zooplankton and jellyfish (hydromedusae, siphonophores and ctenophores) samples were collected bimonthly from four sampling stations by horizontal towing of a 140-?m plankton net and 500 ?m bongo net, respectively. A total of 12 zooplankton groups consisting of six groups each of mesozooplankon (0.2 mm-2.0 mm) and macrozooplankton (2.0 mm-20.0 cm) were recorded. The total zooplankton density (12375?3339 ind m(-3)) and biomass (35.32?14.56 mg m(-3)) were highest during the northeast (NE) monsoon and southwest (SW) monsoon, respectively, indicating the presence of bigger individuals in the latter season. Mesozooplankton predominated (94%) over the macrozooplankton (6%) during all the seasons, and copepods contributed 84% of the total mesozooplankton abundance. Macrozooplankton was dominated by appendicularians during most of the seasons (43%-97%), except during the NE monsoon (December) when chaetognaths became the most abundant (89% of the total macrozooplankton). BIO-ENV analysis showed that total zooplankton density was correlated with turbidity, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, which in turn was positively correlated to chlorophyll a. Cluster analysis of the zooplankton community showed no significant temporal difference between the SW and NE monsoon season during the study period (> 90% similarity). The present study revealed that the zooplankton community in the tropical mangrove estuary in the Straits of Malacca was dominated by mesoplankton, especially copepods.