METHODS: The full genomic sequences of all known different RV-A and -B prototypes were downloaded from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and divided into minor low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and major intercellular adhesion molecule groups (ICAM). The sequences were edited using Biological Sequence Alignment Editor, v 7.2.0 (BioEdit software) to study each capsid protein (VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4) and analyzed using the EMBL-EBI ClustalW server and the more current Clustal Omega tool for the calculation of the identities and similarities.
RESULTS: We analyzed and predicted immunogenic motifs from capsid proteins that are conserved across distinct RV serotypes using a bioinformatics technique. The amino acid sequences of VP3 were found to be the most varied, while VP4 was the most conserved protein among all RV-A and RV-B strains. Among all strains studied, RV-74 demonstrated the highest degree of homology to other strains and could be a potential genetic source for recombinant protein production. Nine highly conserved regions with a minimum length of 9-mers were identified, which could serve as potential immune targets against rhinoviruses.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, bioinformatics analysis conducted in the current study has paved the way for the selection of immunogenic targets. Bioinformatically, the ideal strain's capsid protein is suggested to contain the most common RVs immunogenic sites.
METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted in December 2018 using a search string intended to identify articles describing IMD at mass gatherings, including religious pilgrimages, sports events, jamborees, and refugee camps. The search was limited to articles in English published from 2008 to 2018. Articles were included if they described IMD incidence at a mass gathering event.
RESULTS: A total of 127 articles were retrieved, of which 7 reported on IMD incidence at mass gatherings in the past 10 years. Specifically, in Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011, IMD occurred in 16 Hajj pilgrims and 1 Umrah pilgrim; serotypes involved were not reported. At a youth sports festival in Spain in 2008, 1 case of serogroup B IMD was reported among 1500 attendees. At the 2015 World Scout Jamboree in Japan, an outbreak of serogroup W IMD was identified in five scouts and one parent. At a refugee camp in Turkey, one case of serogroup B IMD was reported in a Syrian girl; four cases of serogroup X IMD occurred in an Italian refugee camp among refugees from Africa and Bangladesh. In 2017, a funeral in Liberia resulted in 13 identified cases of serogroup C IMD. Requiring meningococcal vaccination for mass gathering attendees and vaccinating refugees might have prevented these IMD cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Mass gathering events increase IMD risk among attendees and their close contacts. Vaccines preventing IMD caused by serogroups ACWY and B are available and should be recommended for mass gathering attendees.