Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Seet WT, Mat Afandi MA, Ishak MF, Hassan MNF, Ahmat N, Ng MH, et al.
    Stem Cell Res Ther, 2023 Oct 20;14(1):298.
    PMID: 37858277 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-023-03536-9
    Treatments for skin injuries have recently advanced tremendously. Such treatments include allogeneic and xenogeneic transplants and skin substitutes such as tissue-engineered skin, cultured cells, and stem cells. The aim of this paper is to discuss the general overview of the quality assurance and quality control implemented in the manufacturing of cell and tissue product, with emphasis on our experience in the manufacturing of MyDerm®, an autologous bilayered human skin substitute. Manufacturing MyDerm® requires multiple high-risk open manipulation steps, such as tissue processing, cell culture expansion, and skin construct formation. To ensure the safety and efficacy of this product, the good manufacturing practice (GMP) facility should establish a well-designed quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) programme. Standard operating procedures (SOP) should be implemented to ensure that the manufacturing process is consistent and performed in a controlled manner. All starting materials, including tissue samples, culture media, reagents, and consumables must be verified and tested to confirm their safety, potency, and sterility. The final products should also undergo a QC testing series to guarantee product safety, efficacy, and overall quality. The aseptic techniques of cleanroom operators and the environmental conditions of the facility are also important, as they directly influence the manufacturing of good-quality products. Hence, personnel training and environmental monitoring are necessary to maintain GMP compliance. Furthermore, risk management implementation is another important aspect of QA/QC, as it is used to identify and determine the risk level and to perform risk assessments when necessary. Moreover, procedures for non-conformance reporting should be established to identify, investigate, and correct deviations that occur during manufacturing. This paper provides insight and an overview of the QA/QC aspect during MyDerm® manufacturing in a GMP-compliant facility in the Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial*
  2. TermehYousefi A, Azhari S, Khajeh A, Hamidon MN, Tanaka H
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Aug 01;77:1098-1103.
    PMID: 28531983 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.04.040
    Haptic sensors are essential devices that facilitate human-like sensing systems such as implantable medical devices and humanoid robots. The availability of conducting thin films with haptic properties could lead to the development of tactile sensing systems that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), and integrate with collapsible. In this study, a nanocomposite based hemispherical artificial fingertip fabricated to enhance the tactile sensing systems of humanoid robots. To validate the hypothesis, proposed method was used in the robot-like finger system to classify the ripe and unripe tomato by recording the metabolic growth of the tomato as a function of resistivity change during a controlled indention force. Prior to fabrication, a finite element modeling (FEM) was investigated for tomato to obtain the stress distribution and failure point of tomato by applying different external loads. Then, the extracted computational analysis information was utilized to design and fabricate nanocomposite based artificial fingertip to examine the maturity analysis of tomato. The obtained results demonstrate that the fabricated conformable and scalable artificial fingertip shows different electrical property for ripe and unripe tomato. The artificial fingertip is compatible with the development of brain-like systems for artificial skin by obtaining periodic response during an applied load.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
  3. Abdul Khodir WKW, Abdul Razak AH, Ng MH, Guarino V, Susanti D
    J Funct Biomater, 2018 May 18;9(2).
    PMID: 29783681 DOI: 10.3390/jfb9020036
    In the current practice, the clinical use of conventional skin substitutes such as autogenous skin grafts have shown several problems, mainly with respect to limited sources and donor site morbidity. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of smart synthetic biomaterials is tremendously diffusing as skin substitutes. Indeed, engineered skin grafts or analogues frequently play an important role in the treatment of chronic skin wounds, by supporting the regeneration of newly formed tissue, and at the same time preventing infections during the long-term treatment. In this context, natural proteins such as collagen-natively present in the skin tissue-embedded in synthetic polymers (i.e., PCL) allow the development of micro-structured matrices able to mimic the functions and to structure of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Moreover, the encapsulation of drugs, such as gentamicin sulfate, also improves the bioactivity of nanofibers, due to the efficient loading and a controlled drug release towards the site of interest. Herein, we have done a preliminary investigation on the capability of gentamicin sulfate, loaded into collagen-added nanofibers, for the controlled release in local infection treatments. Experimental studies have demonstrated that collagen added fibers can be efficaciously used to administrate gentamicin for 72 h without any toxic in vitro response, thus emerging as a valid candidate for the therapeutic treatment of infected wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
  4. Halim AS, Khoo TL, Mohd Yussof SJ
    Indian J Plast Surg, 2010 Sep;43(Suppl):S23-8.
    PMID: 21321652 DOI: 10.4103/0970-0358.70712
    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
  5. Seet WT, Manira M, Maarof M, Khairul Anuar K, Chua KH, Ahmad Irfan AW, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(8):e40978.
    PMID: 22927903 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040978
    Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6%) and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours). The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial*
  6. Ng SF, Rouse JJ, Sanderson FD, Meidan V, Eccleston GM
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2010 Sep;11(3):1432-41.
    PMID: 20842539 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-010-9522-9
    Over the years, in vitro Franz diffusion experiments have evolved into one of the most important methods for researching transdermal drug administration. Unfortunately, this type of testing often yields permeation data that suffer from poor reproducibility. Moreover, this feature frequently occurs when synthetic membranes are used as barriers, in which case biological tissue-associated variability has been removed as an artefact of total variation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of a full-validation protocol on the performance of a tailor-made array of Franz diffusion cells (GlaxoSmithKline, Harlow, UK) available in our laboratory. To this end, ibuprofen was used as a model hydrophobic drug while synthetic membranes were used as barriers. The parameters investigated included Franz cell dimensions, stirring conditions, membrane type, membrane treatment, temperature regulation and sampling frequency. It was determined that validation dramatically reduced derived data variability as the coefficient of variation for steady-state ibuprofen permeation from a gel formulation was reduced from 25.7% to 5.3% (n = 6). Thus, validation and refinement of the protocol combined with improved operator training can greatly enhance reproducibility in Franz cell experimentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial*
  7. Mazlyzam AL, Aminuddin BS, Fuzina NH, Norhayati MM, Fauziah O, Isa MR, et al.
    Burns, 2007 May;33(3):355-63.
    PMID: 17321690
    Our aim of this study was to develop a new methodology for constructing a bilayer human skin equivalent to create a more clinical compliance skin graft composite for the treatment of various skin defects. We utilized human plasma derived fibrin as the scaffold for the development of a living bilayer human skin equivalent: fibrin-fibroblast and fibrin-keratinocyte (B-FF/FK SE). Skin cells from six consented patients were culture-expanded to passage 1. For B-FF/FK SE formation, human fibroblasts were embedded in human fibrin matrix and subsequently another layer of human keratinocytes in human fibrin matrix was stacked on top. The B-FF/FK SE was then transplanted to athymic mice model for 4 weeks to evaluate its regeneration and clinical performance. The in vivo B-FF/FK SE has similar properties as native human skin by histological analysis and expression of basal Keratin 14 gene in the epidermal layer and Collagen type I gene in the dermal layer. Electron microscopy analysis of in vivo B-FF/FK SE showed well-formed and continuous epidermal-dermal junction. We have successfully developed a technique to engineer living bilayer human skin equivalent using human fibrin matrix. The utilization of culture-expanded human skin cells and fibrin matrix from human blood will allow a fully autologous human skin equivalent construction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial*
  8. Busra MF, Chowdhury SR, bin Ismail F, bin Saim A, Idrus RB
    Adv Skin Wound Care, 2016 Mar;29(3):120-9.
    PMID: 26866868 DOI: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000480556.78111.e4
    OBJECTIVE: When given in conjunction with surgery for treating cancer, radiation therapy may result in impaired wound healing, which, in turn, could cause skin ulcers. In this study, bilayer and monolayer autologous skin substitutes were used to treat an irradiated wound.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single dose of 30 Gy of linear electron beam radiation was applied to the hind limb of nude mice before creating the skin lesion (area of 78.6 mm). Monolayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (MTESSs) were prepared by entrapping cultured keratinocytes in fibrin matrix, and bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitutes (BTESSs) were prepared by entrapping keratinocytes and fibroblasts in separate layers. Bilayer tissue-engineered skin substitute and MTESS were implanted to the wound area. Gross appearance and wound area were analyzed to evaluate wound healing efficiency. Skin regeneration and morphological appearance were observed via histological and electron microscopy. Protein expressions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skin regeneration were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC).

    RESULTS: Macroscopic observation revealed that at day 13, treatments with BTESS completely healed the irradiated wound, whereas wound sizes of 1.1 ± 0.05 and 6.8 ± 0.14 mm were measured in the MTESS-treated and untreated control groups, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) analysis showed formation of compact and organized epidermal and dermal layers in the BTESS-treated group, as compared with MTESS-treated and untreated control groups. Ultrastructural analysis indicates maturation of skin in BTESS-treated wound evidenced by formation of intermediate filament bundles in the dermal layer and low intercellular space in the epidermal layer. Expressions of TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and VEGF were also higher in BTESS-treated wounds, compared with MTESS-treated wounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that BTESS is the preferred treatment for irradiated wound ulcers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial*
  9. Mohamed Haflah NH, Ng MH, Mohd Yunus MH, Naicker AS, Htwe O, Abdul Razak KA, et al.
    JBJS Case Connect, 2018 6 15;8(2):e38.
    PMID: 29901479 DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.CC.17.00250
    CASE: A 22-year-old man sustained a laceration that measured 180 cm, after debridement, over the anterolateral aspect of the right leg following a road traffic accident. The wound was treated with MyDerm (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia), a cell-based, bilayered, bioengineered dermal substitute that contains no animal-derived components and is fully autologous. For its construction, only a small area of skin was harvested from the left groin, which was closed primarily with absorbable sutures.

    CONCLUSION: MyDerm is an alternative option for the treatment of a massive skin defect in patients who desire removal of only a negligible amount of skin from the donor site and when use of an autograft is insufficient.

    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial*
  10. Arif MMA, Fauzi MB, Nordin A, Hiraoka Y, Tabata Y, Yunus MHM
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Nov 13;12(11).
    PMID: 33202700 DOI: 10.3390/polym12112678
    Gelatin possesses biological properties that resemble native skin and can potentially be fabricated as a skin substitute for full-thickness wound treatment. The native property of gelatin, whereby it is easily melted and degraded at body temperature, could prevent its biofunctionality for various applications. This study aimed to fabricate and characterise buffalo gelatin (Infanca halal certified) crosslinked with chemical type crosslinker (genipin and genipin fortified with EDC) and physicaly crosslink using the dihydrothermal (DHT) method. A porous gelatin sponge (GS) was fabricated by a freeze-drying process followed by a complete crosslinking via chemical-natural and synthetic-or physical intervention using genipin (GNP), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) (EDC) and dihydrothermal (DHT) methods, respectively. The physicochemical, biomechanical, cellular biocompatibility and cell-biomaterial interaction of GS towards human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were evaluated. Results showed that GS had a uniform porous structure with pore size ranging between 60 and 200 µm with high porosity (>78.6 ± 4.1%), high wettability (<72.2 ± 7.0°), high tensile strain (>13.65 ± 1.10%) and 14 h of degradation rate. An increase in the concentration and double-crosslinking approach demonstrated an increment in the crosslinking degree, enzymatic hydrolysis resistance, thermal stability, porosity, wettability and mechanical strength. The GS can be tuned differently from the control by approaching the GS via a different crosslinking strategy. However, a decreasing trend was observed in the pore size, water retention and water absorption ability. Crosslinking with DHT resulted in large pore sizes (85-300 µm) and low water retention (236.9 ± 18.7 g/m2·day) and a comparable swelling ratio with the control (89.6 ± 7.1%). Moreover no changes in the chemical content and amorphous phase identification were observed. The HEK and HDF revealed slight toxicity with double crosslinking. HEK and HDF attachment and proliferation remain similar to each crosslinking approach. Immunogenicity was observed to be higher in the double-crosslinking compared to the single-crosslinking intervention. The fabricated GS demonstrated a dynamic potential to be tailored according to wound types by manipulating the crosslinking intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
  11. Law JX, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RBH
    J Tissue Viability, 2017 Aug;26(3):208-215.
    PMID: 28615133 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtv.2017.05.003
    Advances in tissue engineering led to the development of various tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESS) for the treatment of skin injuries. The majority of the autologous TESS required lengthy and costly cell expansion process to fabricate. In this study, we determine the possibility of using a low density of human skin cells suspended in platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-enriched medium to promote the healing of full-thickness skin wounds. To achieve this, full-thickness wounds of size 1.767 cm2 were created at the dorsum part of nude mice and treated with keratinocytes (2 × 104 cells/cm2) and fibroblasts (3 × 104 cells/cm2) suspended in 10% PRP-enriched medium. Wound examination was conducted weekly and the animals were euthanized after 2 weeks. Gross examination showed that re-epithelialization was fastest in the PRP+cells group at both day 7 and 14, followed by the PRP group and NT group receiving no treatment. Only the PRP+cells group achieved complete wound closure by 2 weeks. Epidermal layer was presence in the central region of the wound of the PRP+cells and PRP groups but absence in the NT group. Comparison between the PRP+cells and PRP groups showed that the PRP+cells-treated wound was more mature as indicated by the presence of thinner epidermis with single cell layer thick basal keratinocytes and less cellular dermis. In summary, the combination of low cell density and diluted PRP creates a synergistic effect which expedites the healing of full-thickness wounds. This combination has the potential to be developed as a rapid wound therapy via the direct application of freshly harvested skin cells in diluted PRP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial/standards*
  12. Lim CK, Yaacob NS, Ismail Z, Halim AS
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2010 Apr;24(3):721-7.
    PMID: 20079826 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.01.006
    Biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-d-glucosamine) comprises the copolymer mixture of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. The natural biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan have recently highlighted its potential use for applications in wound management. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability, but it is unknown as to what degree. Hence, the biocompatibility of the chitosan porous skin regenerating templates (PSRT 82, 87 and 108) was determined using an in vitro toxicology model at the cellular and molecular level on primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (pNHEK). Cytocompatibility was accessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay from 24 to 72h. To assess the genotoxicity of the PSRTs, DNA damage to the pNHEK was evaluated by using the Comet assay following direct contact with the various PSRTs. Furthermore, the skin pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-8 were examined to evaluate the tendency of the PSRTs to provoke inflammatory responses. All PSRTs were found to be cytocompatible, but only PSRT 108 was capable of stimulating cell proliferation. While all of the PSRTs showed some DNA damage, PSRT 108 showed the least DNA damage followed by PSRT 87 and 82. PSRT 87 and 82 induced a higher secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in the pNHEK cultures than did PSRT 108. Hence, based on our experiments, PSRT 108 is the most biocompatible wound dressing of the three tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial*
  13. Mohamed Haflah NH, Ng MH, Mohd Yunus MH, Naicker AS, Htwe O, Fahmi M, et al.
    Int J Low Extrem Wounds, 2017 Sep;16(3):212-216.
    PMID: 28862056 DOI: 10.1177/1534734617724974
    Open fracture Gustilo-Anderson grade IIIC is associated with higher risk of infection and problems with soft tissue coverage. Various methods have been used for soft tissue coverage in open fractures with large skin defect. We report a case of a patient who had grade IIIC open fracture of the tibia with posterior tibial artery injury. The patient underwent external fixation and reduction. Because of potential compartment syndrome after vascular repair, fasciotomy of the posterior compartment was performed. This wound, however, became infected and because of further debridement, gave rise to a large skin defect. A tissue engineered skin construct, MyDermTM was employed to cover this large defect. Complete wound closure was achieved 35 days postimplantation. The patient then underwent plating of the tibia for nonunion with no adverse effect to the grafted site. The tibia eventually healed 5 months postplating, and the cosmetic appearance of the newly formed skin was satisfactory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial/utilization*
  14. Mohd Hilmi AB, Halim AS, Jaafar H, Asiah AB, Hassan A
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:795458.
    PMID: 24324974 DOI: 10.1155/2013/795458
    Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
  15. Maarof M, Mohd Nadzir M, Sin Mun L, Fauzi MB, Chowdhury SR, Idrus RBH, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 08;13(4).
    PMID: 33567703 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040508
    The current strategy for rapid wound healing treatment involves combining a biomaterial and cell-secreted proteins or biomolecules. This study was aimed at characterizing 3-dimensional (3D) collagen hydrogels fortified with dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium (DFCM) as a readily available acellular skin substitute. Confluent fibroblasts were cultured with serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (KM1 and KM2) and fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM. Subsequently, the DFCM was mixed with collagen (Col) hydrogel and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) to fabricate 3D constructs termed Col/C4S/DFCM-KM1, Col/C4S/DFCM-KM2, and Col/C4S/DFCM-FM. The constructs successfully formed soft, semi-solid and translucent hydrogels within 1 h of incubation at 37 °C with strength of <2.5 Newton (N). The Col/C4S/DFCM demonstrated significantly lower turbidity compared to the control groups. The Col/C4S/DFCM also showed a lower percentage of porosity (KM1: 35.15 ± 9.76%; KM2: 6.85 ± 1.60%; FM: 14.14 ± 7.65%) compared to the Col (105.14 ± 11.87%) and Col/C4S (143.44 ± 27.72%) constructs. There were no changes in both swelling and degradation among all constructs. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that all groups consisted of oxygen-hydrogen bonds (O-H) and amide I, II, and III. In conclusion, the Col/C4S/DFCM constructs maintain the characteristics of native collagen and can synergistically deliver essential biomolecules for future use in skin therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
  16. Idrus RB, Rameli MA, Low KC, Law JX, Chua KH, Latiff MB, et al.
    Adv Skin Wound Care, 2014 Apr;27(4):171-80.
    PMID: 24637651 DOI: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000445199.26874.9d
    Split-skin grafting (SSG) is the gold standard treatment for full-thickness skin defects. For certain patients, however, an extensive skin lesion resulted in inadequacies of the donor site. Tissue engineering offers an alternative approach by using a very small portion of an individual's skin to harvest cells for propagation and biomaterials to support the cells for implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of autologous bilayered tissue-engineered skin (BTES) and single-layer tissue-engineered skin composed of only keratinocytes (SLTES-K) or fibroblasts (SLTES-F) as alternatives for full-thickness wound healing in a sheep model. Full-thickness skin biopsies were harvested from adult sheep. Isolated fibroblasts were cultured using medium Ham's F12: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, whereas the keratinocytes were cultured using Define Keratinocytes Serum Free Medium. The BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F were constructed using autologous fibrin as a biomaterial. Eight full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsum of the body of the sheep. On 4 wounds, polyvinyl chloride rings were used as chambers to prevent cell migration at the edge. The wounds were observed at days 7, 14, and 21. After 3 weeks of implantation, the sheep were euthanized and the skins were harvested. The excised tissues were fixed in formalin for histological examination via hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome, and elastin van Gieson staining. The results showed that BTES, SLTES-K, and SLTES-F promote wound healing in nonchambered and chambered wounds, and BTES demonstrated the best healing potential. In conclusion, BTES proved to be an effective tissue-engineered construct that can promote the healing of full-thickness skin lesions. With the support of further clinical trials, this procedure could be an alternative to SSG for patients with partial- and full-thickness burns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
  17. Maarof M, Mh Busra MF, Lokanathan Y, Bt Hj Idrus R, Rajab NF, Chowdhury SR
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 02;9(1):144-161.
    PMID: 30547385 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-00612-z
    Skin substitutes are one of the main treatments for skin loss, and a skin substitute that is readily available would be the best treatment option. However, most cell-based skin substitutes require long production times, and therefore, patients endure long waiting times. The proteins secreted from the cells and tissues play vital roles in promoting wound healing. Thus, we aimed to develop an acellular three-dimensional (3D) skin patch with dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM) and collagen hydrogel for immediate treatment of skin loss. Fibroblasts from human skin samples were cultured using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (KM1 or KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively. The acellular 3D skin patch was soft, semi-solid, and translucent. Collagen mixed with DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 showed higher protein release compared to collagen plus DFCM-FM. In vitro and in vivo testing revealed that DFCM and collagen hydrogel did not induce an immune response. The implantation of the 3D skin patch with or without DFCM on the dorsum of BALB/c mice demonstrated a significantly faster healing rate compared to the no-treatment group 7 days after implantation, and all groups had complete re-epithelialization at day 17. Histological analysis confirmed the structure and integrity of the regenerated skin, with positive expression of cytokeratin 14 and type I collagen in the epidermal and dermal layer, respectively. These findings highlight the possibility of using fibroblast secretory factors together with collagen hydrogel in an acellular 3D skin patch that can be used allogeneically for immediate treatment of full-thickness skin loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Skin, Artificial
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