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  1. Haniff AN, Gam LH
    Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 2016 Mar;63(2):266-72.
    PMID: 25640279 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1357
    Smoking, passive smoking, and nonsmoking are conditions that give different degrees of stress to the body. In this study, a proteomic technique was used to analyze differentially urinary protein expression between these three groups of subjects. Urinary proteins were precipitated using ammonium sulfate followed by separation according to molecular weights using SDS-PAGE. The gel was stained by Coommassie blue, and the image of the gel was captured for the comparison study. The protein bands that were consistently detected but expressed at different intensity between the smokers and nonsmokers were targeted for further analysis. Three targeted protein bands were excised from the gel, consisting of a unique protein band of smokers and a pair of differentially expressed protein bands from smokers and nonsmokers. The proteins were digested in gel by trypsin. The tryptic peptides were analyzed with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identity was determined by the product ion spectrum in the MS/MS scan. Four unique proteins from the smokers, namely, pancreatic alpha amylase, proepidermal growth factor, protein 4.1, and prostatic acid phosphatase, were found to be potential urinary biomarkers to indicate smoking status of a person.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  2. Ordóñez-Mena JM, Schöttker B, Mons U, Jenab M, Freisling H, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, et al.
    BMC Med, 2016;14(1):62.
    PMID: 27044418 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-016-0607-5
    BACKGROUND: Smoking is the most important individual risk factor for many cancer sites but its association with breast and prostate cancer is not entirely clear. Rate advancement periods (RAPs) may enhance communication of smoking related risk to the general population. Thus, we estimated RAPs for the association of smoking exposure (smoking status, time since smoking cessation, smoking intensity, and duration) with total and site-specific (lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, gastric, head and neck, and pancreatic) cancer incidence and mortality.
    METHODS: This is a meta-analysis of 19 population-based prospective cohort studies with individual participant data for 897,021 European and American adults. For each cohort we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for the association of smoking exposure with cancer outcomes using Cox regression adjusted for a common set of the most important potential confounding variables. RAPs (in years) were calculated as the ratio of the logarithms of the HRs for a given smoking exposure variable and age. Meta-analyses were employed to summarize cohort-specific HRs and RAPs.
    RESULTS: Overall, 140,205 subjects had a first incident cancer, and 53,164 died from cancer, during an average follow-up of 12 years. Current smoking advanced the overall risk of developing and dying from cancer by eight and ten years, respectively, compared with never smokers. The greatest advancements in cancer risk and mortality were seen for lung cancer and the least for breast cancer. Smoking cessation was statistically significantly associated with delays in the risk of cancer development and mortality compared with continued smoking.
    CONCLUSIONS: This investigation shows that smoking, even among older adults, considerably advances, and cessation delays, the risk of developing and dying from cancer. These findings may be helpful in more effectively communicating the harmful effects of smoking and the beneficial effect of smoking cessation.
    KEYWORDS: Cancer; Cohort; Incidence; Meta-analysis; Mortality; Smoking
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking*
  3. Nalliah S
    Family Practitioner, 1985;8:80-1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  4. McCarthy SA
    Family Physician, 1994;6:32-33.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  5. Wee LH, Chan CM, Yogarabindranath SN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 06;71(Suppl 1):29-41.
    PMID: 27801386 MyJurnal
    Two hundred and seventy one original published materials related to tobacco use were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to Medicine and Health in Malaysia from 1996 - 2015. A total of 147 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance and implications for future research. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to epidemiology, behaviour, clinical features and management of smoking. Most studies are cross-sectional with small sample sizes. Studies on smoking initiation and prevalence showed mixed findings with many small scale studies within the sub-groups. The majority of the studies were related to factors that contribute to initiation in adolescents. Nonetheless, there are limited studies on intervention strategies to curb smoking among this group. There is a lack of clinical studies to analyse tobacco use and major health problems in Malaysia. In addition, studies on the best treatment modalities on the use of pharmacotherapy and behavioural counselling have also remained unexplored. Reasons why smokers do not seek clinic help to quit smoking need further exploration. A finding on the extent of effort carried out by healthcare providers in assisting smokers to make quit attempts is not known. Studies on economic and government initiatives on policies and tobacco use focus mainly on the effects of cigarette bans, increased cigarettes taxes and the influence of the tobacco industry. Recommendations are given for the government to increase efforts in implementing smoke-free legislation, early and tailored interventions. Clinical studies in this area are lacking, as are opportunities to research on ways to reduce smoking initiation age and the most effective quit smoking strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*; Smoking Cessation*
  6. Gartner CE, Lund KE, Barendregt JJ, Mohamed Nor N, Hassan H, Vedøy TF, et al.
    Eur J Public Health, 2017 Feb 1;27(1):139-144.
    PMID: 28177432 DOI: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw180
    Norway has achieved a noteworthy reduction in smoking prevalence over the past forty years. In 2015, 13% of Norwegians aged 13-74 smoked daily and a further 9% smoked occasionally. One of the objectives of the Norwegian 2013-16 national strategy for tobacco control is to achieve a reduction in the daily smoking prevalence to < 10% by 2016. This paper aims to estimate how long it will take for Norway to achieve the 10% smoking prevalence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  7. ISBN: 978-0-309-10384-8
    Citation: Institute of Medicine (US). Committee on Cancer Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, Frank A. Sloan, Hellen Gelband (Eds.). Cancer Control Opportunities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Washington DC: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press, 2007

    Full text contains Malaysian data:
    Appendix A. Cancer Control in Malaysia and Tanzania. page 305
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  8. Dawood OT, Rashan MA, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Apr-Jun;8(2):146-51.
    PMID: 27134468 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171738
    Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking; Smoking Cessation
  9. Tohid H, Ishak N, Muhammad NA, Ahmad FN, Aziz AA, Omar K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):35-47.
    PMID: 22973136 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined.
    METHODS: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed.
    RESULTS: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation.
    CONCLUSION: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking.
    KEYWORDS: adolescent; health campaigns; qualitative research; tobacco cessation; tobacco smoking
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking; Smoking Cessation
  10. Rampal L
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Sep;38(3):203-5.
    PMID: 6672563
    Anti-smoking measures, adopted by local authorities before the guideline on the ban of cigarette advertisement and anti-smoking campaign launched by the Government, are limited in scope and area. The activity is limited mainly to a ban on cigarette advertisements in theatres. Legislative measures are instituted only in the City Council, Municipal Councils and 2 ofthe 20 district councils surveyed. There is an awareness among several local authorities on the need for an increase in anti-smoking activities but action. is lacking. A population of 7.4 million. people lioe in areas controlled by the local authorities. The local authorities are expected to play a more active role along with other Government departments following a directive in August 1982 from the Chief Secretary to the Government.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  11. Mohd Zin F, Hillaluddin AH, Mustaffa J
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2017 05 01;18(5):1435-1443.
    PMID: 28612599
    Objective: This study aims to develop, validate and determine the reliability of an interactive multimedia strategy to prevent tobacco use among the young (TUPY-S) from an adolescents’ perspective. Methods: A descriptive study design was utilized. A modular instruction guideline by Russel (1974) was followed in the entire process, comprising a feasibility study, a review of existing modules, specification of the objectives, identification of the construct criterion items, learner analysis and entry behavior specification, establishment of the sequence instruction and media selection, a tryout with students and a field test. Result: Feasibility was agreed among the researchers and the school authorities. Culturally suitable rigorously developed tobacco use preventive strategies delivered using information technology (IT) are lacking in the literature. The objective of TUPY-S is to prevent tobacco use among adolescents living in Malaysia. Identified construct criterion items include knowledge, attitude, intention to use, self-efficacy, and refusal skill. The target population was early adolescents belonging to generation-Z. Content was developed from the adolescents’ perspective and delivered using IT in Malay language. Content validity, assessed by six experts in the field and module development, was good at 86%. The students’ tryout showed satisfactory face validity subjectively and objectively (85.5%) and high alpha Cronbach reliability (0.91). Conclusion: TUPY-S was confirmed to suit early adolescents of the current generation living in Malaysia. It demonstrated good content validity among the experts, satisfactory face validity and reliability among the target population. TUPY-S is ready to be evaluated for its effectiveness among early adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking; Smoking Cessation
  12. Yaacob I, Harun MH
    PMID: 7825029
    A questionnaire survey to study the smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia was conducted between July and September 1992. Questionnaires were sent to 5,112 teachers through their respective headmasters. Sixty-three percent (3,208 teachers; 61% males, 39% females) responded satisfactorily. Overall, 625 teachers (20%) were current smokers, 141 (4%) were occasional smokers, 317 (10%) were ex-smokers and 2,123 (67%) had never smoked. Only six (0.8%) of the 766 regular and occasional smokers were females. The rates of smoking among parents and siblings of smokers were higher than parents and siblings of non-smokers. Seventy-four percent of the smoking teachers admitted to smoking in the school premises. The teachers' attitudes about the health effects of smoking were statistically different between smokers and non-smokers. However, both smoking and non-smoking teachers had similar views regarding methods to control the smoking habit which included banning cigarette sales, putting a halt to the tobacco industry and banning cigarette advertisements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*; Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking/psychology*; Smoking Cessation/methods; Smoking Cessation/psychology
  13. Nordin AS, Bullen C
    Tob Control, 2014 Jan;23(1):4-5.
    PMID: 24479154
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*; Smoking Cessation*
  14. Fathelrahman AI, Omar M, Awang R, Cummings KM, Borland R, Bin Mohd Samin AS
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2010 11;7(11):4089-99.
    PMID: 21139879 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7114089
    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/psychology*; Smoking Cessation*
  15. Ramli J, Taiyeb Ali TB
    Ann Dent, 1999;6(1):21-6.
    MyJurnal
    The role of smoking as a contributory factor in the progression of the periodontal disease process has long been suspected and recently a large number of studies have been published in the dental literature regarding this possible role. Much of the literature has also indicated that smokers affected with periodontitis respond less favorably to periodontal treatment be it non-surgical, surgical and regenerative. This paper will review the current literature regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and present an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  16. Puttarak P, Pornpanyanukul P, Meetam T, Bunditanukul K, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Complement Ther Med, 2018 Apr;37:37-42.
    PMID: 29609935 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.01.009
    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Several randomized controlled trials have investigated Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. for smoking cessation but there remains no critical summary of overall findings. This study uses systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the efficacy and safety of V. cinerea.

    METHODS: Nine databases were searched through November 2017. Randomized controlled trials that reported the smoking cessation effect of V. cinerea were included. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias and JADAD score. The estimates of pooled effects were calculated as relative risk (RR) with 95% CI using a random-effects model.

    RESULTS: Five trials with 347 smokers were included. V. cinerea treatment group was significantly associated with cessation rate higher than that in the control group with no evidence of heterogeneity for both continuous abstinence rate (CAR) at week 8 with risk ratio (RR): 1.69, 95% CI [1.00, 2.86]; week 12 RR: 2.18, 95% CI [1.17, 4.04]) and 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate (PAR) (week 8 RR: 1.51, 95% CI [1.01, 2.27]; week 12 RR: 1.93, 95% CI [1.24, 2.99]) at week 8 and 12, respectively. There was no significant difference of all adverse events between the treatment and the control groups.

    CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that V. cinerea has potential efficacy for smoking cessation. Further well-design RCTs of standardized V. cinerea compared with standard treatment should be conducted to strengthen this evidence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/drug therapy*; Smoking Cessation/methods*
  17. Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Faridah Md Khalid, Yusri Yazid
    MyJurnal
    Smoking is a well-known cause of oral disease and oral cancer. Several dysplastic
    cytological changes occur before the appearance of the clinical lesion. This study aimed to
    investigate the cytopathological effects of smoking in clinically normal oral mucosa of cigarette
    smokers. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  18. Mahmud M, Shajahan M
    Family Physician, 1995;7:28-30.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  19. Wbin-Wan-Ibrahim WA, Mirza EH, Akbar Ali SF
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Jul;26(4):823-6.
    PMID: 23811465
    Heavy metals in cigarette tobacco such as iron may cause a serious damage on human health. Surveys showed that the accumulation of certain toxic heavy metals like cadmium, mercury, iron is very often due to the effect of smoking. This work involved 15 volunteers in two randomly divided groups having the habit of cigarette smoking over 15 cigarettes / day. Concentration level of iron in blood and urine before and after treatment using the herbal medicine, widely used in Europe, is analyzed. Determination of Iron concentration in blood and urine was calculated by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) according to the procedure DIN EN ISO 11885 ("E22" from April 1998). The analysis shows that the concentration of iron in blood and urine samples in both groups increased in some volunteers instead of decrease. The independent T-test shows that the mean of iron concentration in the group A and group B had no significant difference (p>0.05). The results suggested that the herbal medicine under test does not have significant influence on reduction of iron concentration levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/metabolism*
  20. Bhutani G, Kaushal J, Gupta MC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):526-33.
    PMID: 22390122
    Smoking is a major health problem of the society as it causes a wide variety of health hazards and produces a strong addictive behavior. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments have been tried for smoking cessation from time to time. Some of the pharmacological treatments have been able to achieve the status of first line and second line therapy for smoking cessation by the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline. Some newer and very promising drugs have come up and are in the clinical trials for establishment of their efficacy. While some other drugs have been tried from time to time but have failed to show any consistent results. Various non pharmacological therapies like behavioural therapy are also of utmost importance in this regard. This article gives a brief review and critical assessment of the existing and the emerging smoking cessation therapies.
    Non-Malaysian publication: India
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking Cessation/methods*
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