Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 504 in total

  1. Wee LH, Chan CM, Yogarabindranath SN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 06;71(Suppl 1):29-41.
    PMID: 27801386 MyJurnal
    Two hundred and seventy one original published materials related to tobacco use were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to Medicine and Health in Malaysia from 1996 - 2015. A total of 147 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance and implications for future research. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to epidemiology, behaviour, clinical features and management of smoking. Most studies are cross-sectional with small sample sizes. Studies on smoking initiation and prevalence showed mixed findings with many small scale studies within the sub-groups. The majority of the studies were related to factors that contribute to initiation in adolescents. Nonetheless, there are limited studies on intervention strategies to curb smoking among this group. There is a lack of clinical studies to analyse tobacco use and major health problems in Malaysia. In addition, studies on the best treatment modalities on the use of pharmacotherapy and behavioural counselling have also remained unexplored. Reasons why smokers do not seek clinic help to quit smoking need further exploration. A finding on the extent of effort carried out by healthcare providers in assisting smokers to make quit attempts is not known. Studies on economic and government initiatives on policies and tobacco use focus mainly on the effects of cigarette bans, increased cigarettes taxes and the influence of the tobacco industry. Recommendations are given for the government to increase efforts in implementing smoke-free legislation, early and tailored interventions. Clinical studies in this area are lacking, as are opportunities to research on ways to reduce smoking initiation age and the most effective quit smoking strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*; Smoking Cessation*
  2. Tohid H, Ishak N, Muhammad NA, Ahmad FN, Aziz AA, Omar K
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Apr;19(2):35-47.
    PMID: 22973136 MyJurnal
    The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking; Smoking Cessation
  3. Rampal L
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Sep;38(3):203-5.
    PMID: 6672563
    Anti-smoking measures, adopted by local authorities before the guideline on the ban of cigarette advertisement and anti-smoking campaign launched by the Government, are limited in scope and area. The activity is limited mainly to a ban on cigarette advertisements in theatres. Legislative measures are instituted only in the City Council, Municipal Councils and 2 ofthe 20 district councils surveyed. There is an awareness among several local authorities on the need for an increase in anti-smoking activities but action. is lacking. A population of 7.4 million. people lioe in areas controlled by the local authorities. The local authorities are expected to play a more active role along with other Government departments following a directive in August 1982 from the Chief Secretary to the Government.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*
  4. Yaacob I, Harun MH
    PMID: 7825029
    A questionnaire survey to study the smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia was conducted between July and September 1992. Questionnaires were sent to 5,112 teachers through their respective headmasters. Sixty-three percent (3,208 teachers; 61% males, 39% females) responded satisfactorily. Overall, 625 teachers (20%) were current smokers, 141 (4%) were occasional smokers, 317 (10%) were ex-smokers and 2,123 (67%) had never smoked. Only six (0.8%) of the 766 regular and occasional smokers were females. The rates of smoking among parents and siblings of smokers were higher than parents and siblings of non-smokers. Seventy-four percent of the smoking teachers admitted to smoking in the school premises. The teachers' attitudes about the health effects of smoking were statistically different between smokers and non-smokers. However, both smoking and non-smoking teachers had similar views regarding methods to control the smoking habit which included banning cigarette sales, putting a halt to the tobacco industry and banning cigarette advertisements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology*; Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking/psychology*; Smoking Cessation/methods; Smoking Cessation/psychology
  5. Nordin AS, Bullen C
    Tob Control, 2014 Jan;23(1):4-5.
    PMID: 24479154
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*; Smoking Cessation*
  6. Fathelrahman AI, Omar M, Awang R, Cummings KM, Borland R, Bin Mohd Samin AS
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2010 11;7(11):4089-99.
    PMID: 21139879 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7114089
    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/psychology*; Smoking Cessation*
  7. Ramli, J., Taiyeb Ali, T.B.
    Ann Dent, 1999;6(1):-.
    The role of smoking as a contributory factor in the progression of the periodontal disease process has long been suspected and recently a large number of studies have been published in the dental literature regarding this possible role. Much of the literature has also indicated that smokers affected with periodontitis respond less favorably to periodontal treatment be it non-surgical, surgical and regenerative. This paper will review the current literature regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and present an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  8. Puttarak P, Pornpanyanukul P, Meetam T, Bunditanukul K, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Complement Ther Med, 2018 Apr;37:37-42.
    PMID: 29609935 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.01.009
    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Several randomized controlled trials have investigated Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. for smoking cessation but there remains no critical summary of overall findings. This study uses systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the efficacy and safety of V. cinerea.

    METHODS: Nine databases were searched through November 2017. Randomized controlled trials that reported the smoking cessation effect of V. cinerea were included. Data were extracted by two independent researchers. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias and JADAD score. The estimates of pooled effects were calculated as relative risk (RR) with 95% CI using a random-effects model.

    RESULTS: Five trials with 347 smokers were included. V. cinerea treatment group was significantly associated with cessation rate higher than that in the control group with no evidence of heterogeneity for both continuous abstinence rate (CAR) at week 8 with risk ratio (RR): 1.69, 95% CI [1.00, 2.86]; week 12 RR: 2.18, 95% CI [1.17, 4.04]) and 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate (PAR) (week 8 RR: 1.51, 95% CI [1.01, 2.27]; week 12 RR: 1.93, 95% CI [1.24, 2.99]) at week 8 and 12, respectively. There was no significant difference of all adverse events between the treatment and the control groups.

    CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that V. cinerea has potential efficacy for smoking cessation. Further well-design RCTs of standardized V. cinerea compared with standard treatment should be conducted to strengthen this evidence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/drug therapy*; Smoking Cessation/methods*
  9. Ghasak Ghazi Faisal, Faridah Md Khalid, Yusri Yazid
    Smoking is a well-known cause of oral disease and oral cancer. Several dysplastic
    cytological changes occur before the appearance of the clinical lesion. This study aimed to
    investigate the cytopathological effects of smoking in clinically normal oral mucosa of cigarette
    smokers. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking
  10. Bhutani G, Kaushal J, Gupta MC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):526-33.
    PMID: 22390122
    Smoking is a major health problem of the society as it causes a wide variety of health hazards and produces a strong addictive behavior. Various pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments have been tried for smoking cessation from time to time. Some of the pharmacological treatments have been able to achieve the status of first line and second line therapy for smoking cessation by the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline. Some newer and very promising drugs have come up and are in the clinical trials for establishment of their efficacy. While some other drugs have been tried from time to time but have failed to show any consistent results. Various non pharmacological therapies like behavioural therapy are also of utmost importance in this regard. This article gives a brief review and critical assessment of the existing and the emerging smoking cessation therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking Cessation/methods*
  11. Wbin-Wan-Ibrahim WA, Mirza EH, Akbar Ali SF
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2013 Jul;26(4):823-6.
    PMID: 23811465
    Heavy metals in cigarette tobacco such as iron may cause a serious damage on human health. Surveys showed that the accumulation of certain toxic heavy metals like cadmium, mercury, iron is very often due to the effect of smoking. This work involved 15 volunteers in two randomly divided groups having the habit of cigarette smoking over 15 cigarettes / day. Concentration level of iron in blood and urine before and after treatment using the herbal medicine, widely used in Europe, is analyzed. Determination of Iron concentration in blood and urine was calculated by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) according to the procedure DIN EN ISO 11885 ("E22" from April 1998). The analysis shows that the concentration of iron in blood and urine samples in both groups increased in some volunteers instead of decrease. The independent T-test shows that the mean of iron concentration in the group A and group B had no significant difference (p>0.05). The results suggested that the herbal medicine under test does not have significant influence on reduction of iron concentration levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/metabolism*
  12. Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin
    This article highlights the issues pertaining to psychiatry and smoking as reported in a symposium on smoking cessation in Malaysia. Methods: A report on a meeting outcome of a symposium on “Making smoking free agenda for psychiatrists in Malaysia.” Results: Smoking is still the number one public health problem and those with mental illness were at a high risk. Despite that, they are often under served in service provision by those caring for them. These shortcoming are seen more and more in Malaysia, where smoking and psychiatry is under researched. Conclusion: More research are needed on the why and how psychiatrist can play a major role in ensuring that those with mental illness in Malaysia are provided equal opportunities to quit smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking; Smoking Cessation
  13. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Taib KM, Isahak M, Koh D
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2317-23.
    PMID: 23725134
    The role of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in predicting relapse is limited. We aimed to assess whether this model can be utilised to predict relapse during the action stage. The participants included 120 smokers who had abstained from smoking for at least 24 hours following two Malaysian universities' smoking cessation programme. The smokers who relapsed perceived significantly greater advantages related to smoking and increasing doubt in their ability to quit. In contrast, former smokers with greater self-liberation and determination to abstain were less likely to relapse. The findings suggest that TTM can be used to predict relapse among quitting smokers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/adverse effects*; Smoking/psychology; Smoking Cessation/methods*; Smoking Cessation/psychology
  14. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Darus A, Koh D
    Occup Med (Lond), 2012 Apr;62(3):174-81.
    PMID: 22362839 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqs005
    Job stressors may reduce the likelihood of quitting smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/epidemiology; Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking Cessation/methods; Smoking Cessation/psychology*
  15. Navaratnam V, Foong K
    Curr Med Res Opin, 1990;11(10):611-9.
    PMID: 2311417
    In a study of 249 opiate (mainly heroin) addicts special attention was paid to adjunctive drug use. Generally, nicotine (cigarette smoking), alcohol and cannabis preceded the use of heroin, and continued to be used as adjunctive drugs after the establishment of heroin addiction. Nicotine was the most common substance used together with opiates. Alcohol and cannabis were used as adjunctive drugs in about two-thirds of the cases. In the late stages of heroin addiction, benzodiazepines were also used concomitantly with opiates. The most frequently reported reason for the use of adjunctive drugs was to intensify the effect of the opiate. Three-quarters or more of the addicts had used different adjunctive drugs to boost the euphoric feeling derived from the primary drug, i.e. heroin. Attempt at self-treatment of withdrawal symptoms was a less frequently reported reason for adjunctive drug use. The findings show that heroin addiction is the major problem. The use of adjunctive drugs, especially benzodiazepines, can be partly explained on economic grounds. They must be clearly distinguished from the primary drug of abuse, heroin. For policy-making decisions, it is important that the elimination of heroin abuse through effective prevention measures would ultimately wipe out the problem of adjunctive drug use, while reduction of the overall supply of heroin without reduction in actual demand might result in an increasing trend to adjunctive drug use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Marijuana Smoking/epidemiology*; Marijuana Smoking/psychology; Smoking/epidemiology*; Smoking/psychology
  16. Han YW, Mohammad M, Liew SM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(17):7287-90.
    PMID: 25227830
    BACKGROUND: Brief physician counselling has been shown to be effective in improving smokers' behaviour. If the counselling sessions can be given at the workplace, this would benefit a larger number of smokers. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a ten-minute physician counseling session at the workplace in improving smoking behaviour.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomised control trial was conducted on smokers in a factory. A total of 163 participants were recruited and randomised into control and intervention groups using a table of random numbers. The intervention group received a ten-minute brief physician counselling session to quit smoking. Stages of smoking behaviour were measured in both groups using a translated and validated questionnaire at baseline, one month and three months post intervention.

    RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in smoking behaviour at one-month post intervention (p=0.024, intention to treat analysis; OR=2.525; CI=1.109-5.747). This was not significant at three-month post intervention (p=0.946, intention to treat analysis; OR=1.026; 95% CI=0.486-2.168).

    CONCLUSIONS: A session of brief physician counselling was effective in improving smokers' behaviour at workplace, but the effect was not sustained.

    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/psychology; Smoking/therapy*; Smoking Cessation/methods*
  17. De Silva WD, Sinha DN, Kahandawaliyanag A
    Indian J Cancer, ;49(4):438-42.
    PMID: 23442410 DOI: 10.4103/0019-509X.107753
    Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Frame Work Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003, and this was ratified in November 2003. With a view to reduce the use of tobacco in Sri Lanka, the National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act (NATA) No. 27 of 2006 was implemented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control*; Smoking/psychology*; Smoking Cessation/psychology*
  18. Yong HH, Savvas S, Borland R, Thrasher J, Sirirassamee B, Omar M
    Int J Behav Med, 2013 Jun;20(2):252-8.
    PMID: 22302214
    This paper prospectively examined two kinds of social normative beliefs about smoking, secular versus religious norms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking/psychology*; Smoking Cessation/psychology*
  19. Yasin SM, Taib KM, Zaki RA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1439-43.
    PMID: 22126478
    The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been used as one of the major constructs in developing effective cognitive behavioural interventions for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, in Western societies. This study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the translated Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire among adult smokers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 40 smokers from four different worksites in Klang Valley. A 26-item TTM questionnaire was administered, and a similar set one week later. The questionnaire consisted of three measures; decisional balance, temptations and impact of smoking. Construct validity was measured by factor analysis and the reliability by Cronbach' s alpha (internal consistency) and test-retest correlation. Results revealed that Cronbach' s alpha coefficients for the items were: decisional balance (0.84; 0.74) and temptations (0.89; 0.54; 0.85). The values for test retest correlation were all above 0.4. In addition, factor analysis suggested two meaningful common factors for decisional balance and three for temptations. This is consistent with the original construct of the TTM questionnaire. Overall results demonstrated that construct validity and reliability were acceptable for all items. In conclusion, the Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool in ass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Smoking/prevention & control; Smoking/psychology*; Smoking Cessation/methods*
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