Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1045 in total

  1. Huat, Bujang B.K, Faisal Ali, Hashim, S.
    The three shear strength parameters that are required to define a failure envelope of an unsaturated soil are c' (apparent cohesion),
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil
  2. Purwanti IF, Kurniawan SB, Ismail N', Imron MF, Abdullah SRS
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Nov 01;249:109412.
    PMID: 31445374 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109412
    This paper elucidates the capability of isolated indigenous bacteria to remove aluminium from wastewater and soil. Two indigenous species of Brochothrix thermosphacta and Vibrio alginolyticus were isolated from an aluminium-contaminated site. These two species were used to treat aluminium-containing wastewater and contaminated soil using the bioaugmentation method. B. thermosphacta showed the highest aluminium removal of 57.87 ± 0.45% while V. alginolyticus can remove aluminium up to 59.72 ± 0.33% from wastewater. For aluminium-contaminated soil, B. thermosphacta and V. alginolyticus, showed a highest removal of only 4.58 ± 0.44% and 5.48 ± 0.58%, respectively. The bioaugmentation method is more suitable to be used to treat aluminium in wastewater compared to contaminated soil. The produced biomass separation after wastewater treatment was so much easier and applicable, compared to the produced biomass handling from contaminated soil treatment. A 48.55 ± 2.45% and 40.12 ± 4.55% of aluminium can be recovered from B. thermosphacta and V. alginolyticus biomass, respectively, with 100 mg/L initial aluminium concentration in wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil; Soil Pollutants*
  3. van der Ent A, Echevarria G, Nkrumah PN, Erskine PD
    Ann Bot, 2020 10 30;126(6):1017-1027.
    PMID: 32597938 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcaa119
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study was to test the frequency distributions of foliar elements from a large dataset from Kinabalu Park (Sabah, Malaysia) for departure from unimodality, indicative of a distinct ecophysiological response associated with hyperaccumulation.

    METHODS: We collected foliar samples (n = 1533) comprising 90 families, 198 genera and 495 plant species from ultramafic soils, further foliar samples (n = 177) comprising 45 families, 80 genera and 120 species from non-ultramafic soils and corresponding soil samples (n = 393 from ultramafic soils and n = 66 from non-ultramafic soils) from Kinabalu Park (Sabah, Malaysia). The data were geographically (Kinabalu Park) and edaphically (ultramafic soils) constrained. The inclusion of a relatively high proportion (approx. 14 %) of samples from hyperaccumulator species [with foliar concentrations of aluminium and nickel (Ni) >1000 μg g-1, cobalt, copper, chromium and zinc >300 μg g-1 or manganese (Mn) >10 mg g-1] allowed for hypothesis testing.

    KEY RESULTS: Frequency distribution graphs for most elements [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P)] were unimodal, although some were skewed left (Mg and Mn). The Ni frequency distribution was bimodal and the separation point for the two modes was between 250 and 850 μg g-1.

    CONCLUSIONS: Accounting for statistical probability, the established empirical threshold value (>1000 μg g-1) remains appropriate. The two discrete modes for Ni indicate ecophysiologically distinct behaviour in plants growing in similar soils. This response is in contrast to Mn, which forms the tail of a continuous (approximately log-normal) distribution, suggestive of an extension of normal physiological processes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Soil; Soil Pollutants*
  4. Safaei Khorram M, Zhang G, Fatemi A, Kiefer R, Mahmood A, Jafarnia S, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 May;27(15):18510-18520.
    PMID: 32198685 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-08335-w
    The introduction of biochar has been extensively tested under short-term greenhouse or field studies mainly in sandy or acidic soils, while its effects on soil properties, crop plants, and weed species especially in neutral or alkaline soils are still not well understood. Therefore, this study focused on relatively long effects of two walnut shell biochars (5 t ha-1) on soil nutrient dynamics, two crop plants (wheat and lentil) growth and developments, and weed growth dynamics over 4 years (2014-2017). Applied biochar added once at the beginning of the experiment while planted crops were supplied with macro-nutrients and sprayed with pesticides according to conventional requirements of the region. Biochars improved soil properties by 10-23% during the first and second years while positive effects of biochars on weed growth were drastically higher (60-78% higher weed density) during the whole period of this study most likely due to increase in bioavailability of nutrient shortly after biochar amendment and indirect positive effects of biochars on soil physical properties as well. Consequently, biochar macro- and micro-nutrient will be utilized by weed plants with higher efficacy compared with crop plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil; Soil Pollutants/analysis*
  5. Gu H, Yan J, Liu Y, Yu X, Feng Y, Yang X, et al.
    Environ Res, 2023 May 01;224:115543.
    PMID: 36822540 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.115543
    Bioaugmentation helps to obtain a microbiome capable of remediating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, acclimation of microorganisms to soil supplemented with phenanthrene (PHE) led to enrichment with PAH-degraders, including those in Actinobacteriota and in the genera Streptomyces, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Sphingomonas, and Mycobacterium. Aqueous (28 °C, pH 6.5) and soil cultures inoculated with PHE-acclimated soil showed a high PHE (ca. 50 mg L-1) degradation efficiency. The PHE degradation kinetics in aqueous and soil incubations fitted to the Gompertz equation and the first-order kinetic equation, respectively. Indigenous microorganisms adapted to PHE in their environment, and this increased their capacity to degrade PHE. The effect of co-contaminants and pathway intermediates on PHE degradation showed that the degradation of PHE improved in the presence of diesel while being hindered by lubricant oil, catechol, salicylic and phthalic acid. Our findings provide theoretical and practical support for bioremediationof PAHs in the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil/chemistry; Soil Microbiology
  6. Rawat J, Kumar V, Ahlawat P, Tripathi LK, Tomar R, Kumar R, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2023 Oct;195(10):6168-6182.
    PMID: 36847986 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-023-04386-0
    The growing field of nanotechnology and its many applications have led to the irregular release of nanoparticles (NPs), with unintended effects on the environment and continued contamination of water bodies. Metallic NPs are used more frequently in extreme environmental conditions due to their higher efficiency, which attracts more attention in various applications. Due to improper pre-treatment of biosolids, inefficient wastewater treatment practices, and other unregulated agricultural practices continue to contaminate the environment. In particular, the uncontrolled use of NPs in various industrial applications has led to damage to the microbial flora and caused irreplaceable damage to animals and plants. This study focuses on the effect of different doses, types, and compositions of NP on the ecosystem. The review also mentions the impact of various metallic NPs on microbial ecology, their interactions with microorganisms, ecotoxicity studies, and dosage evaluation of the NPs, mainly focused on the review article. However, further research is still needed to understand the complexity of interactions between NPs and microbes in soil and aquatic ecosystems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil; Soil Pollutants*
  7. Tao W, Mei C, Hamzah N
    J Contam Hydrol, 2020 May;231:103620.
    PMID: 32126294 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103620
    Surfactant solutions have been frequently studied for soil remediation. However, since they are expensive, massive consumption of surfactant solution can constrain their application. Surfactant microbubbles, or colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs), can serve as cost effective alternatives of surfactant solution because the use of CGAs reduce the amount of surfactant consumption. Moreover, CGAs can also improve the contact with the contaminated environment due to their unique surface properties, e.g. containing 40-70% of gas, small size, large interfacial areas, water-like flow properties and buoyant rise velocities. In this review paper, the properties and flow character of CGAs in soil matrix reviewed due to their relevance to soil remediation process. A comprehensive overview of the application of CGAs in flushing off organic pollutants and heavy metals, and carrying oxygen, bacteria and dissolved materials for soil remediation were provided. This paper also highlighted the limitation of CGAs application and important future research scopes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil; Soil Pollutants/analysis*
  8. Saleh S, Ahmad K, Mohd Yunus NZ, Hezmi MA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(17):21252-21259.
    PMID: 32266626 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-08549-y
    In civil engineering, many geotechnical and forensic projects employ polyurethane (PU) for ground improvement, and the results have shown to be effective in terms of time and cost savings. However, similar to many other chemical stabilisers, the use of PU for soil stabilisation may have environmental repercussions. Therefore, this paper utilised a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to investigate the potential for ground contamination resulting from the application of PU for the stabilisation of marine clay. Furthermore, the hazardousness of PU during the stabilisation of marine clay was investigated by testing its reactivity, ignitability, corrosivity and physical properties. The results reveal that the quantity of heavy metals present in PU is far below the regulatory limits. The results further confirm that PU is odourless and non-corrosive and that it is non-cyanide and non-sulphide-bearing. However, PU is capable of igniting. Overall, the potential application of PU for ground improvement is promising due to its environmental friendliness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil; Soil Pollutants/analysis*
  9. Mohd Adnan SN, Yusoff S, Piaw CY
    Waste Manag Res, 2013 Jun;31(6):599-612.
    PMID: 23528999 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13482031
    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil/chemistry*; Soil Pollutants/chemistry*
  10. Chai LK, Wong MH, Bruun Hansen HC
    J Environ Manage, 2013 Aug 15;125:28-32.
    PMID: 23632002 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.04.005
    The insecticide chlorpyrifos is extensively used in the humid tropics for insect control on crops and soils. Chlorpyrifos degradation and mineralization was studied under laboratory conditions to characterize the critical factors controlling the degradation and mineralization in three humid tropical soils from Malaysia. The degradation was fastest in moist soils (t1/2 53.3-77.0 days), compared to dry (t1/2 49.5-120 days) and wet soils (t1/2 63.0-124 days). Degradation increased markedly with temperature with activation energies of 29.0-76.5 kJ mol(-1). Abiotic degradation which is important for chlorpyrifos degradation in sub-soils containing less soil microbial populations resulted in t½ of 173-257 days. Higher chlorpyrifos dosages (5-fold) which are often applied in the tropics due to severe insects infestations caused degradation and mineralization rates to decrease by 2-fold. The mineralization rates were more sensitive to the chlorpyrifos application rates reflecting that degradation of metabolites is rate limiting and the toxic effects of some of the metabolites produced. Despite that chlorpyrifos is frequently used and often in larger amounts on tropical soils compared with temperate soils, higher temperature, moderate moisture and high activity of soil microorganisms will stimulate degradation and mineralization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil/chemistry*; Soil Pollutants/chemistry*
  11. Lsmail BS, Choo LY, Salmijah S, Halimah M, Tayeb MA
    J Environ Biol, 2015 Sep;36(5):1105-11.
    PMID: 26521552
    The sorption and desorption of cyfluthrin mixture isomers were determined using batch equilibration method and mobility was studied under laboratory conditions, using packed soil column. The soil types used in the study were clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam obtained from three tomato farms in Cameron Highlands. A low Freundlich adsorption distribution coefficient K(ads(f)) for cyfluthrin was observed for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils (95.69, 21.64 and 8.99 l/kg, respectively). Results showed that cyfluthrin had high Freundlich organic matter (OM) distribution coefficient K(oc) values of 5799, 2278 and 1635 lkg(-1) for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils, respectively. These values indicate that cyfluthrin is considered immobile in Malaysian soils with different textures, based on the value of K(oc) by McCall. Adsorption of cyfluthrin was significantly (P < 0.05) affected with soil pH, fertilizer NPK, organic matter content and temperature. It was observed that approximately 95.8%, 93.8% and 91.8% of the adsorbed cyfluthrin remained sorbed after four successive rinses for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils. Soil column test showed that cyfluthrin was not detected in leachate. Cyfluthrin was detected in topsoil and its concentration decreased with depth. The downward movement of cyfluthrin in sandy clay loam soil was more than that in clay loam and clayey soils. Approximately, 80.9%, 77.8% and 67.3% cyfluthrin was observed at the depth of 0-5 cm (rainfall 350 mm) for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils respectively. Mobility of cyfluthrin showed that the percentage of cyfluthrin leached into soil was not affected by the amount of rainfall. The result clearly showed that cyfluthrin molecules were bound strongly to all the three Malaysian soil types.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil/chemistry*; Soil Pollutants/chemistry*
  12. Lim MW, Lau EV, Poh PE
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2016 Aug 15;109(1):14-45.
    PMID: 27267117 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.04.023
    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil.

    CAPSULE: This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil.

    Matched MeSH terms: Soil*; Soil Pollutants*
  13. Chia WY, Chew KW, Le CF, Lam SS, Chee CSC, Ooi MSL, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2020 Dec;267:115662.
    PMID: 33254731 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115662
    Acceleration of urbanization and industrialization has resulted in the drastic rise of waste generation with majority of them being biowaste. This constitutes a global challenge since conventional waste management methods (i.e., landfills) present environmental issues including greenhouse gases emissions, leachate formation and toxins release. A sustainable and effective approach to treat biowaste is through composting. Various aspects of composting such as compost quality, composting systems and compost pelletization are summarized in this paper. Common application of compost as fertilizer or soil amendment is presented with focus on the low adoption level of organic waste compost in reality. Rarely known, compost which is easily combustible can be utilized to generate electricity. With the analysis on critical approaches, this review aims to provide a comprehensive study on energy content of compost pellets, which has never been reviewed before. Environmental impacts and future prospects are also highlighted to provide further insights on application of this technology to close the loop of circular bioeconomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil
  14. Carrión O, Gibson L, Elias DMO, McNamara NP, van Alen TA, Op den Camp HJM, et al.
    Microbiome, 2020 06 03;8(1):81.
    PMID: 32493439 DOI: 10.1186/s40168-020-00860-7
    BACKGROUND: Isoprene is the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, with annual global emissions almost equal to those of methane. Despite its importance in atmospheric chemistry and climate, little is known about the biological degradation of isoprene in the environment. The largest source of isoprene is terrestrial plants, and oil palms, the cultivation of which is expanding rapidly, are among the highest isoprene-producing trees.

    RESULTS: DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) to study the microbial isoprene-degrading community associated with oil palm trees revealed novel genera of isoprene-utilising bacteria including Novosphingobium, Pelomonas, Rhodoblastus, Sphingomonas and Zoogloea in both oil palm soils and on leaves. Amplicon sequencing of isoA genes, which encode the α-subunit of the isoprene monooxygenase (IsoMO), a key enzyme in isoprene metabolism, confirmed that oil palm trees harbour a novel diversity of isoA sequences. In addition, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed from oil palm soil and leaf metagenomes and putative isoprene degradation genes were identified. Analysis of unenriched metagenomes showed that isoA-containing bacteria are more abundant in soils than in the oil palm phyllosphere.

    CONCLUSION: This study greatly expands the known diversity of bacteria that can metabolise isoprene and contributes to a better understanding of the biological degradation of this important but neglected climate-active gas. Video abstract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Soil*; Soil Microbiology*
  15. Alazaiza MYD, Ramli MH, Copty NK, Ling MC
    J Contam Hydrol, 2021 Mar;238:103769.
    PMID: 33465656 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2021.103769
    Laboratory-scale column experiments were carried out to assess the influence of water infiltration on pooled light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) redistribution in porous media. A simplified image analysis method (SIAM) was used to evaluate the saturation distributions of the LNAPL and water in the entire domain under dynamic conditions. The experiments were conducted for high/low LNAPL volumes LNAPL volumes differentiated as low and high volumes. High resolution SIAM images of the soil column during LNAPL migration and water infiltration events were captured and analyzed. Results indicated that the capillary fringe is about 6-7 cm which was consistent with the capillary height derived from empirical equations. Moreover, SIAM provided an estimate of the field capacity (30%) of the sand. Once the LNAPL infiltration stage was started, the LNAPL was observed to rapidly migrate through the vadose zone. For the case of large LNAPL volume, the LNAPL penetrated further into capillary fringe zone. Analysis of SIAM images showed that the LNAPL redistribution was observed to vary significantly with the rate of infiltration. For higher water infiltration intensity, the injected water exerted a larger hydrodynamic force on the entrapped LNAPL forcing it move further downward into the capillary zone and the saturated zone. Overall, this study demonstrated that the SIAM technique is an accurate and cost-effective tool for the visualization of the time-dependent NAPL/water movement in laboratory-scale experiments and dynamic changes in fluid saturation in porous media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil
  16. Wong RR, Lim ZS, Shaharuddin NA, Zulkharnain A, Gomez-Fuentes C, Ahmad SA
    PMID: 33562609 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041512
    Diesel acts as a main energy source to complement human activities in Antarctica. However, the increased expedition in Antarctica has threatened the environment as well as its living organisms. While more efforts on the use of renewable energy are being done, most activities in Antarctica still depend heavily on the use of diesel. Diesel contaminants in their natural state are known to be persistent, complex and toxic. The low temperature in Antarctica worsens these issues, making pollutants more significantly toxic to their environment and indigenous organisms. A bibliometric analysis had demonstrated a gradual increase in the number of studies on the microbial hydrocarbon remediation in Antarctica over the year. It was also found that these studies were dominated by those that used bacteria as remediating agents, whereas very little focus was given on fungi and microalgae. This review presents a summary of the collective and past understanding to the current findings of Antarctic microbial enzymatic degradation of hydrocarbons as well as its genotypic adaptation to the extreme low temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil Microbiology*; Soil Pollutants*
  17. Sarlaki E, Kermani AM, Kianmehr MH, Asefpour Vakilian K, Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha H, Ma NL, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117412.
    PMID: 34051566 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117412
    The use of agro-biowaste compost fertilizers in agriculture is beneficial from technical, financial, and environmental perspectives. Nevertheless, the physical, mechanical, and agronomical attributes of agro-biowaste compost fertilizers should be engineered to reduce their storage, handling, and utilization costs and environmental impacts. Pelletizing and drying are promising techniques to achieve these goals. In the present work, the effects of process parameters, including compost particle size/moisture content, pelletizing compression ratio, and drying air temperature/velocity, were investigated on the density, specific crushing energy, and moisture diffusion of agro-biowaste compost pellet. The Taguchi technique was applied to understand the effects of independent parameters on the output responses, while the optimal pellet properties were found using the iterative thresholding method. The soil and plant (sweet basil) response to the optimal biocompost pellet was experimentally evaluated. The farm application of the optimal pellet was also compared with the untreated agro-biowaste compost using the life cycle assessment approach to investigate the potential environmental impact mitigation of the pelletizing and drying processes. Generally, the compost moisture content was the most influential factor on the density and specific crushing energy of the dried pellet, while the moisture diffusion of the wet pellet during the drying process was significantly influenced by the pelletizing compression ratio. The density, specific crushing energy, and moisture diffusion of agro-biowaste compost pellet at the optimal conditions were 1242.49 kg/m3, 0.5054 MJ/t, and 8.2 × 10-8 m2/s, respectively. The optimal biocompost pellet could release 80% of its nitrogen content evenly over 98 days, while this value was 28 days for the chemical urea fertilizer. Besides, the optimal pellet could significantly improve the agronomical attributes of the sweet basil plant compared with the untreated biocompost. The applied strategy could collectively mitigate the weighted environmental impact of farm application of the agro-biowaste compost by more than 63%. This reduction could be attributed to the fact that the pelletizing-drying processes could avoid methane emissions from the untreated agro-biowaste compost during the farm application. Overall, pelletizing-drying of the agro-biowaste compost could be regarded as a promising strategy to improve the environmental and agronomical performance of farm application of organic biofertilizers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil
  18. Othman R, Hasni SI, Baharuddin ZM
    J Environ Biol, 2016 09;37(5 Spec No):1181-1185.
    PMID: 29989751
    Degradation or decline of soil quality that cause shallow slope failure may occur due to physical or chemical processes. It can be triggered off by natural phenomena, or induced by human activity through misuse of land resources, excessive development and urbanization leading to deforestation and erosion of covered soil masses causing serious threat to slopes. The extent of damage of the slopes can be minimized if a long-term early warning system is predicted in the landslide prone areas. The aim of the study was to characterize chemical properties of stable and unstable slope along selected highways of Malaysia which can be manipulated as indicator to forecast shallow slope failure. The elements in soil chemical properties contributed to each other as binding agents that affected the existing soil structure. It could make the soil structure strong or weak. Indicators that can be used to predict shallow slope failure were low content in iron, lead, aluminum, chromium, zinc, low content of organic carbon and CEC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil/chemistry; Soil Pollutants/chemistry*
  19. Xing SC, Chen JY, Lv N, Mi JD, Chen WL, Liang JB, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2018 Nov;211:804-816.
    PMID: 30099165 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.005
    The lead (Pb2+) bioaccumulation capacities and mechanisms of three different physiological structures (vegetative cells, decay cells and spores) of B. coagulans R11 isolated from a lead mine were examined in this study. The results showed that the total Pb2+ removal capacity of vegetative cells (17.53 mg/g) was at its optimal and higher than those of the spores and decay cells at the initial lead concentration of 50 mg/L. However, when the initial lead concentration surpassed 50 mg/L, Pb2+ removal capacity of decay cells was more efficient. Zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and functional group modification analyses demonstrated that the electrostatic attraction and chelating activity of the functional groups were the primary pathways involved in the extracellular accumulation of Pb2+ by the vegetative cells and spores. However, the primary Pb2+ binding pathway in the decay cells was hypothesized to be due to physical adsorption, which easily led to Pb2+ desorption. Based on these results, we conclude that the vegetative cell is the ideal lead sorbent. Therefore, it is important to inhibit the transformation of the vegetative cells into decay cells and spores, which can be achieved by culturing the bacteria under anaerobic conditions to prevent spore formation. Heat stimulation can effectively enhance spore germination to generate vegetative cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Soil/chemistry*; Soil Pollutants/chemistry*
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