METHODS: We collected foliar samples (n = 1533) comprising 90 families, 198 genera and 495 plant species from ultramafic soils, further foliar samples (n = 177) comprising 45 families, 80 genera and 120 species from non-ultramafic soils and corresponding soil samples (n = 393 from ultramafic soils and n = 66 from non-ultramafic soils) from Kinabalu Park (Sabah, Malaysia). The data were geographically (Kinabalu Park) and edaphically (ultramafic soils) constrained. The inclusion of a relatively high proportion (approx. 14 %) of samples from hyperaccumulator species [with foliar concentrations of aluminium and nickel (Ni) >1000 μg g-1, cobalt, copper, chromium and zinc >300 μg g-1 or manganese (Mn) >10 mg g-1] allowed for hypothesis testing.
KEY RESULTS: Frequency distribution graphs for most elements [calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P)] were unimodal, although some were skewed left (Mg and Mn). The Ni frequency distribution was bimodal and the separation point for the two modes was between 250 and 850 μg g-1.
CONCLUSIONS: Accounting for statistical probability, the established empirical threshold value (>1000 μg g-1) remains appropriate. The two discrete modes for Ni indicate ecophysiologically distinct behaviour in plants growing in similar soils. This response is in contrast to Mn, which forms the tail of a continuous (approximately log-normal) distribution, suggestive of an extension of normal physiological processes.
CAPSULE: This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil.
RESULTS: DNA stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) to study the microbial isoprene-degrading community associated with oil palm trees revealed novel genera of isoprene-utilising bacteria including Novosphingobium, Pelomonas, Rhodoblastus, Sphingomonas and Zoogloea in both oil palm soils and on leaves. Amplicon sequencing of isoA genes, which encode the α-subunit of the isoprene monooxygenase (IsoMO), a key enzyme in isoprene metabolism, confirmed that oil palm trees harbour a novel diversity of isoA sequences. In addition, metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed from oil palm soil and leaf metagenomes and putative isoprene degradation genes were identified. Analysis of unenriched metagenomes showed that isoA-containing bacteria are more abundant in soils than in the oil palm phyllosphere.
CONCLUSION: This study greatly expands the known diversity of bacteria that can metabolise isoprene and contributes to a better understanding of the biological degradation of this important but neglected climate-active gas. Video abstract.