Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 237 in total

  1. Norsiah A, Whelan G, Piterman L
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(1):61-3.
    PMID: 25606116
    This paper illustrates the training program in the field of Addiction Medicine designed for primary care doctors by the Department of General Practice, School of Primary Care at Monash University in Melbourne. The nine month program was based around coursework, field visits and clinical observations. There were five modules that were completed and passed, twenty six Continuous Medical Education sessions attended, twenty nine field visits on Drug & Alcohol services, forty seven clinical visits and a total of three hundred and sixty clinical observations made. The comprehensive training program has benefited the first author in several ways to improve the Drugs & Alcohol services in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders
  2. Md Hussain H
    Family Physician, 1994;6:27-31.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders
  3. Tan CK
    Family Practitioner, 1988;11:25-30.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders
  4. Motlagh FE, Ibrahim F, Rashid RA, Seghatoleslam T, Habil H
    Chin Med, 2016;11:16.
    PMID: 27053944 DOI: 10.1186/s13020-016-0088-7
    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substance (cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol), and their treatment protocols, assessments, and findings were examined. A total of 119 studies were identified, of which 85 research articles addressed the efficacy of acupuncture for treating addiction. There were substantial variations in study protocols, particularly regarding treatment duration, frequency of electroacupuncture, duration of stimulation, and choice of acupoints. Contradictory results, intergroup differences, variation in sample sizes, and acupuncture placebo effects made it difficult to evaluate acupuncture effectiveness in drug addiction treatment. This review also identified a lack of rigorous study design, such as control of confounding variables by incorporating sham controls, sufficient sample sizes, reliable assessments, and adequately replicated experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  5. Rusdi, A.R., Noor Zurani, M.H.R., Muhammad, M.A.Z., Mohamad, H.H.
    JUMMEC, 2008;11(1):3-6.
    Substance abuse is one of the leading and most complicated health and social problems faced by our country. Unfortunately, after three decades of managing these problems, outcomes are unpromising and poor.(Copied from the article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders
  6. Deva MP
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):99-100.
    PMID: 8350811
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  7. Navaratnam V
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 1987 Dec;20(4):367-73.
    PMID: 2894290
    Epidemiological studies are carried out by the National Drug Research Centre, Malaysia on various aspects of drug use and abuse. One of the groups of substances studied are the opioid agonist-antagonists. The study utilised information submitted to international agencies and obtained through a questionnaire survey. The results showed that out of 28 countries studied, 18 reported existence of illicit traffic in these substances and of this, 17 indicated seizures. A majority of countries were unable to give consumption data and the limited information available did not allow any significant conclusions. The study did not demonstrate a significant problem of abuse globally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology*
    Med J Malaya, 1960 Sep;15:15-8.
    PMID: 13785441
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
    Med J Malaya, 1957 Sep;12(1):373-8.
    PMID: 13492808
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  10. Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S, Singh D, Chawarski M
    Curr Opin Psychiatry, 2018 07;31(4):300-305.
    PMID: 29746420 DOI: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000429
    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on decriminalization of drug use from 2016 to 2017 and suggest the way forward.

    RECENT FINDINGS: The systematic review of the literature on decriminalization resulted in seven articles that discuss decriminalization as compared with 57 published articles on legalization. Decriminalization of drug use did not have an effect on the age of onset of drug use and the prices of drugs did not decrease after the implementation of drug decriminalization. Policy-based studies on decriminalization suggest shifting from criminal sanctions to a public health approach, which was endorsed by the United Nations (UN) that viewed drug addiction as a preventable and treatable health disorder. One study preferred decriminalization only for cannabis and cautioned against regulating cannabis like alcohol. Another study indicated that general medical practitioners in Ireland did not favour the decriminalization of cannabis.

    SUMMARY: Scientific evidence supporting drug addiction as a health disorder and the endorsement by the UN strengthen the case for decriminalization. However, studies reporting on the positive outcomes of decriminalization remain scarce. The evidence needs to be more widespread in order to support the case for decriminalization. Furthermore, the endorsement by the UN needs to be acted upon by individual member states.

    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control*
  11. Ramli M, Nora M, Zafri A, Junid M, Umeed A, Hajee M
    Malays Fam Physician, 2009;4(2-3):77-82.
    PMID: 25606168 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: High prevalence of high-risk behaviours and concurrent medical illnesses among opioid drug users would influence the outcome of Methadone Maintenance Programme. It would also require a special medical attention to contain these issues.
    OBJECTIVES: This study explored patients' characteristics and their high-risk behaviours in order to understand more about opioid dependent users in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A total of 172 patient case notes at Methadone Clinic Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) were retrieved for relevant data.
    RESULTS: Many of the patients were engaged in high-risk behaviours such as needle sharing, unsafe sex and criminal activities. A large number of the subjects had contracted blood-borne diseases such as HIV and hepatitis infections.
    CONCLUSIONS: Education on the issue of medical and psychosocial complications related to high risk behaviours is essential. Medical professionals dealing with this group have to pay attention and update their knowledge on the medical issue.
    KEYWORDS: Methadone therapy; high-risk behaviours; opioid dependence
    Study site: Methadone clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  12. Sarvesvaran R, Hasnan J
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Dec;16(2):167-71.
    PMID: 9053568
    The deliberate inhalation of solvents among children and adolescents "for kicks" is becoming more common in the West. It was generally regarded as a relatively harmless practice and consequently little attention had been paid to the isolation of the toxic agent from the variety of substances used. It is now well recognised that solvent abuse not only can result in sudden death but also cause pathological changes to the liver, kidney, brain, heart and lungs. A case of toluene associated death in Malaysia is discussed both from a medico-legal and pathological standpoint.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders/pathology*
  13. Low Wah Yun, Yusof K
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Mar;43(1):34-9.
    PMID: 3244317
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology*
  14. Med J Malaysia, 1974 Dec;29(2):130-1.
    PMID: 4282399
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  15. Alogaili F, Abdul Ghani N, Ahmad Kharman Shah N
    J Infect Public Health, 2020 Oct;13(10):1456-1461.
    PMID: 32694082 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2020.06.035
    Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) is an electronic database that tracks the prescriptions of controlled drugs with its aims to combat the incidence of drug abuse. Although the establishment of PDMP in the US was since 2003, evidence of the impact of PDMP's strength and weakness towards its implementation is still scarce. A systematic literature review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) standard was conducted to investigate the influence of PDMP's strength in combating the incidence of drug abuse and also to review the weaknesses of PDMP that prohibit its implementation. Results from this study reveal that the implementation of PDMP has mitigated the issue of drug abuse and has increased work efficiency among healthcare practitioners. However, the implementation rate of this system is low due to its weaknesses such as limited internet access and limited access to the PDMP system. Therefore, efforts to overcome the weaknesses of PDMP need to be instituted to ensure the healthcare system could fully optimize PDMP's benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  16. Werb D, Kamarulzaman A, Meacham MC, Rafful C, Fischer B, Strathdee SA, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2016 Feb;28:1-9.
    PMID: 26790691 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.12.005
    Despite widespread implementation of compulsory treatment modalities for drug dependence, there has been no systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of compulsory drug treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  17. Loganathan K, Ho ETW
    Addict Behav, 2021 05;116:106816.
    PMID: 33453587 DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106816
    Over the years, various models have been proposed to explain the psychology and biology of drug addiction, built primarily around the habit and compulsion models. Recent research indicates drug addiction may be goal-directed, motivated by excessive valuation of drugs. Drug consumption may initially occur for the sake of pleasure but may transition to a means of escaping withdrawal, stress and negative emotions. In this hypothetical paper, we propose a value-based neurobiological model for drug addiction. We posit that during dependency, the value-based decision-making system in the brain is not inactive but has instead prioritized drugs as the reward of choice. In support of this model, we consider the role of valuation in choice, its influence on pleasure and punishment, and how valuation is contrasted in impulsive and compulsive behaviours. We then discuss the neurobiology of value, beginning with the dopaminergic system and its relationship with incentive salience before moving to brain-wide networks involved in valuation, control and prospection. These value-based neurobiological components are then integrated into the cycle of addiction as we consider the development of drug dependency from a valuation perspective. We conclude with a discussion of cognitive interventions utilizing value-based decision-making, highlighting not just advances in recalibrating the valuation system to focus on non-drug rewards, but also areas for improvement in refining this approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  18. Hadijah B, Wan Shahrazad Wan S, Fauziah I, Norulhuda Sarnon K
    Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 2018;32(2):26-41.
    The scenario of drug addiction is a chain of threats to individual, families and communities. This is shown through the increasing statistics in addiction relapse causing epidemic to communities. The effects of drug relapse affect individual’s health with problems of comorbidity, psychopathology and psychosocial. After 40 years, Malaysia undertook various efforts in treatment and rehabilitation programs, but these efforts do not indicate success. This situation has led to the study of various factors that contribute towards high-risk situations in drug relapse. Hence this study aims to identify intrapersonal factors consisting of motivation to change and coping strategy as mediator of high-risk situations for drug relapse, which include negative emotions, interpersonal conflict and social pressure. This study employed a cross sectional design which utilized questionnaires administered to 600 clients in the Cure & Care Clinic, Malaysia. The questionnaires used were The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES), Brief COPE and the tendency of high risk situation for drug relapse scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis and PROCESS for SPSS. Results showed significant influences of intrapersonal factors and coping strategies towards high-risk situations for drug relapse. In addition, coping strategy mediated the relationship between motivation to change and the tendency of high-risk situations for drug relapse. These findings should be taken into account in establishing treatment and rehabilitation programs for drug relapse in Malaysia.
    Keywords: motivation to change, coping strategy, addiction relapse, high risk situations, mediator
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
  19. Lau YH, Mawardi AS, Zain NR, Viswanathan S
    Pract Neurol, 2021 Oct;21(5):439-441.
    PMID: 34039751 DOI: 10.1136/practneurol-2021-002942
    A 33-year-old man with a history of chronic toluene abuse through glue sniffing, developed tremors, cerebellar signs and cognitive decline. MR scan of the brain showed global cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with symmetrical T2-weighted hypointensities in the basal ganglia, thalami and midbrain. After stopping glue sniffing, his tremors, ataxia of gait, speech and cognition partially improved. Early recognition and intervention of toluene-induced leukodystrophy could prevent ongoing morbidity and premature mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Substance-Related Disorders*
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