An enzyme with broad substrate specificity would be an asset for industrial application. T1 lipase apparently has the same active site residues as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) depolymerase. Sequences of both enzymes were studied and compared, and a conserved lipase box pentapeptide region around the nucleophilic serine was detected. The alignment of 3-D structures for both enzymes showed their active site residues were well aligned with an RMSD value of 1.981 Å despite their sequence similarity of only 53.8%. Docking of T1 lipase with P(3HB) gave forth high binding energy of 5.4 kcal/mol, with the distance of 4.05 Å between serine hydroxyl (OH) group of TI lipase to the carbonyl carbon of the substrate, similar to the native PhaZ7 Pl . This suggests the possible ability of T1 lipase to bind P(3HB) in its active site. The ability of T1 lipase in degrading amorphous P(3HB) was investigated on 0.2% (w/v) P(3HB) plate. Halo zone was observed around the colony containing the enzyme which confirms that T1 lipase is indeed able to degrade amorphous P(3HB). Results obtained in this study highlight the fact that T1 lipase is a versatile hydrolase enzyme which does not only record triglyceride degradation activity but amorphous P(3HB) degradation activity as well.
Latent polyphenol oxidase (LPPO), an enzyme responsible for the browning reaction of sago starches during processing and storage, was investigated. The enzyme was effectively extracted and partially purified from the pith using combinations of nonionic detergents. With Triton X-114 and a temperature-induced phase partitioning method, the enzyme showed a recovery of 70% and purification of 4. 1-fold. Native PAGE analysis of the partially purified LPPO revealed three activity bands when stained with catechol and two bands with pyrogallol. The molecular masses of the enzymes were estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 37, 45, and 53 kDa. The enzyme showed optimum pH values of 4.5 with 4-methylcatechol as a substrate and 7.5 with pyrogallol. The LPPO was highly reactive toward diphenols and triphenols. The activity of the enzyme was greatly enhanced in the presence of trypsin, SDS, ethanol, and linoleic acid.
The world today is in a quest for new means of environmental remediation as the methods currently used are not sufficient to halt the damage. Mostly, a global direction is headed toward a shift from traditional chemical-based methods to a more ecofriendly alternative. In this context, biocatalysis is seen as a cost-effective, energy saving, and clean alternative. It is meant to catalyze degradation of recalcitrant chemicals in an easy, rapid, green, and sustainable manner. One already established application of biocatalysis is the removal of dyes from natural water bodies using enzymes, notably oxidoreductases like laccases, due to their wide range of substrate specificity. In order to boost their catalytic activity, various methods of enhancements have been pursued including immobilization of the enzyme on different support materials. Aside from increased catalysis, immobilized laccases have the advantages of higher stability, better durability against harsh environment conditions, longer half-lives, resistance against protease enzymes, and the ability to be recovered for reuse. This review briefly outlines the current methods used for detoxification and decolorization of dye effluents stressing on the importance of laccases as a revolutionary biocatalytic solution to this environmental problem. This work highlights the significance of laccase immobilization and also points out some of the challenges and opportunities of this technology.
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus venom acetylcholinesterase has been partially purified by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography and DEAE Sephacel ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme has a mol. wt of 58,600. It was strongly inhibited by physostigmine salicylate and edrophonium chloride and exhibited substrate inhibition at high substrate concentration. The content of acetylcholinesterase in Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus venom was estimated to be much less than 0.3%.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of some environmental factors on bacterial metabolism. Fermentative hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum, using glucose as the substrate. The effect of initial pH (4-8), inoculum size (1-20% (v/v)) and glucose concentration (1-30 g L(-1)) on hydrogen production were studied. The optimum cultivation temperature for hydrogen production was at 30 degrees C. The results show that substrate concentration and inoculum size resulted in hydrogen yield (Y(P/S)) of 391 mL g(-1) glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 mL/L/h. Higher substrate concentration or inoculum size adversely affects hydrogen production, which decreases hydrogen yield by 15% to 334 mL g(-1) glucose utilized when 30% (v/v) inoculum size was used. The use of 30 g L(-1) substrate concentration resulted in a 75% decrease to 97 mL g(-1) glucose supplied. Concluded that proper Xo/So enhanced the hydrogen production.
A broad substrate specificity enzyme that can act on a wide range of substrates would be an asset in industrial application. T1 lipase known to have broad substrate specificity in its native form apparently exhibits the same active sites as polyhydroxylalkanoate (PHA) depolymerase. PhaZ6Pl is one of the PHA depolymerases that can degrade semicrystalline P(3HB). The objective of this study is to enable T1 lipase to degrade semicrystalline P(3HB) similar to PhaZ6Pl while maintaining its native function. A structural study on PhaZ6Pl contains no lid in its structure and therefore T1 lipase was designed with removal of its lid region. BSLA lipase was chosen as the reference protein for T1 lipase modification since it contains no lid. Initially, structures of both enzymes were compared via protein-protein superimposition in 3D-space and the location of the lid region of T1 lipase was highlighted. A total of three variants of T1 lipase without lid were successfully designed by referring to BSLA lipase (a lipase without lid). The ability of T1 lipase without lid variants in degrading P(3HB) was investigated quantitatively. All the variants showed activity towards the substrate which confirmed that T1 lipase without lid is indeed able to degrade P(3HB). In addition, D2 was recorded to have the highest activity amongst other variants. Results obtained in this study highlighted the fact that native T1 lipase is a versatile hydrolase enzyme which does not only record triglyceride degradation but also P(3HB) by simply removing the lid region.
Bioregeneration of mono-amine modified silica gel (MAMS) adsorbent loaded with Acid Orange 7 (AO7), Acid Yellow 9 (AY9) and Acid Red 14 (AR14), respectively, was investigated under two different operational conditions, namely absence/presence of sucrose/bacto-peptone as the co-substrate and different biomass acclimation concentrations. The results revealed that the AY9- and AR14-loaded MAMS adsorbents could almost be completely bioregenerated but only in the presence of co-substrate whereas the bioregeneration of AO7-loaded MAMS could achieve up to 71% in the absence of the co-substrate. These differences could be related to the structural properties of the investigated azo dyes. In addition, the results showed that the bioregeneration duration of AO7-loaded MAMS could be progressively shortened by using biomass acclimated to increasingly higher AO7 concentration. However, the bioregeneration efficiencies were found to be relatively unchanged under different biomass acclimation concentrations.
FK506-binding protein35 of Plasmodium knowlesi (Pk-FKBP35) is a member of peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) and is considered as a promising avenue of antimalarial drug target development. This protein is organized into the N-terminal domain responsible for PPIase catalytic activity followed and the tetratricopeptide repeat domain for its dimerization. The protease-coupling and protease-free assays are known to be the common methods for investigating the catalytic properties of PPIase. Earlier, the protease-coupling assay was used to confirm the catalytic activity of Pk-FKBP35 in accelerating cis-trans isomerization of the peptide substrate. This report is aimed to re-assess the catalytic and substrate specificity of Pk-FKBP35 using an alternative method of a protease-free assay. The result indicated that while Pk-FKBP35 theoretically contained many possible cleavage sites of chymotrypsin, experimentally, the catalytic domain was relatively stable from chymotrypsin. Furthermore, under protease-free assay, Pk-FKBP35 also demonstrated remarkable PPIase catalytic activity with kcat/KM of 4.5 + 0.13 × 105 M−1 s−1, while the kcat/KM of active site mutant of D55A is 0.81 + 0.05 × 105 M−1 s−1. These values were considered comparable to kcat/KM obtained from the protease-coupling assay. Interestingly, the substrate specificities of Pk-FKBP35 obtained from both methods are also similar, with the preference of Pk-FKBP35 towards Xaa at P1 position was Leu>Phe>Lys>Trp>Val>Ile>His>Asp>Ala>Gln>Glu. Altogether, we proposed that protease-free and protease-coupling assays arereliable for Pk-FKBP35.
The high dependency and surplus use of agrochemical products have liberated enormous quantities of toxic halogenated pollutants into the environment and threaten the well-being of humankind. Herein, this study performed molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, molecular mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) calculations on the DehH2 from Bacillus thuringiensis, to identify the order of which the enzyme degrades different substrates, haloacids, haloacetate and chlorpyrifos. The study discovered that the DehH2 favored the degradation of haloacids and haloacetates (-3.3 - 4.6 kcal/mol) and formed three hydrogen bonds with Asp125, Arg201 and Lys202. Despite the inconclusive molecular docking result, chlorpyrifos was consistently shown to be the least favored substrate of the DehH2 in MD simulations and MM-PBSA calculations. Results of MD simulations revealed the DehH2-haloacid- (RMSD 0.15 - 0.25 nm) and DehH2-haloacetates (RMSF 0.05 - 0.25 nm) were more stable, with the DehH2-L-2CP complex being the most stable while the least was the DehH2-chlorpyrifos (RMSD 0.295 nm; RMSF 0.05 - 0.59 nm). The Molecular Mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area calculations showed the DehH2-L-2CP complex (-24.27 kcal/mol) having the lowest binding energy followed by DehH2-MCA (-22.78 kcal/mol), DehH2-D-2CP (-21.82 kcal/mol), DehH2-3CP (-21.11 kcal/mol), DehH2-2,2-DCP (-18.34 kcal/mol), DehH2-2,3-DCP (-8.34 kcal/mol), DehH2-TCA (-7.62 kcal/mol), while chlorpyrifos was unable to spontaneously bind to DehH2 (+127.16 kcal/mol). In a nutshell, the findings of this study offer valuable insights into the rational tailoring of the DehH2 for expanding its substrate specificity and catalytic activity in the near future.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
The β-1,6-glucanases are ubiquitous enzymes which appear to be implicated in the morphogenesis and have the ability to become virulence factor in plant-fungal symbiotic interaction. To our knowledge, no report on ß-1,6-glucanases purification from Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been made, although it has been proven to have a significant effect as a biocontrol agent for several diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to purify β-1,6- glucanase from T. longibrachiatum T28, with an assessment on the physicochemical properties and substrate specificity. β-1,3-glucanase enzyme, from the culture filtrate of T. longibrachiatum T28, was successively purified through precipitation with 80% acetone, followed by anionexchange chromatography on Neobar AQ and chromatofocusing on a Mono P HR 5/20 column. (One β-1,6-glucanase) band at 42kDa in size was purified, as shown by the SDS-PAGE. The physicochemical evaluation showed an optimum pH of 5 and optimum temperature of 50°C for enzyme activity with an ability to maintain 100% enzyme stability. Enzyme activity was slightly reduced by 10-20% in the presence of 20 mM of Zn2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+. The highest β-1,6-glucanase hydrolysis activity was obtained on pustulan due to the similarity of β-glucosidic bonds followed by laminarin, glucan and cellulose. Therefore, it can be concluded that the characterization of ß-1,6-glucanase secreted by T. longibrachiatum in term of molecular weight, responsed to selected physicochemical factors and the substrate specificity are approximately identical to other Trichoderma sp.
Type I pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (PulASK) is an unusual debranching enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes starch α-1,6 linkages at long branches producing oligosaccharides (≥G8), but is nonreactive against short branches; thus, incapable of producing reducing sugars (G1-G7). We report on the effects of both single and co-immobilization of PulASK on product specificity. PulASK was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment to three epoxides (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A) and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M) activated supports. Following immobilization, all PulASK derivatives were active on both short and long branches in starch producing reducing sugars (predominantly maltotriose) and oligosaccharides (≥G8), respectively, a feature that is absent in the free enzyme. This study also demonstrated that co-immobilization of PulASK and α-amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (TASKA) on ReliZyme HFA403/M significantly changed the product specificity compared to the free enzymes alone or individually immobilized enzymes. In conclusion, individual or co-immobilization caused changes in the product specificity, presumably due to changes in the enzyme binding pocket caused by the influence of carrier surface properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) and the lengths of the spacer arms.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase, PhaC, is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of PHA, a type of bioplastics with huge potential to replace petroleum-based plastics. While two structures have been determined, the exact mechanism remains unclear partly due to the absence of a tunnel for product passage. A model of the class I PhaC from Aquitalea sp. USM4, characterised with Km of 394 μM and kcat of 476 s-1 on 3-(R)-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, revealed a three-branched channel at the dimeric interface. Two of them are opened to the solvent and are expected to serve as the putative routes for substrate entrance and product exit, while the third is elongated in the class II PhaC1 model from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, indicating a role in accommodating the hydroxyalkanoate (HA) moiety of a HA-CoA substrate. Docking of the two tetrahedral intermediates, formed during the transfer of the growing PHA chain from the catalytic Cys to a new molecule of substrate and back to Cys, suggests a common elongation mechanism requiring the HA moiety of the ligand to rotate ~180°. Substrate specificity is determined in part by a bulky Phe/Tyr/Trp residue in the third branch in class I, which is conserved as Ala in class II to create room for longer substrates.
In this study, the substrate specificity and the inhibition kinetics of various types of insecticides to the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from a local fish; Puntius schwanenfeldii were investigated. The substrate specificity determination was done using three thiocholine substrates, which were ATC, PTC and BTC. The results showed that he partially purified cholinesterase from Puntius schwanenfeldii that preferred ATC is a true AChE. The Km and Vmax values of AChE for these substrates were 16.61 mmol and 286.5 U/mg for ATC, 19.92 mmol and 245.3 U/mg for PTC, and 48.64 mmol and 219.6 U/mg for BTC, respectively. The IC50 values for the carbamates bendiocarb, carbaryl, propoxur, carbofuran and methomyl were 0.838, 7.045, 29.441, 1.411 and 8.335 mg/L, respectively, which were comparable to the IC50 values for carbamates from several AChE from fish.
In this study, transformation of BrCHS var 2 into B. rotunda cell suspension culture, followed by chalcone synthase enzymatic assay and HPLC analysis was conducted to investigate whether the substrate specificity for BrCHS var 2 is either cinnamoyl-CoA or p-coumaroyl-CoA. The HPLC profile showed an increase in the amount of pinocembrin chalcone when cinnamoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA were added but not p-coumaroyl-CoA. Molecular docking was performed to explore the binding of cinnamoyl-CoA and p-coumaroyl-CoA to BrCHS var 2 receptor and the docking results showed that cinnamoyl-CoA formed numerous hydrogen bonds and more negative docked energy than p-coumaroyl-CoA. Cinnamoyl-CoA showed good interactions with Cys 164 to initiate the subsequent formation of pinocembrin chalcone, whereas the hydroxyl group of p-coumaroyl-CoA formed an unfavorable interaction with Gln 161 that caused steric hindrance to subsequent formation of naringenin chalcone. Docked conformation analysis results also showed that malonyl-CoA formed hydrogen bonding with Cys 164, His 303, and Asn 336 residues in BrCHS var 2. The results show that cinnamoyl-CoA is the preferred substrate for BrCHS var 2.
While the capacity for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis has been elucidated in vertebrates and several invertebrate phyla, the comparative knowledge in crustaceans remains vague. A key obstacle in mapping the full spectrum of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in crustacean is the limited evidence of the functional activities of enzymes involved in desaturation or elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acid substrates. In this present study, we report on the cloning and functional characterization of two Elovl elongases from the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggest these two Elovl as putative Elovl4 and Elovl6, respectively. Using the recombinant expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we demonstrate the elongation capacity for C18-C22 PUFA substrates in the S. olivacea Elovl4. The S. olivacea Elovl6 elongated saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and interestingly, C18-C20 PUFA. Taken together, both Elovl fulfill the elongation steps required for conversion of C18 PUFA to their respective LC-PUFA products. Elovl4 is expressed mainly in the hepatopancreas and gill tissues, while Elovl6 is predominant in digestive tissues. The mRNA expression of both enzymes was higher in mud crabs fed with vegetable oil-based diets. Tissue fatty acid composition also showed the existence of LC-PUFA biosynthesis intermediate products in tissues expressing these two elongases. In summary, we report here two novel Elovl with PUFA elongating activities in a marine brachyuran. This will contribute significantly to the understanding of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway in crustaceans and advance the development of aquafeed for intensive farming of the mud crab.
F-box proteins containing variable C-terminal domains make an essential part of SKP1-Cullin-Ring box-F box (SCF)
complex. SCF complex catalyzes the final step to link the ubiquitin tag with the target protein, destined for degradation,
through F-box protein that confer overall substrate specificity to the complex. In this study, we analyzed the role of
At2g02870, a Kelch containing F-box protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, by using reverse genetics strategy. At2g02870
loss of function mutant lines (at2g02870) were analyzed and compared with wild type plants for the expression of genes
and products of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) branch of oxylipin pathway. We found that the at2g02870 plants have enhanced
expression of HPL pathway genes and produce more green leaf volatiles (GLV) than the wild type plants. Our results
suggested that the gene is involved in the regulation of HPL pathway, possibly through the degradation of enzymes or/
and the regulatory factors of the pathway.
Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.
In this study, the authors investigated the effects of a single layer graphene as a coating layer on top of metal thin films such as silver, gold, aluminum and copper using finite-difference time domain method. To enhance the resolution of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, it is necessary to increase the SPR reflectivity and decrease the full-width-half maximum (FWHM) of the SPR curve so that there is minimum uncertainty in the determination of the resonance dip. Numerical data was verified with analytical and experimental data where all the data were in good agreement with resonance angle differing in <10% due to noise present in components such as humidity and temperature. In further analysis, reflectivity and FWHM were compared among four types of metal with various thin film thicknesses where graphene was applied on top of the metal layers, and data was compared against pure conventional metal thin films. A 60 nm-thick Au thin film results in higher performance with reflectivity of 92.4% and FWHM of 0.88° whereas single layer graphene-on-60 nm-thick Au gave reflectivity of 91.7% and FWHM of 1.32°. However, a graphene-on-40 nm-thick Ag also gave good performance with narrower FWHM of 0.88° and reflection spectra of 89.2%.
Chitinases catalyze the degradation of chitin, a ubiquitous polymer generated from the cell walls of fungi, shells of crustaceans, and cuticles of insects. They are gaining increasing attention in medicine, agriculture, food and drug industries, and environmental management. Their roles in the degradation of chitin for the production of industrially useful products and in the control of fungal pathogens and insect pests render them attractive for such purposes. However, chitinases have diverse sources, characteristics, and mechanisms of action that seem to restrain optimization procedures and render standardization techniques for enhanced practical applications complex. Hence, results of laboratory trials are not usually consistent with real-life applications. With the growing field of protein engineering, these complexities can be overcome by modifying or redesigning chitinases to enhance specific features required for specific applications. In this review, the variations in features and mechanisms of chitinases that limit their exploitation in biotechnological applications are compiled. Recent attempts to engineer chitinases for improved efficiency are also highlighted.