Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

  1. De AK, Sawhney S, Ponraj P, Muthiyan R, Muniswamy K, Ravi SK, et al.
    Anim Biotechnol, 2023 Apr;34(2):156-165.
    PMID: 34310265 DOI: 10.1080/10495398.2021.1950742
    Nicobari pig is reared by Nicobarese, a native tribal population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Nicobari pig has maintained its genetic identity due to geographical isolation. This communication is the first report on maternal inheritance of Nicobari pigs. DNA polymorphism data showed seven haplotypes. D-loop sequence information and mitogenome analysis were able to earmark Nicobari pigs to Asian clade. The domestication process of pigs and its expansion pattern help to understand human migration pattern. Based on this hypothesis, this communication elucidates the probable origin of Nicobarese. Earlier studies indicated that Nicobarese had genetic affinities to races distributed in China, Malaysia and Thailand. Our data on maternal inheritance of Nicobari pig correlates with the data on migration of Nicobarese. Moreover, we could establish a novel connection of Nicobarese with people of Northeastern parts of India, Philippines and Vietnam through phylogenetic signal and geographical provenance of Nicobari pig. We further concluded that migration of Nicobarese happened during Western route of migration (WRM) ∼4000 years before present. Therefore, we propose one wave hypothesis of peopling of Nicobar based on our study and existence of Ausrtroasiatic language, Mon-Khmer in these islands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa*
  2. Heo, Chong Chin, Mohamad Abdullah Marwi, Jeffery, John, Sofian-azirun, M., Chen, Chee Dhang, Wan Omar Abdullah, et al.
    An entomological study was conducted in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia in May until September 2007 revealing five species of butterflies (all from family Nymphalidae) were attracted to pig carcasses placed in an oil palm plantation. Euploea mulciber (Cramer 1777), Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus 1758), Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus 1763), Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ypthima baldus (Fabricius 1775) came to the carcasses at different stages of decomposition. From this study, we know that nymphalid butterflies are attracted to carcasses but their roles are most probably unimportant in post-mortem estimation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
  3. Kim TW, Kim CW, Kwon SG, Hwang JH, Park DH, Kang DG, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1097-1103.
    In order to examine differences of meat quality traits depending on pH values post-mortem, the pH range was classified
    according to initial pH (pH45min) and ultimate pH (pH24hr) post-mortem. The differences of meat quality traits depending
    on sex were not changed by a number of amount, except for backfat thickness and fat content. The value of pH45min was
    positively correlated with pHdif, whereas pH24hr was negatively associated with lightness (CIE L*) and protein content. At
    pH45min post-slaughter, collagen content, fat content, shear force, water holding capacity and yellowness (CIE b*) showed
    lower values at the higher pH range of pH>6.7 than those of other ranges, but CIE L* and redness (CIE a*) presented
    the lowest value at the intermediate pH range of pH6.3~6.7. Conversely, at pH24hr post-slaughter, fat and moisture
    contents maintained the highest average values at the higher pH range of pH>6.1, but protein content showed higher
    value at the lower pH range of pH<5.7. Higher pH24hr appeared significantly lower shear force, but higher water holding
    capacity. CIE L*, a*, and b* values showed significantly higher values at the lowest region of pH24hr. Since meat quality
    characteristics seemed to be favored by consumers in rather than at the range of pH5.7~6.1, which showed significant
    differences of meat color, appearance, and meat juiciness, it is suggested that production of pork meat to appropriate
    pH value is performed by pig breeders and control measures taken during pre- and post-slaughters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
  4. Heo CC, Kurahashi H, Mohamed Abdullah Marwi, Jeffery J, Baharudin Omar
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1179-1186.
    Flies from the family Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae are usually found on human cadavers or animal carcasses. However, there are many other families of Diptera and Coleoptera that were found associated with animal carcasses, which have not been reported in Malaysia. In this paper, we report dipterans from the family Micropezidae: Mimegralla albimana Doleschall, 1856, Neriidae: Telostylinus lineolatus (Wiedemann 1830); Sepsidae: Allosepsis indica (Wiedemann 1824), Ulidiidae: Physiphora sp. and a beetle (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridium sp.) as opportunist species feeding on oozing fluid during the decomposition process. They did not oviposit on the pig carcasses, therefore, their role in estimation of time of death is of little importance. However, they could provide clues such as locality and types of habitats of the crime scene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
  5. Norhaslinda, R., Adzim, M. K. R., Norhayati, A. H.
    Food defined as material that can be brought into the body of a human, animal or plant sources for
    upholding the balance of life and it includes rice, vegetables, bread and others. However, in Islam, its
    emphasized more on clean, harmless food and also with a code known as Halal diet. Halal is a term from
    the Quran which means permissible or lawful. In Islam, known special regulations in the slaughter of
    animals to be Halal diet include with saying the name of Allah the Almighty and make an incision to cut
    the lifeblood of the animal's neck, letting the action veins and organs intact. In contrast, Haram means 'not
    allowed' or 'forbidden' in Islam. Among the Haram foods as mentioned in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, it
    includes carrion, blood, dogs, pigs, and alcohol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
  6. Luskin MS, Brashares JS, Ickes K, Sun IF, Fletcher C, Wright SJ, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2017 12 20;8(1):2231.
    PMID: 29263381 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-01920-7
    Native species that forage in farmland may increase their local abundances thereby affecting adjacent ecosystems within their landscape. We used two decades of ecological data from a protected primary rainforest in Malaysia to illutrate how subsidies from neighboring oil palm plantations triggered powerful secondary 'cascading' effects on natural habitats located >1.3 km away. We found (i) oil palm fruit drove 100-fold increases in crop-raiding native wild boar (Sus scrofa), (ii) wild boar used thousands of understory plants to construct birthing nests in the pristine forest interior, and (iii) nest building caused a 62% decline in forest tree sapling density over the 24-year study period. The long-term, landscape-scale indirect effects from agriculture suggest its full ecological footprint may be larger in extent than is currently recognized. Cross-boundary subsidy cascades may be widespread in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and present significant conservation challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
  7. Moore JH, Gibson L, Amir Z, Chanthorn W, Ahmad AH, Jansen PA, et al.
    Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc, 2023 Oct;98(5):1829-1844.
    PMID: 37311559 DOI: 10.1111/brv.12985
    In many disturbed terrestrial landscapes, a subset of native generalist vertebrates thrives. The population trends of these disturbance-tolerant species may be driven by multiple factors, including habitat preferences, foraging opportunities (including crop raiding or human refuse), lower mortality when their predators are persecuted (the 'human shield' effect) and reduced competition due to declines of disturbance-sensitive species. A pronounced elevation in the abundance of disturbance-tolerant wildlife can drive numerous cascading impacts on food webs, biodiversity, vegetation structure and people in coupled human-natural systems. There is also concern for increased risk of zoonotic disease transfer to humans and domestic animals from wildlife species with high pathogen loads as their abundance and proximity to humans increases. Here we use field data from 58 landscapes to document a supra-regional phenomenon of the hyperabundance and community dominance of Southeast Asian wild pigs and macaques. These two groups were chosen as prime candidates capable of reaching hyperabundance as they are edge adapted, with gregarious social structure, omnivorous diets, rapid reproduction and high tolerance to human proximity. Compared to intact interior forests, population densities in degraded forests were 148% and 87% higher for wild boar and macaques, respectively. In landscapes with >60% oil palm coverage, wild boar and pig-tailed macaque estimated abundances were 337% and 447% higher than landscapes with <1% oil palm coverage, respectively, suggesting marked demographic benefits accrued by crop raiding on calorie-rich food subsidies. There was extreme community dominance in forest landscapes with >20% oil palm cover where two pig and two macaque species accounted for >80% of independent camera trap detections, leaving <20% for the other 85 mammal species >1 kg considered. Establishing the population trends of pigs and macaques is imperative since they are linked to cascading impacts on the fauna and flora of local forest ecosystems, disease and human health, and economics (i.e., crop losses). The severity of potential negative cascading effects may motivate control efforts to achieve ecosystem integrity, human health and conservation objectives. Our review concludes that the rise of native generalists can be mediated by specific types of degradation, which influences the ecology and conservation of natural areas, creating both positive and detrimental impacts on intact ecosystems and human society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
  8. Crisóstomo-Jorquera V, Landaeta-Aqueveque C
    Transbound Emerg Dis, 2022 Sep;69(5):e1269-e1279.
    PMID: 35398980 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.14554
    The genus Trichinella has a worldwide distribution, infecting people, domestic animals, and wildlife. It includes 13 genotypes, which are geographically delimited; Trichinella is transmitted to people through the ingestion of undercooked meat. Historically, it has been associated with pigs, but most Trichinella species affect wildlife, and cases of trichinellosis due to the consumption of game meat have been emerging. Therefore, it is important to monitor the sources of transmission to domestic animals and humans. The objective of this work was to analyse reports of Trichinella spp. in wild/feral animals around the world to identify the needs of future research in the epidemiology of the sylvatic cycle. A search of studies published until 2021 was conducted using Web of Science and SciELO. In the Palearctic, the most commonly studied hosts were wild boars and red foxes, and hosts with the highest prevalence rates were polar bears and martens. In the Nearctic, red foxes and black bears were the most frequently studied hosts, and the highest prevalence was found for wolverines and brown bears. In the Neotropics, positive reports were only identified in two countries, with wild boars being the most commonly studied species, and armadillos featuring the highest prevalence. In the Afrotropics, Trichinella limits its presence to Sub-Saharan Africa, where lions are the most studied hosts, and spotted hyenas have the highest prevalence. In the Indo-Malaya and Australasia ecozones, information on wildlife is scarce; the Norwegian rat is the most frequently studied host, and the Tasmanian devil has the highest prevalence of infection. In the last decade, research on world wildlife has increased which is associated with more frequent trichinellosis outbreaks caused by the consumption of wild meat. The results suggest the need to increase research in developing countries, particularly where more diverse sources of meat are available for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
  9. Puvanesuaran VR, Noordin R, Balakrishnan V
    PLoS One, 2013;8(4):e61730.
    PMID: 23613920 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061730
    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan that infects nearly one-third of the world population. The present study was done to isolate and genotype T. gondii from wild boar from forests of Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 30 wild boars' blood, heads and hearts were obtained for this study and 30 (100.0%) were found to be seropositive when assayed with modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 6). The positive samples were inoculated into mice and T. gondii was only isolated from samples that had strong seropositivity (MAT ≥ 1:24).The isolates were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis and all the Peninsular Malaysia isolates of T. gondii are of clonal type I.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/parasitology*
  10. Fujinuma J, Harrison RD
    PLoS One, 2012;7(5):e37321.
    PMID: 22615977 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037321
    Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa*
  11. Tee KK, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A
    Int J Infect Dis, 2009 May;13(3):307-18.
    PMID: 19010076 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2008.09.005
    Over the past decade, a number of unique zoonotic and non-zoonotic viruses have emerged in Malaysia. Several of these viruses have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality to those affected and they have imposed a tremendous public health and economic burden on the state. Amongst the most devastating was the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in 1998, which resulted in 109 deaths. The culling of more than a million pigs, identified as the amplifying host, ultimately brought the outbreak under control. A year prior to this, and subsequently again in 2000 and 2003, large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease due to enterovirus 71, with rare cases of fatal neurological complications, were reported in young children. Three other new viruses - Tioman virus (1999), Pulau virus (1999), and Melaka virus (2006) - whose origins have all been linked to bats, have been added to the growing list of novel viruses being discovered in Malaysia. The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has also been detected in Malaysia with outbreaks in poultry in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Fortunately, no human infections were reported. Finally, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has seen the emergence of an HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF33_01B) in HIV-infected individuals from various risk groups, with evidence of ongoing and rapid expansion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/virology
  12. Heo CC, Mohamad AM, Ahmad Firdaus MS, Jeffery J, Baharudin O
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Dec;24(2):23-7.
    PMID: 18209704 MyJurnal
    This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/parasitology*
  13. Heo CC, Mohamad AM, John J, Baharudin O
    Trop Biomed, 2008 Apr;25(1):23-9.
    PMID: 18600201
    This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa*
  14. Koh FX, Kho KL, Panchadcharam C, Sitam FT, Tay ST
    Vet Parasitol, 2016 Aug 30;227:73-6.
    PMID: 27523941 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.05.025
    Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa*
  15. Xia NB, Lu Y, Zhao PF, Wang CF, Li YY, Tan L, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Jun 01;37(2):489-498.
    PMID: 33612818
    Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous pathogen that infects nearly all warm-blooded animals and humans, can cause severe complications to the infected people and animals as well as serious economic losses and social problems. Here, one local strain (TgPIG-WH1) was isolated from an aborted pig fetus, and the genotype of this strain was identified as ToxoDB #3 by the PCR RFLP typing method using 10 molecular markers (SAG1, SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, C22-8, C29-2 and Apico). A comparison of the virulence of this isolate with other strains in both mice and piglets showed that TgPIG-WH1 was less virulent than type 1 strain RH and type 2 strain ME49 in mice, and caused similar symptoms to those of ME49 such as fever in piglets. Additionally, in piglet infection with both strains, the TgPIG-WH1 caused a higher IgG response and more severe pathological damages than ME49. Furthermore, TgPIG-WH1 caused one death in the 5 infected piglets, whereas ME49 did not, suggesting the higher virulence of TgPIG-WH1 than ME49 during piglet infection. Experimental infections indicate that the virulence of TgPIG-WH1 relative to ME49 is weaker in mice, but higher in pigs. This is probably the first report regarding a ToxoDB #3 strain from pigs in Hubei, China. These data will facilitate the understanding of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma strains in China as well as the prevention and control of porcine toxoplasmosis in the local region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/parasitology*
  16. Khoo JJ, Lim FS, Tan KK, Chen FS, Phoon WH, Khor CS, et al.
    J Med Entomol, 2017 09 01;54(5):1444-1448.
    PMID: 28874019 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx131
    Spirochetes from the Borrelia genus are known to cause diseases in humans, namely Lyme disease and relapsing fever. These organisms are commonly transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors including ticks, mite, and lice. Here, we report the molecular detection of a Borrelia sp. from a Haemaphysalis hystricis Supino tick collected from wildlife in an Orang Asli settlement in Selangor, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 16s rRNA and flaB gene sequences revealed that the Borrelia sp. is closely related to the relapsing fever group borreliae, Borrelia lonestari, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia theileri, as well as a number of uncharacterized Borrelia sp. from ticks in Portugal and Japan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Borrelia sp. detected in H. hystricis, and in Malaysia. The zoonotic potential of this Borrelia sp. merits further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/parasitology
  17. Tan SC, Chong CW, Yap IKS, Thong KL, Teh CSJ
    Sci Rep, 2020 Jun 02;10(1):8997.
    PMID: 32488118 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-65891-4
    The gastrointestinal tract of humans and swine consist of a wide range of bacteria which interact with hosts metabolism. Due to the differences in co-evolution and co-adaptation, a large fraction of the gut microbiome is host-specific. In this study, we evaluated the effect of close human-animal interaction to the faecal metagenome and metabonome of swine, farmer and human control. Three distinct clusters were observed based on T-RFLP-derived faecal microbial composition. However, 16S-inferred faecal microbiota and metabolic profiles showed that only human control was significantly different from the swine (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/microbiology*
  18. Thu TV, Loh TC, Foo HL, Yaakub H, Bejo MH
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2011 Jan;43(1):69-75.
    PMID: 20632092 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9655-6
    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding liquid metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains on growth performance, diarrhoea incidence, faecal pH, microfloral counts, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and intestinal villus height and crypt depth of postweaning piglets. A total of 120 piglets (26 days old) were randomly assigned evenly into five treatment groups treated with same basal diet: (1) -ve control (free antibiotic); (2) + ve control (0.03% of chlortetracycline); (3) Com 1 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG11 and RI11 strains); (4) Com 2 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG14 and RS5 strains); (5) Com 3 (0.3% metabolite of RG11, RG14 and RI11 strains). After 5 weeks, the average daily feed intake was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatments and feed conversion ratio was the highest (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/anatomy & histology; Sus scrofa/growth & development*
  19. Jeyaprakasam NK, Low VL, Liew JWK, Pramasivan S, Wan-Sulaiman WY, Saeung A, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2022 01 10;12(1):354.
    PMID: 35013403 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-04106-w
    Blood feeding and host-seeking behaviors of a mosquito play an imperative role in determining its vectorial capacity in transmitting pathogens. Unfortunately, limited information is available regarding blood feeding behavior of Anopheles species in Malaysia. Collection of resting Anopheles mosquitoes for blood meal analysis poses a great challenge especially for forest dwelling mosquitoes. Therefore, a laboratory-based study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of mosquitoes caught using human landing catch (HLC) for blood meal analysis, and subsequently to document blood feeding behavior of local Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia. The laboratory-based experiment from this study revealed that mosquitoes caught using HLC had the potential to be used for blood meal analysis. Besides HLC, mosquitoes were also collected using manual aspirator and Mosquito Magnet. Overall, 47.4% of 321 field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to six species were positive for vertebrate host DNA in their blood meal. The most frequent blood meal source was human (45.9%) followed by wild boar (27.4%), dog (15.3%) and monkey (7.5%). Interestingly, only Anopheles cracens and Anopheles introlatus (Leucosphyrus Group) fed on monkey. This study further confirmed that members of the Leucosphyrus Group are the predominant vectors for knowlesi malaria transmission in Peninsular Malaysia mainly due to their simio-anthropophagic feeding behavior.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/blood; Sus scrofa/genetics
  20. Hayman DT, Wang LF, Barr J, Baker KS, Suu-Ire R, Broder CC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2011;6(9):e25256.
    PMID: 21966471 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025256
    Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), have Pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. Antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in Eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from E. helvum in Ghana. The initial outbreak of NiV in Malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for NiV during the outbreak. We detected non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses of the genus Henipavirus in approximately 5% of pig sera (N = 97) tested in Ghana, but not in a small sample of other domestic species sampled under a E. helvum roost. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibody, our results suggest prior exposure of the Ghana pig population to henipavirus(es). Because a wide diversity of henipavirus-like nucleic acid sequences have been found in Ghanaian E. helvum, we hypothesise that these pigs might have been infected by henipavirus(es) sufficiently divergent enough from HeVor NiV to produce cross-reactive, but not cross-neutralizing antibodies to HeV or NiV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa
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