An entomological study was conducted in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia in May until September 2007 revealing five species of butterflies (all from family Nymphalidae) were attracted to pig carcasses placed in an oil palm plantation. Euploea mulciber (Cramer 1777), Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus 1758), Elymnias hypermnestra (Linnaeus 1763), Mycalesis mineus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ypthima baldus (Fabricius 1775) came to the carcasses at different stages of decomposition. From this study, we know that nymphalid butterflies are attracted to carcasses but their roles are most probably unimportant in post-mortem estimation.
In order to examine differences of meat quality traits depending on pH values post-mortem, the pH range was classified
according to initial pH (pH45min) and ultimate pH (pH24hr) post-mortem. The differences of meat quality traits depending
on sex were not changed by a number of amount, except for backfat thickness and fat content. The value of pH45min was
positively correlated with pHdif, whereas pH24hr was negatively associated with lightness (CIE L*) and protein content. At
pH45min post-slaughter, collagen content, fat content, shear force, water holding capacity and yellowness (CIE b*) showed
lower values at the higher pH range of pH>6.7 than those of other ranges, but CIE L* and redness (CIE a*) presented
the lowest value at the intermediate pH range of pH6.3~6.7. Conversely, at pH24hr post-slaughter, fat and moisture
contents maintained the highest average values at the higher pH range of pH>6.1, but protein content showed higher
value at the lower pH range of pH<5.7. Higher pH24hr appeared significantly lower shear force, but higher water holding
capacity. CIE L*, a*, and b* values showed significantly higher values at the lowest region of pH24hr. Since meat quality
characteristics seemed to be favored by consumers in rather than at the range of pH5.7~6.1, which showed significant
differences of meat color, appearance, and meat juiciness, it is suggested that production of pork meat to appropriate
pH value is performed by pig breeders and control measures taken during pre- and post-slaughters.
Native species that forage in farmland may increase their local abundances thereby affecting adjacent ecosystems within their landscape. We used two decades of ecological data from a protected primary rainforest in Malaysia to illutrate how subsidies from neighboring oil palm plantations triggered powerful secondary 'cascading' effects on natural habitats located >1.3 km away. We found (i) oil palm fruit drove 100-fold increases in crop-raiding native wild boar (Sus scrofa), (ii) wild boar used thousands of understory plants to construct birthing nests in the pristine forest interior, and (iii) nest building caused a 62% decline in forest tree sapling density over the 24-year study period. The long-term, landscape-scale indirect effects from agriculture suggest its full ecological footprint may be larger in extent than is currently recognized. Cross-boundary subsidy cascades may be widespread in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems and present significant conservation challenges.
Flies from the family Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae are usually found on human cadavers or animal carcasses. However, there are many other families of Diptera and Coleoptera that were found associated with animal carcasses, which have not been reported in Malaysia. In this paper, we report dipterans from the family Micropezidae: Mimegralla albimana Doleschall, 1856, Neriidae: Telostylinus lineolatus (Wiedemann 1830); Sepsidae: Allosepsis indica (Wiedemann 1824), Ulidiidae: Physiphora sp. and a beetle (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridium sp.) as opportunist species feeding on oozing fluid during the decomposition process. They did not oviposit on the pig carcasses, therefore, their role in estimation of time of death is of little importance. However, they could provide clues such as locality and types of habitats of the crime scene.
Food defined as material that can be brought into the body of a human, animal or plant sources for
upholding the balance of life and it includes rice, vegetables, bread and others. However, in Islam, its
emphasized more on clean, harmless food and also with a code known as Halal diet. Halal is a term from
the Quran which means permissible or lawful. In Islam, known special regulations in the slaughter of
animals to be Halal diet include with saying the name of Allah the Almighty and make an incision to cut
the lifeblood of the animal's neck, letting the action veins and organs intact. In contrast, Haram means 'not
allowed' or 'forbidden' in Islam. Among the Haram foods as mentioned in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, it
includes carrion, blood, dogs, pigs, and alcohol.
Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan that infects nearly one-third of the world population. The present study was done to isolate and genotype T. gondii from wild boar from forests of Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 30 wild boars' blood, heads and hearts were obtained for this study and 30 (100.0%) were found to be seropositive when assayed with modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 6). The positive samples were inoculated into mice and T. gondii was only isolated from samples that had strong seropositivity (MAT ≥ 1:24).The isolates were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis and all the Peninsular Malaysia isolates of T. gondii are of clonal type I.
Edge-effects greatly extend the area of tropical forests degraded through human activities. At Pasoh, Peninsular Malaysia, it has been suggested that soil disturbance by highly abundant wild pigs (Sus scrofa), which feed in adjacent Oil Palm plantations, may have mediated the invasion of Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae) into the diverse tropical lowland rain forest. To investigate this hypothesis, we established three 1 km transects from the forest/Oil Palm plantation boundary into the forest interior. We recorded the distribution of soil disturbance by wild pigs, C. hirta abundance, and environmental variables. These data were analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian model that incorporated spatial auto-correlation in the environmental variables. As predicted, soil disturbance by wild pigs declined with distance from forest edge and C. hirta abundance was correlated with the level of soil disturbance. Importantly there was no effect of distance on C. hirta abundance, after controlling for the effect of soil disturbance. Clidemia hirta abundance was also correlated with the presence of canopy openings, but there was no significant association between the occurrence of canopy openings and distance from the edge. Increased levels of soil disturbance and C. hirta abundance were still detectable approximately 1 km from the edge, demonstrating the potential for exceptionally large-scale animal mediated edge effects.
Over the past decade, a number of unique zoonotic and non-zoonotic viruses have emerged in Malaysia. Several of these viruses have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality to those affected and they have imposed a tremendous public health and economic burden on the state. Amongst the most devastating was the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in 1998, which resulted in 109 deaths. The culling of more than a million pigs, identified as the amplifying host, ultimately brought the outbreak under control. A year prior to this, and subsequently again in 2000 and 2003, large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease due to enterovirus 71, with rare cases of fatal neurological complications, were reported in young children. Three other new viruses - Tioman virus (1999), Pulau virus (1999), and Melaka virus (2006) - whose origins have all been linked to bats, have been added to the growing list of novel viruses being discovered in Malaysia. The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has also been detected in Malaysia with outbreaks in poultry in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Fortunately, no human infections were reported. Finally, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has seen the emergence of an HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF33_01B) in HIV-infected individuals from various risk groups, with evidence of ongoing and rapid expansion.
Anaplasma spp. infects a wide variety of wildlife and domestic animals. This study describes the identification of a novel species of Anaplasma (Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii) from pangolins (Manis javanica) and Anaplasma bovis from wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Malaysia. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, Candidatus Anaplasma pangolinii is identified in a distinct branch within the family Anaplasmataceae, exhibiting the closest sequence similarity with the type strains of Anaplasma bovis (97.7%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (97.6%). The sequence also aligned closely (99.9%) with that of an Anaplasma spp. (strain AnAj360) detected from Amblyomma javanense ticks. The nearly full length sequence of the 16S rRNA gene derived from two wild boars in this study demonstrated the highest sequence similarity (99.7%) to the A. bovis type strain. Partial 16S rRNA gene fragments of A. bovis were also detected from a small population of Haemaphysalis bispinosa cattle ticks in this study. Our finding suggests a possible spread of two Anaplasma species in the Malaysian wildlife and ticks. The zoonotic potential of the Anaplasma species identified in this study is yet to be determined.
Spirochetes from the Borrelia genus are known to cause diseases in humans, namely Lyme disease and relapsing fever. These organisms are commonly transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors including ticks, mite, and lice. Here, we report the molecular detection of a Borrelia sp. from a Haemaphysalis hystricis Supino tick collected from wildlife in an Orang Asli settlement in Selangor, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 16s rRNA and flaB gene sequences revealed that the Borrelia sp. is closely related to the relapsing fever group borreliae, Borrelia lonestari, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia theileri, as well as a number of uncharacterized Borrelia sp. from ticks in Portugal and Japan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Borrelia sp. detected in H. hystricis, and in Malaysia. The zoonotic potential of this Borrelia sp. merits further investigation.
The gastrointestinal tract of humans and swine consist of a wide range of bacteria which interact with hosts metabolism. Due to the differences in co-evolution and co-adaptation, a large fraction of the gut microbiome is host-specific. In this study, we evaluated the effect of close human-animal interaction to the faecal metagenome and metabonome of swine, farmer and human control. Three distinct clusters were observed based on T-RFLP-derived faecal microbial composition. However, 16S-inferred faecal microbiota and metabolic profiles showed that only human control was significantly different from the swine (P
This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.
This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.
Toxoplasma gondii, a ubiquitous pathogen that infects nearly all warm-blooded animals and humans, can cause severe complications to the infected people and animals as well as serious economic losses and social problems. Here, one local strain (TgPIG-WH1) was isolated from an aborted pig fetus, and the genotype of this strain was identified as ToxoDB #3 by the PCR RFLP typing method using 10 molecular markers (SAG1, SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, PK1, C22-8, C29-2 and Apico). A comparison of the virulence of this isolate with other strains in both mice and piglets showed that TgPIG-WH1 was less virulent than type 1 strain RH and type 2 strain ME49 in mice, and caused similar symptoms to those of ME49 such as fever in piglets. Additionally, in piglet infection with both strains, the TgPIG-WH1 caused a higher IgG response and more severe pathological damages than ME49. Furthermore, TgPIG-WH1 caused one death in the 5 infected piglets, whereas ME49 did not, suggesting the higher virulence of TgPIG-WH1 than ME49 during piglet infection. Experimental infections indicate that the virulence of TgPIG-WH1 relative to ME49 is weaker in mice, but higher in pigs. This is probably the first report regarding a ToxoDB #3 strain from pigs in Hubei, China. These data will facilitate the understanding of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma strains in China as well as the prevention and control of porcine toxoplasmosis in the local region.
A study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding liquid metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains on growth performance, diarrhoea incidence, faecal pH, microfloral counts, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and intestinal villus height and crypt depth of postweaning piglets. A total of 120 piglets (26 days old) were randomly assigned evenly into five treatment groups treated with same basal diet: (1) -ve control (free antibiotic); (2) + ve control (0.03% of chlortetracycline); (3) Com 1 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG11 and RI11 strains); (4) Com 2 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG14 and RS5 strains); (5) Com 3 (0.3% metabolite of RG11, RG14 and RI11 strains). After 5 weeks, the average daily feed intake was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatments and feed conversion ratio was the highest (P
Matched MeSH terms: Sus scrofa/anatomy & histology; Sus scrofa/growth & development*
Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), have Pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. Antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in Eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from E. helvum in Ghana. The initial outbreak of NiV in Malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for NiV during the outbreak. We detected non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses of the genus Henipavirus in approximately 5% of pig sera (N = 97) tested in Ghana, but not in a small sample of other domestic species sampled under a E. helvum roost. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibody, our results suggest prior exposure of the Ghana pig population to henipavirus(es). Because a wide diversity of henipavirus-like nucleic acid sequences have been found in Ghanaian E. helvum, we hypothesise that these pigs might have been infected by henipavirus(es) sufficiently divergent enough from HeVor NiV to produce cross-reactive, but not cross-neutralizing antibodies to HeV or NiV.
Usage of gelatin in food products has been widely debated for several years, which is about the source of gelatin that has been used, religion, and health. As an impact, various analytical methods have been introduced and developed to differentiate gelatin whether it is made from porcine or bovine sources. The analytical methods comprise a diverse range of equipment and techniques including spectroscopy, chemical precipitation, chromatography, and immunochemical. Each technique can differentiate gelatins for certain extent with advantages and limitations. This review is focused on overview of the analytical methods available for differentiation of bovine and porcine gelatin and gelatin in food products so that new method development can be established.
Nipah virus was first discovered in 1999, after a severe outbreak of viral encephalitis among pig farm workers in Malaysia. The disease is thought to spread from Pteropus bats to pigs and then to humans following close contact. The reported mortality rate in this outbreak was 40%. The main necropsy finding in patients with Nipah virus encephalitis was disseminated microinfarction associated with vasculitis and direct neuronal involvement. Relapse of encephalitis was seen in 10% of those who survived the initial illness. Since that initial report, recurrent outbreaks of Nipah virus encephalitis have been seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. These outbreaks occurred between January and May, with Pteropus giganteus as a reservoir of the virus. In Bangladesh, the virus probably spread directly from bats to humans-with human to human spread as another important mode of infection-and the mortality rate was 70%.
The main theme of this conference was understanding the complex biology of viruses in order to design appropriate vaccines for human use. The use of both plant and animal viruses as vectors for delivery vehicles was widely discussed. These engineered viruses could be delivered in oral formulations or, in the case of plant viruses, grown in the plant host and used as edible vaccines. New technologies for producing highly attenuated vaccines through the use of 'molecular clone technologies' were shown to be highly efficacious in animal models. While new vaccine candidates are being generated against many established viral diseases, there remains a threat from HIV, virulent strains of influenza and newly emerging viruses for which no vaccines are currently available. Emerging viruses, such as the Hendra-like virus called Nipah, which emerged in pig herds in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998, has posed a severe economic threat to the region. The subsequent spread of Nipah virus to humans and the threat of epidemic spread was evidence that virologists should not become complacent.
Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan. However, except for O. dewittei japonica, adult worms of Onchocerca have not been found in wild boars. In this study, we discovered adult females of a novel Onchocerca species in the skin of a wild boar in Oita, and named it Onchocerca takaokai n. sp. Females of this new species had longer microfilariae and differed from O. dewittei japonica in terms of their morphological characteristics and parasitic location. The molecular characteristics of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 12S rRNA genes of the new species were identical to those of the longer microfilariae and L3 previously detected, but they differed from those of O. dewittei japonica at the species level. However, both species indicated a close affinity among their congeners and Onchocerca ramachandrini, parasitic in the warthog in Africa, was basal in the Suidae cluster of the 12S rRNA tree.