Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

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  1. Cheah DSH
    Med J Malaysia, 1987 Jun;42(2):127-8.
    PMID: 3503186
    Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland is a rare condition. A case of tuberculosis of the thyroid gland presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule is presented. Management is operative intervention and anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. The final diagnosis is made after histopathological confirmation of the typical appearances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/pathology*; Thyroid Diseases/surgery
  2. Polunin I
    Med J Malaya, 1951;5.
    1. Observations have been quoted which mention the existence of goiter in remote inland areas of Malaya. 2. 39.5% of 618 Malays and 40.8% of 710 aborigines from inland areas were found on examination to have visible thyroid glands. A high incidence of thyroid enlargement was found in almost all areas where these observations were made, on a wide range of Geological Formations. 3. In the seaside populations studied, the low incidence of ‘visible’ thyroid glands (2/184) is typical of that of other ‘goiter free’ areas. 4. Iodine estimations have been carried out on seven water samples from rivers draining inland areas where thyroid data have been collected, and gave values of 0.2 to 0.6 parts of iodine per thousand million. The development of goiter is to be expected when the iodine content is so low. 5. High calcium content of waters cannot be important in causing goiter in Malaya. 6. The availability of dried seafoods is thought to be an important factor in goiter prevention in Malaya. Four dried marine foods contained 360 to 1,340 parts of iodine per thousand million.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases
  3. Ho CL, Cheah JS
    Med J Malaysia, 1982 Mar;37(1):70-1.
    PMID: 7121352
    The serum alpha-1 acid glycoprotein of 9 euthyroid subjects, 14 hypothyroid patients and 21 hyperthyroid patients was determined by radial immunodiffussion in agar plates. The serum alpha1 acid glycoprotein level in both the hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients were significantly lowered when compared to the euthyroid subjects. There was no significant correlation between the alpha-1 acid glycoprotein level mid the Liothyronine resin uptake (T3 resin. uptake) and the serum total Thyroxine Iodide (T4I) level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/blood*
  4. Puri MM, Dougall P, Arora VK
    Med J Malaysia, 2002 Jun;57(2):237-9.
    PMID: 24326661
    We report a case of tuberculosis of the thyroid gland associated with mediastinal lymphadenitis in a 30 years-old male, who presented with dysphagia and a mid line anterior neck swelling. Fine needle aspiration was positive for acid fast bacilli. He made an uneventful recovery with antituberculous drugs. Although seldom observed, tuberculosis should be kept in mind in te differential diagnisis of nodular lesions of the thyroid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases*
  5. Sapini Y, Rokiah P, Nor Zuraida Z
    MyJurnal
    The functional behavior of the thyroid is fundamental in most diseases and represents the basis for diagnosis and therapy. The status can be euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. The psychiatric manifestation varies in different thyroid status. Those with hypothyroidism were described to have depression, psychosis and cognitive dysfunction. Meanwhile, those with hyperthyroidism were found to have psychosis, aggression, anxiety as well as cognitive impairment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases*
  6. Zanial AZ, Hamzah F
    MyJurnal
    Thyroid disorders could be broadly categorised into benign and malignant diseases. Approaches for the
    management of benign and malignant thyroid disorders have been well documented including the treatment
    using radioactive iodine (RAI). RAI has long been used to treat hyperthyroidism and well differentiated
    thyroid cancer. Nevertheless, there are various factors that may influence the outcome of RAI treatment
    including matters related to patient preparations. Thus, healthcare personnel play an important role in
    assisting patients to make the necessary preparations. This article aims to give nurses and clinicians of
    various specialities an insight into the overview of RAI treatment for thyroid disorders particularly in
    Malaysia and further discusses the issues related to preparations of patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases
  7. Mohamad I, Wan Din SJ
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Jul;16(3):45-6.
    PMID: 22589665 MyJurnal
    Goitre is a slow-growing thyroid mass, rarely presenting as an emergency. However, a superimposed infection or acute intralesional bleeding can cause the mass to increase rapidly in size. We report a patient with long-standing multinodular goitre who presented with bleeding from the left thyroid mass. Despite all appropriate measures, the continuous bleeding finally stopped upon thyroidectomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases
  8. Zainurrashid Z, Shaker AaRH
    Family Physician, 2005;13:2-4.
    Thyroid diseases are common in women, including at the time of pregnancies. Many typical features of hyperthyroidism are common in normal pregnancies and this may delay or mask the diagnosis. Uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis increases the rate of miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), premature labour and perinatal mortality. Multi-disciplinary efforts are required to achieve optimal control of thyrotoxicosis. Anti-thyroid drugs are safe and should be used with the lowest possible doses. Radioiodine treatment is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation. Indications of surgery include: compression symptoms, thyroid malignancy, non-compliance to medications or when the patient develop drugs side effects.  Keywords: Hyperthyroidism, pregnancy
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases
  9. Othman NH, Omar E, Naing NN
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2009;10(1):87-90.
    PMID: 19469631
    INTRODUCTION: Endemic goitre is a major concern in many nations including Malaysia. Seven states in the country have been identified by Ministry of Health of Malaysia to have high incidence of goitre and one of these is Kelantan.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective study over an 11-year period from 1994 to 2004 on all thyroid specimens submitted to the Pathology Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), in Kelantan. Epidemiological data were retrieved from the patients' records and pathology findings from the pathology reports.

    RESULTS: During this period, Department of Pathology HUSM received a total of 1,486 thyroid specimens. The female to male ratio was 6:1 and the median age was 40.0 years. The duration of goitre ranged from one to 15 years. Histopathological examination showed 71.9 percent were non-neoplastic and 28.1 percent neoplastic lesions. The hospital-based incidence of nodular hyperplasia was 9.9 per 100,000 admitted patients per year. The hospital-based incidence of all types of malignant thyroid cancers was 3.5 per 100,000. The most common malignancy was papillary carcinoma 76.6 percent. The majority of the cancers (59.5 percent) occurred in a background of nodular hyperplasia. Thyroid cancers made up 4.9 percent of all cancers seen in HUSM.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that malignant thyroid lesions arising from multi-nodular goitre are high in a population living in an iodine-deficiency area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology*
  10. Hisham AN, Sarojah A, Mastura T, Lim TO
    Asian J Surg, 2004 Jul;27(3):172-5.
    PMID: 15564155
    Measurement of prevertebral soft tissue is commonly used to assess prevertebral abnormalities, such as retropharyngeal abscess or injury to the cervical spine. In the presence of goitres, the widened prevertebral tissue seen on plain lateral neck radiograph may be diagnostic of an enlarged tubercle of Zuckerkandl (ZT), which may be responsible for most pressure symptoms. The aim of this study was to substantiate the value of plain lateral neck radiographs in preoperative demonstration of enlarged ZT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/radiography*
  11. Jayaram G, Razak A, Gan SK, Alhady SF
    Malays J Pathol, 1999 Jun;21(1):17-27.
    PMID: 10879275
    1853 thyroid lesions subjected to cytological sampling (either by the fine needle aspiration or fine needle capillary sampling technique) from January 1992 to December 1997 at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, were reviewed. Nodular goitre was the most common thyroid lesion needled (67.35%). Among the neoplastic lesions, follicular neoplasms predominated (64%), followed by papillary carcinoma (29.4%). In 325 cases, partial or total thyroidectomy had been done, providing material for histological review and cyto-histological correlation. Cytological diagnosis was found to have high sensitivity and specificity rates of over 75%. Besides, most non-neoplastic thyroid lesions could be diagnosed on cytology. The scope of cytology in the diagnosis of lymphomas, anaplastic and metastatic tumours rendered diagnostic biopsies (or thyroidectomy) unnecessary in these cases. Being a cost-effective technique and having the capacity to provide exact morphological diagnosis in a large variety of thyroid lesions, cytology is obviously the method of choice in the assessment of thyroid nodules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/pathology
  12. Goh KH, Goh ML, Thean ET, Khalid BA
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Dec;47(4):248-60.
    PMID: 1303476
    A supersensitive ELISA was developed for measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in serum using in-house rabbit polyclonal antisera and a commercial monoclonal antibody. The assay was optimised and validated by recovery, linearity and cross-reactivity experiments and further compared to other available assays and EQAS samples. Good precision was obtained with a working assay range of 0.2 to 100 mIU/L with < 10% coefficient of variation (CV) for both intra and interassay. The assay is highly sensitive and specific with a minimum detectable limit of 0.07 mIU/L and negligible cross-reactivities against LH, FSH, HCG and other pituitary peptides. Good correlations were obtained when compared to Abbott hTSH EIA (r = 0.993; p < 0.001; n = 85) and NETRIA IRMA (r + 0.995; p < 0.001; n = 76). The normal reference range established was 0.4 to 4.0 mIU/L (n = 76). TSH levels in serum of thyrotoxic patients (n = 83) were significantly lower (0.07 to 0.20 mIU/L, p < 0.0001) and completely distinct from normal values thereby obviating the requirement of a TRH-stimulation test. Stability studies showed that coated wells can be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 2 months. This highly sensitive in-house hTSH ELISA which is cheap, stable and readily available is useful for diagnosis and management of patients with various thyroid disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis
  13. Thambi Dorai CR
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Mar;43(1):55-8.
    PMID: 3244321
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis*
  14. Irfan, M., Baharuddin, A., Ananda Dorai, A.
    MyJurnal
    Patient with thyroid mass rarely presents in emergency situation. It is because the nature of the mass is that it usually increases slowly in size. Thus, any surgical intervention can be planned electively. The most common condition that necessitates urgent intervention, is upper airway compromise due to sudden rapid increase in size of the swelling. This can be due to intralesional bleeding or superimposed infection on the enlarged gland. We report a case of urgent completion thyroidectomy performed to a patient with fungating recurrent papillary carcinoma who present with bleeding from the mass externally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases
  15. Citation: Clinical Practice Guideline: Management of Thyroid Disorders. Putrajaya: Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2019

    Quick reference: http://www.acadmed.org.my/view_file.cfm?fileid=968

    Keywords: CPG
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases
  16. Chiu CL, Delilkan AE
    Hosp Med, 1998 Oct;59(10):828.
    PMID: 9850310
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/complications; Thyroid Diseases/surgery
  17. Sharanjeet-Kaur, Dickinson CM, O'Donoghue E, Murray IJ
    Ophthalmic Physiol Opt, 1997 May;17(3):232-8.
    PMID: 9196665 DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-1313.1997.0_749.x
    The majority of patients with dysthyroid eye disease have an acquired colour vision defect. However, no psychophysical investigation of selective damage to colour or flicker pathways has been carried out. In order to clarify the nature of the visual pathology, we have used a psychophysical technique (spectral sensitivity) to selectively stimulate the chromatic and achromatic mechanisms. Spectral spots of size 1 degree presented at a rate of 1 Hz on a bright 1000 td white background are detected by the chromatic mechanism but a rate of 25 Hz reveals the achromatic mechanism. Fifteen patients (28 eyes) between the ages of 50-70 years were tested. The study showed that all patients had reduced spectral sensitivity, either 1 Hz, 25 Hz or both. The patients with reduced 1 Hz or 25 Hz spectral sensitivity only had a shorter systemic and ocular duration of the condition, had no proptosis, normal intraocular pressures in primary gaze, slightly higher intraocular pressures on upgaze, normal visual field plots and FM 100-Hue error scores higher than the normal age-matched values. The patients with reduced both 1 Hz and 25 Hz spectral sensitivities had a longer systemic and ocular duration of the condition, had proptosis, normal intraocular pressures in primary position, higher intraocular pressures on upgaze and higher FM 100-Hue error scores than the age-matched normals and those in Groups 1 and 2. A total of 50% of patients in Group 3 had defective visual field plots. These data suggest that there is a damage of the large achromatic fibres and small chromatic fibres in dysthyroid eye disease. The mechanism of the damage could be one of ischaemic or mechanical or both.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/complications; Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology*
  18. Saidi S, Iliani Jaafar SN, Daud A, Musa R, Nik Ahmad NNF
    Enferm Clin, 2018 Feb;28 Suppl 1:180-183.
    PMID: 29650181 DOI: 10.1016/S1130-8621(18)30063-9
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between levels of depression symptoms and age, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and stressful life events of the participants.

    METHOD: Patients above 18 years old, with any thyroid disorders, and without psychiatric disorders were included in this study. All participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21). The depression symptom score was calculated and interpreted as follows: less than 9: no depression; between 10 and 13: mild depression; between 14 and 20: moderate depression; between 21 and 27: severe depression, and more than 28: extremely severe depression.

    RESULTS: The total number of participants in this study was 199. There was no correlation between age, thyroid stimulating hormone, and the DASS score. There was also no significant difference in the DASS-21 score between genders. However, there was a positive correlation between depression symptoms and stressful life events (r=0.201, n=199, p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings would suggest that increased depression symptom scores correlate with increased stressful life events. A larger study should be undertaken to confirm these findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/blood*; Thyroid Diseases/complications
  19. Tan KA, Lum SH, Yahya A, Krishnan S, Jalaludin MY, Lee WS
    Singapore Med J, 2019 Jun;60(6):303-308.
    PMID: 30556093 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2018155
    INTRODUCTION: Endocrine dysfunction due to iron overload secondary to frequent blood transfusions is a common complication in children with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT). We ascertained the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in children with TDT seen in a hospital setting in Malaysia.

    METHODS: We reviewed all patients with TDT who had ≥ 8 blood transfusions per year. Patients who had a history of stem cell transplantation, concurrent autoimmune diseases or were newly diagnosed to have TDT were excluded. Standard diagnostic criteria were used in the diagnosis of various endocrine dysfunctions.

    RESULTS: Of the 82 patients with TDT, 65% had at least one endocrine dysfunction. Short stature was the commonest (40.2%), followed by pubertal disorders (14.6%), hypoparathyroidism (12.3%), vitamin D deficiency (10.1%), hypocortisolism (7.3%), diabetes mellitus (5.2%) and overt hypothyroidism (4.9%). Subclinical hypothyroidism and pre-diabetes mellitus were seen in 13.4% and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. For children aged < 10 years, the prevalence of both thyroid dysfunction and hypoparathyroidism was 9.1%.

    CONCLUSION: Two-thirds of children with TDT experienced at least one endocrine dysfunction. Thyroid dysfunction and hypoparathyroidism may be missed if endocrine screening is only performed in children with TDT > 10 years of age. Close monitoring for endocrine dysfunction and hormonal therapy is essential to prevent long-term adverse outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/etiology; Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology
  20. Othman SS, Abdul Kadir K, Hassan J, Hong GK, Singh BB, Raman N
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 1994 Dec;28(4):620-4.
    PMID: 7794205
    The thyroid status of 249 patients with chronic schizophrenia (males = 136, females = 113) with a median age of 36 years (range: 16 to 58 years) and a median duration of hospitalisation of 10 years (range: 1 to 30 years) was assessed. Thyroid antibodies (TAb) were found in 51 patients (20%). In female patients, 32 (28%) were TAb positive compared to 13% (n = 152, p = 0.01) in healthy female blood donors. In male patients, the prevalence of TAb was 14% compared to 7% (n = 449, p = 0.01) in healthy male blood donors. Of the 183 patients who had thyroid hormone measurements, 60% had normal test, 5% had elevated TSH and 17% had low TSH. The T4, FT41 and FT31 were significantly lower in those with low or high TSH (p < 0.001) compared to those with normal TSH. Of the 143 patients with normal TSH, 33 (23%) had low T3. In conclusion, there is a spectrum of thyroid function test abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia; this may be related to an abnormality in the central regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary thyroid axis as well as at the peripheral level. However the association between chronic schizophrenia and the presence of thyroid antibodies, and the clinical relevance of these biochemical abnormalities, are still not clear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Thyroid Diseases/diagnosis; Thyroid Diseases/physiopathology*; Thyroid Diseases/psychology
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