METHODS: The demographic profiles for each participant were obtained through a questionnaire survey prior to blood collection. A total of 389 participants were recruited and blood samples screened for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibody using an ELISA commercial kit, SERION ELISA classic Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM.
RESULTS: The overall T. gondii seroprevalence was 69.6% with 56.8% seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, 7.7% seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and 5.1% seropositive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. The presence of both antibody classes in blood samples indicated high avidity, suggesting latent infection. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations that included; age, ethnicity, location and employment status while, significant lifestyle factors included source of drinking water and eating style. A multifactorial statistical model that incorporated all the significant effects from the first-stage univariate analyses listed above revealed that age and ethnicity were the two dominant and independent effects on IgG seroprevalence. For seroprevalence of IgM, the multifactorial model revealed a significant interaction between work and accommodation. IgM seroprevalence was higher among the unemployed inhabitants of PPR (Program Perumahan Rakyat) than those living in non-PPR accommodation, and higher than among the employed irrespective of their accommodation.
CONCLUSION: High seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in the community calls for increased awareness of disease transmission and improvements in hygiene and sanitation.