Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Merican I
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Sep;52(3):299-308; quiz 309.
    PMID: 10968104
    Typhoid fever (TF), a systemic prolonged febrile illness, continues to be a worldwide health problem especially in developing countries where there is poor sanitation and poor standards of personal hygiene. The worldwide incidence of TF is estimated to be approximately 16 million cases annually with 7 million cases occurring annually in SE Asia alone. More than 600,000 people die of the disease annually. The pathogenesis of TF is beginning to be understood. The clinical features and diagnosis of TF are well known. New diagnostic methods have yet to gain universal acceptance. Traditional treatment with the first-line antibiotics (i.e. chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) though still being used in most developing countries are gradually being replaced with shorter courses of treatment with third generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones especially with the growing incidence of multi-drug resistant S typhi strains (MDR-ST). MDR-ST strains are particularly common in the Indian subcontinent; Pakistan and China. The presently available vaccines are far from satisfactory in terms of safety, efficacy and costs. Newer vaccines have been developed and are presently undergoing clinical trials in human volunteers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/immunology
    Med J Malaya, 1953 Dec;8(2):192-201.
    PMID: 13164690
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines*
  3. Tahir MJ, Zaman M, Saffi J, Asghar MS, Tariq W, Ahmed F, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2023;11:1151936.
    PMID: 37333546 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1151936
    Typhoid fever, a common enteric disease in Pakistan, caused by Salmonella typhi, is becoming an extended drug-resistant organism and is preventable through the typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV). Public adherence to preventive measures is influenced by knowledge and attitude toward the vaccine. This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the general population of Pakistan toward TCV. The differences in mean scores and factors associated with typhoid conjugate vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and practices were investigated. A total of 918 responses were received with a mean age of 25.9 ± 9.6, 51% were women, and 59.6% had graduation-level education. The majority of them responded that vaccines prevent illness (85.3%) and decrease mortality and disability (92.6%), and typhoid could be prevented by vaccination (86.7%). In total, 77.7 and 80.8% considered TCV safe and effective, respectively. Of 389 participants with children, 53.47% had vaccinated children, according to the extended program on immunization (EPI). Higher family income has a higher odds ratio (OR) for willingness toward booster dose of TCV [crude odds ratio (COR) = 4.920, p-value <0.01; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.853, value of p <0.001], and negative attitude regarding the protective effect of TCV has less willingness toward the booster dose with statistical significance (COR = 0.388, value of p = 0.017; aOR = 0.198, value of p = 0.011). The general population of Pakistan had a good level of knowledge about the benefits of TCV, and attitude and practices are in favor of the usage of TCV. However, a few religious misconceptions are prevalent in public requiring the efforts to overcome them to promote the usage of vaccines to prevent the disease and antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines*
  4. Pang T, Bhutta ZA, Finlay BB, Altwegg M
    Trends Microbiol., 1995 Jul;3(7):253-5.
    PMID: 7551636
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  5. Wan Mansor, H., Wan Mohd. Sulaili, W.S., Khalid, Y., Hamzah, A.M., Abdul Haris, M., Hani, M.H., et al.
    A study was conducted in Kelantan, Mabysia, in the year 2001 , to assess the typhoid reporting coverage and timeliness, and to estimate the annual incidence. Cases were persons given the diagnosis of typhoid clinically, and conhrmed cases are those with positive laboratory results. In all, 174/252 (69%) cases (95% CI = 63%-75%) were reported, ofwhich 89/131 (83%) within 7 days of diagnosis. The estimated annual typhoid incidence in Kelantan is 37/ 1 00,000.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  6. Panchanathan V, Kumar S, Yeap W, Devi S, Ismail R, Sarijan S, et al.
    Bull World Health Organ, 2001;79(9):811-7.
    PMID: 11584728
    To carry out a comparative study of the safety and immunogenicity of Vi polysaccharide vaccine against whole-cell killed (WCK) typhoid vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/adverse effects; Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/immunology*
  7. Jamal Hisham Hashim, Ruzita Shariff, Dayang Aminah Ali, Mohd Hasni Jaafar, Mazlin Mokhtar
    Indicators, whether referred to as ecological, biological or environmental, help us in assessing environmental conditions. Hypothetically, joint influences are predicted of the parameters associated with the number of water-borne, food-borne and vector-borne cases in study areas. Regression analysis of the dependent variables in water—borne diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery and Hepatitis indicated that the total coly°orm, fecal colform, residual chlorine, mean monthly rainfall and temperature influence almost hay of the cases in the 3 District of Serernban. Thus, coordinated monitoring of physical, chemical and biological parameters is needed to continue to build databases and to develop models integrating environnrental and social conditions, consequences and costs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  8. Wan Mansor, W.H., Hamizah, M.S., Wan Sulaili, W.S., Jeriah, I., Che Nok @ Nawi, I., Noraini, I., et al.
    On March 17, 2003 the Kelantan Health Department was notihed about a possible typhoid outbreak following a wedding party. An investigation was carried out to identiy the source and recommend control measures. Active case detection, yield investigation and case»control study were conducted. Cases were symptomatic attendees with a stool or blood culture positive for Salmonella
    typhii. Each control had a negative culture and denied symptoms. Of the more than 1 OOO guests, 477 experienced fever; 152 met the case definition. The party hostess was found to be an Salmonelb typhii carrier. Syrup prepared with untreated well water was identified as the most likely source for this outbreak, with an odds ratio 14.0 (95% C1: 2.9, 104.1). This was a common source
    outbreak of typhoid. We recommend that all food handlers at large parties be screened for typhoid and other foodborne diseases and samples of higherisk foods should be kept for few days after each event in case they are needed for testing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  9. Yap KP, Thong KL
    Trop Med Int Health, 2017 08;22(8):918-925.
    PMID: 28544285 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12899
    Next-generation whole-genome sequencing has revolutionised the study of infectious diseases in recent years. The availability of genome sequences and its understanding have transformed the field of molecular microbiology, epidemiology, infection treatments and vaccine developments. We review the key findings of the publicly accessible genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi since the first complete genome to the most recent release of thousands of Salmonella Typhi genomes, which remarkably shape the genomic research of S. Typhi and other pathogens. Important new insights acquired from the genome sequencing of S. Typhi, pertaining to genomic variations, evolution, population structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence, pathogenesis, disease surveillance/investigation and disease control are discussed. As the numbers of sequenced genomes are increasing at an unprecedented rate, fine variations in the gene pool of S. Typhi are captured in high resolution, allowing deeper understanding of the pathogen's evolutionary trends and its pathogenesis, paving the way to bringing us closer to eradication of typhoid through effective vaccine/treatment development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines*
  10. Marzukhi, M.I., Daud, A.R., Badrul Hisham, A.S.
    Past major flooding events for the state of Johore, Malaysia were recorded in 1926, 1967, 1968 and 1971. However, major meteorological phenomena that hit Johore on the 19th December 2006 (first wave) and the 12th January 2007 (second wave) were claimed to be the worst flood disaster in Johore in a 100 years. All eight districts were affected displacing 157,018 and 155,368 population during the first and the second wave event respectively. The Johore Health Department deployed substantial number of medical and health personnel to deal with the Johore flood crisis. Flood-related data were collected on daily basis between 19th December 2006 and 19th February 2007 using spreadsheet format from Flood Operational Rooms located at respective District Health Offices. Among flood victims 34,530 were found to have non-communicable diseases and 19,670 with communicable diseases. No major food- and water-borne disease outbreaks, such as cholera and typhoid, were reported in Johore. High success of public health measures was depending on the workforce of medical and health personnel on the ground. On the other hand, voluntary services offered by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), private sector and other volunteers should be well coordinated without compromising regulatory and ethical requirements. Crisis guidelines and plan of actions shall be updated so that they would be more relevant to the crises encountered on the ground.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  11. Pang T, Levine MM, Ivanoff B, Wain J, Finlay BB
    Trends Microbiol., 1998 Apr;6(4):131-3.
    PMID: 9587187
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/immunology
  12. Suryapranata FS, Prins M, Sonder GJ
    BMC Infect Dis, 2016 12 01;16(1):731.
    PMID: 27905890
    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever mainly occurs in (sub) tropical regions where sanitary conditions remain poor. In other regions it occurs mainly among returning travelers or their direct contacts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current Dutch guidelines for typhoid vaccination.

    METHOD: Crude annual attack rates (AR) per 100,000 Dutch travelers were calculated during the period 1997 to 2014 by dividing the number of typhoid fever cases by the estimated total number of travelers to a specific country or region. Regions of exposure and possible risk factors were evaluated.

    RESULTS: During the study period 607 cases of typhoid fever were reported. Most cases were imported from Asia (60%). Almost half of the cases were ethnically related to typhoid risk regions and 37% were cases visiting friends and relatives. The overall ARs for travelers to all regions declined significantly. Countries with the highest ARs were India (29 per 100,000), Indonesia (8 per 100,000), and Morocco (10 per 100,000). There was a significant decline in ARs among travelers to popular travel destinations such as Morocco, Turkey, and Indonesia. ARs among travelers to intermediate-risk areas according to the Dutch guidelines such as Latin America or Sub-Saharan Africa remained very low, despite the restricted vaccination policy for these areas compared to many other guidelines.

    CONCLUSION: The overall AR of typhoid fever among travelers returning to the Netherlands is very low and has declined in the past 20 years. The Dutch vaccination policy not to vaccinate short-term travelers to Latin-America, Sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand and Malaysia seems to be justified, because the ARs for these destinations remain very low. These results suggest that further restriction of the Dutch vaccination policy is justified.

    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/administration & dosage*
  13. Badrul Hisham, A.S., Nor Azian Shaharom, C.M.D., Marzukhi, M.I., Norli, R., Fatimah, O., Kee, KF, et al.
    The state of Johore, Malaysia had been hit by the worst flood in the Malaysian modern history on the 19th December 2006 (first wave) and the 12th January 2007 (second wave) affecting all the eight districts. A total number of 157,018 and 155,368 Johore population had been displaced by the first and the second wave event respectively. The Johore State Health Department activated the Flood Action Plan which include mobilising medical teams to conduct daily clinical examinations on the flood victims and health teams to inspect flood relief centres, food premises and homes at flood-hit areas with regard to prevent and control communicable diseases. The spreadsheet format was used to collect data on diseases, injury and death throughout the Johore flood disaster period starting from the 19th December 2006 until 19th February 2007. Analyses showed that 19,670 flood victims (36.3%) had communicable diseases and 34,530 (67.0%) had non-communicable diseases. As for the communicable diseases and symptoms/syndromes related to communicable disease, 41.3% were acute respiratory infections (ARI) followed by 25.9% skin infections, 19.1% fever, 10.1% acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and 3.0% acute conjunctivitis. Other infectious diseases include 61 notifiable diseases (46 food poisoning, 14 dengue fever and one tuberculosis), 20 leptospirosis (with two deaths), 20 chicken pox and two melioidosis cases. The Batu Pahat district had the highest incidence for the majority of the communicable diseases because of the prolonged flooding period. No cholera, typhoid, malaria, measles or hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) cases were detected among the Johore flood victims. Trends of disease incidence follow the number of evacuees placed in the relief centres corresponding to respective wave. A total of 507 flood victims had physical injuries related to flood mostly due to fall onto wet floor at the relief centres. Fifteen deaths due to drowning were mainly caused by accidental fall into the flood water. The incidence of communicable diseases encountered had been appropriately anticipated and managed attributed to enhanced public health control programmes augmented by syndromic and laboratory surveillance on potentialy fatal infectious diseases. Equal emphasis should be given to the surveillance and control of chronic diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  14. Md Rajuna, A.S., Norazema, S.
    Background : Safe potable water is critical during and post flood. In the pre-flood period, Johore has an excellent, systematic and comprehensive water supply system. More than 98.6% of Johore population received treated water supply from the water treatment plants.
    Methodology : Data collection was performed by conducting additional water sampling at routine sampling stations as well as the flood relief centres, water tankers (lorries) and static water tanks. Water treatment plant outlet and water tanker inlet shall have a minimum level of 2.0 mg/l of residual chlorine so that reticulation, water tanker outlets and static water tanks would have at least 0.5 mg/l as a measure to prevent the incidence of water borne diseases. Sampling was done everyday to monitor water quality at the flood relief centres as well as flood-hit areas. Inspections and surveillance on sanitation were also conducted on latrines, solid waste disposal systems and on the surrounding environment.
    Results : A total of 6,283 water samples had been collected during and post flood. Violations on E. coli, turbidity and residual chlorine were 0.8%, 0.6% and 4.0% respectively with the Kluang district recorded the highest percentages for all the three parameters. A number of 621 wells had been inspected with 378 of them (60.9%) had been chlorinated. In order to ensure environmental cleanliness, 26,815 houses in 708 villages had been visited. Out of them, 2,011 houses (7.5%) were not satisfactory. Sanitation inspections found that 1,778 latrines, 2,719 domestic water sewerage systems and 2,955 solid waste disposal systems were under substandard conditions thus remedial actions had been taken immediately.
    Conclusion : Although the flood disaster was massive with prolonged flooding period, however, an overall quality status on treated water supply was satisfactory whilst sanitary hygiene was under control. Hence, the incidence of communicable disease especially water borne diseases would not progress into serious outbreak, in fact, neither cholera nor typhoid was reported during the Johore flood disaster.
    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  15. Ahmad Hatib NA, Chong CY, Thoon KC, Tee NW, Krishnamoorthy SS, Tan NW
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2016 Jul;45(7):297-302.
    PMID: 27523510
    INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever is a multisystemic infection which largely affects children. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric enteric fever in Singapore.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of children diagnosed with enteric fever in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore was conducted from January 2006 to January 2012. Patients with positive blood cultures for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi were identified from the microbiology laboratory information system. Data was extracted from their case records.

    RESULTS: Of 50 enteric fever cases, 86% were due to Salmonella typhi, with 16.3% being multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Sixty-two percent of S. typhi isolates were of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS). Five cases were both MDR and DCS. The remaining 14% were Salmonella paratyphi A. There were only 3 indigenous cases. Ninety-four percent had travelled to typhoid-endemic countries, 70.2% to the Indian subcontinent and the rest to Indonesia and Malaysia. All patients infected with MDR strains had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. Anaemia was a significant finding in children with typhoid, as compared to paratyphoid fever (P = 0.04). Although all children were previously well, 14% suffered severe complications including shock, pericardial effusion and enterocolitis. None had typhoid vaccination prior to their travel to developing countries.

    CONCLUSION: Enteric fever is largely an imported disease in Singapore and has contributed to significant morbidity in children. The use of typhoid vaccine, as well as education on food and water hygiene to children travelling to developing countries, needs to be emphasised.

    Matched MeSH terms: Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/therapeutic use
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