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  1. Sein KT, Arumainayagam G
    Clin. Chem., 1987 Dec;33(12):2303-4.
    PMID: 3690853
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  2. Chua CT, Wang F
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Sep;38(3):244-50.
    PMID: 6672569
    Study site: CAPD, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  3. Koh KH
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Sep;47(9):785-95.
    PMID: 16924361
    Infusing the replacement solution before the filter (pre-dilution) and regular flushing have not been accounted for in conventional mathematical equations. Their effects on various continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) parameters, such as ultrafiltration fraction and urea clearance, have not been well studied. We incorporated these parameters into mathematical equations to help in understanding and prescribing CRRT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  4. Tan PC, Jacob R, Quek KF, Omar SZ
    BJOG, 2006 Jun;113(6):733-7.
    PMID: 16709219
    The association between female fetal sex and hyperemesis gravidarum is well established in European and North American populations. The association between female fetuses and severity of hyperemesis remains uncertain. A retrospective study based on case notes review of 166 Asian women hospitalised for hyperemesis was performed. Female fetuses were significantly associated with hyperemesis in our population (P= 0.004, OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2) as well as associated with severe ketonuria and high urea. When both severe ketonuria and high urea were present at initial hospital admission for hyperemesis, 83% (95% CI 66-93) of the fetuses were female.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  5. Yusof F, Mehde AA, Mehdi WA, Raus RA, Ghazali H, Rahman AA
    Biomed. Environ. Sci., 2015 Sep;28(9):660-5.
    PMID: 26464253 DOI: 10.3967/bes2015.092
    OBJECTIVE: Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between DNase I/II activity and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 in the sera of nephrolithiasis patients to evaluate the possibility of a new biomarker for evaluating kidney damage.
    METHODS: Sixty nephrolithiasis patients and 50 control patients were enrolled in a case-control study. Their blood urea, creatinine, protein levels and DNase I/II activity levels were measured by spectrometry. Serum NSMCE2 levels were measured by ELISA. Blood was collected from patients of the government health clinics in Kuantan-Pahang and fulfilled the inclusion criteria.
    RESULTS: The result indicated that mean levels of sera NSMCE2 have a significantly increase (P<0.01) in patients compared to control group. Compared with control subjects, activities and specific activities of serum DNase I and II were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients (P$lt;0.01).
    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an increase in serum concentrations of DNase I/II and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 level can be used as indicators for the diagnosis of kidney injury in patients with nephrolithiasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  6. Hor SY, Ahmad M, Farsi E, Yam MF, Hashim MA, Lim CP, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2012 Jun;63(1):106-14.
    PMID: 22440551 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.03.006
    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  7. Zyoud SH, Awang R, Sulaiman SA, Al-Jabi SW
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2011 Feb;20(2):203-8.
    PMID: 21254292 DOI: 10.1002/pds.2060
    Acetaminophen overdose may be accompanied by electrolyte disturbances. The basis for electrolyte change appears to be due to increased fractional urinary electrolyte excretion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood*
  8. Yankuzo HM, Emilia ST, Shaari R, Yaacob NS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(16):6721-6.
    PMID: 25169515
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this preliminary study was to address variations of responses observed with different starting tumor sizes of 10 and 15 mm, and the effects of different doses of tamoxifen (TAM) on experimental rat mammary tumors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five inbred female Sprague Dawley rats aged 43 days were administered with three weekly doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) intraperitoneally (ip) at 50 mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized (beginning from 10 mm tumor size) into four TAM-treated (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/day) groups of six animals each, and another group (n=6) treated with TAM 100 μg/day at starting tumour size of 15 mm. The animals were treated by oral gavage daily for 8 weeks before sacrifice.

    RESULTS: Serum urea and creatinine, and overall physical tumor burden were significantly modulated in animals treated with variable doses of TAM compared to the untreated controls (n=5). Final body weight and tumor number were significantly different in the 10 mm-treated animals compared to those treated at 15 mm. There were no significant differences in histopathological features among all the groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the importance of standardizing tumour size and drug doses before initiation of treatment, particularly in the direct comparison of basic end-tumour physical parameters.

    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  9. Liew HJ, Chiarella D, Pelle A, Faggio C, Blust R, De Boeck G
    PMID: 23921225 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.07.029
    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between feeding, exercise and cortisol on metabolic strategies of common carp over a 168h post-implant period. Feeding provided readily available energy and clearly increased muscle and liver protein and glycogen stores. Swimming, feeding and cortisol all induced aerobic metabolism by increasing oxygen consumption, and stimulated protein metabolism as demonstrated by the increased ammonia and urea excretion and ammonia quotient. Hypercortisol stimulated ammonia self-detoxifying mechanisms by enhancing ammonia and urea excretion, especially during severe exercise. At high swimming level, higher branchial clearance rates in cortisol treated fish succeeded in eliminating the elevation of endogenous ammonia, resulting in reduced plasma Tamm levels compared to control and sham implanted fish. Carp easily induced anaerobic metabolism, both during routine and active swimming, with elevated lactate levels as a consequence. Both feeding and cortisol treatment increased this dependence on anaerobic metabolism. Hypercortisol induced both glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis resulting in hyperglycemia and muscle and liver glycogen deposition, most likely as a protective mechanism for prolonged stress situations and primarily fuelled by protein mobilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  10. Tan PC, Jacob R, Quek KF, Omar SZ
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2006 Jun;93(3):246-7.
    PMID: 16682037
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  11. Sabow AB, Goh YM, Zulkifli I, Sazili AQ, Kaka U, Kadi MZAA, et al.
    Meat Sci., 2016 Nov;121:148-155.
    PMID: 27317849 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.05.009
    The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  12. Yankuzo H, Ahmed QU, Santosa RI, Akter SF, Talib NA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Apr 26;135(1):88-94.
    PMID: 21354289 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.02.020
    Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng (curry leaf) is widely used as a nephroprotective agent in kidney's infirmities among diabetics by the traditional practitioners in Malaysia. However, the latter role of curry leaf has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  13. Balakumar P, Varatharajan R, Nyo YH, Renushia R, Raaginey D, Oh AN, et al.
    Pharmacol. Res., 2014 Dec;90:36-47.
    PMID: 25263930 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.08.008
    Low-doses of fenofibrate and dipyridamole have pleiotropic renoprotective actions in diabetic rats. This study investigated their combined effect relative to their individual treatments and lisinopril in rats with diabetic nephropathy. Streptozotocin (55mg/kg, i.p., once)-administered diabetic rats were allowed for 10 weeks to develop nephropathy. Diabetic rats after 10 weeks developed nephropathy with discernible renal structural and functional changes as assessed in terms of increase in kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW), and elevations of serum creatinine, urea and uric acid, which accompanied with elevated serum triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoproteins. Hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid Schiff and Masson trichrome staining confirmed renal pathological changes in diabetic rats that included glomerular capsular wall distortion, mesangial cell expansion, glomerular microvascular condensation, tubular damage and degeneration and fibrosis. Low-dose fenofibrate (30mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks) and low-dose dipyridamole (20mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks) treatment either alone or in combination considerably reduced renal structural and functional abnormalities in diabetic rats, but without affecting the elevated glucose level. Fenofibrate, but not dipyridamole, significantly prevented the lipid alteration and importantly the uric acid elevation in diabetic rats. Lisinopril (5mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks, reference compound), prevented the hyperglycemia, lipid alteration and development of diabetic nephropathy. Lipid alteration and uric acid elevation, besides hyperglycemia, could play key roles in the development of nephropathy. Low-doses of fenofibrate and dipyridamole treatment either alone or in combination markedly prevented the diabetes-induced nephropathy. Their combination was as effective as to their individual treatment, but not superior in preventing the development of diabetic nephropathy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  14. Kamarul T, Krishnamurithy G, Salih ND, Ibrahim NS, Raghavendran HR, Suhaeb AR, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:905103.
    PMID: 25298970 DOI: 10.1155/2014/905103
    The in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity of PVA/NOCC scaffold were tested by comparing them with those of a biocompatible inert material HAM in a rat model. On Day 5, changes in the blood parameters of the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats were significantly higher than those of the control. The levels of potassium, creatinine, total protein, A/G, hemoglobulin, erythrocytes, WBC, and platelets were not significantly altered in the HAM-implanted rats, when compared with those in the control. On Day 10, an increase in potassium, urea, and GGT levels and a decrease in ALP, platelet, and eosinophil levels were noted in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, when compared with control. These changes were almost similar to those noted in the HAM-implanted rats, except for the unaltered potassium and increased neutrophil levels. On Day 15, the total protein, A/G, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil levels remained unaltered in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, whereas urea, A/G, WBC, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels remained unchanged in the HAM-implanted rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed inflammatory infiltration in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, but not in the HAM-implanted rats. Although a low toxic tissue response was observed in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, further studies are necessary to justify the use of this material in tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  15. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME, Hairuszah I, Hazilawati H, Roselina K
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2015;2015:539798.
    PMID: 26257841 DOI: 10.1155/2015/539798
    Brewers' rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers' rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers' rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers' rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers' rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers' rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  16. Sattar MA, Yusof AP, Gan EK, Sam TW, Johns EJ
    J Auton Pharmacol, 2001 5 15;20(5-6):297-304.
    PMID: 11350495
    1. This study compared the effect of a non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a series of clonidine analogues on blood pressure and renal function in a two-kidney two-clip Goldblatt rat model of hypertension subjected to 2 weeks of dietary sodium deprivation. 2. Animals received either vehicle, the angiotensin II antagonist, ZD7155 or structural analogues derived from clonidine (AL-11, AL-12 and CN-10) at 10 mg kg-1 day-1 for 4 days. 3. All groups of rats had systolic blood pressure in the hypertensive range (160-180 mmHg). ZD7155 caused a 33-mmHg fall in blood pressure (P < 0.05) and raised plasma urea and creatinine four- to six-fold. 4. AL-12 decreased blood pressure by 30 mmHg (P < 0.05), but had no effect on water intake, urine flow or plasma urea and creatinine. AL-11 and CN-10 had minimal effects on blood pressure and water intake and while CN-10 decreased urine flow on the third treatment day, AL-11 markedly reduced urine flow by some 70%. 5. These data show that in this sodium deficient renovascular model of hypertension, blockade of angiotensin II receptors normalizes blood pressure but causes renal failure, whereas the vasodepressor action of the clonidine analogue AL-12 occurs without detriment to renal function. These findings imply that angiotensin II receptor antagonists could lead to renal failure if used as antihypertensive agents in renovascular hypertension whereas this would be avoided with the use of clonidine-like analogues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  17. Sahathevan S, Se CH, Ng S, Khor BH, Chinna K, Goh BL, et al.
    Clin Nutr ESPEN, 2018 06;25:68-77.
    PMID: 29779821 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2018.04.002
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Poor dietary intake is commonly associated with malnutrition in the dialysis population and oral nutritional supplementation is strategized to redress dietary inadequacy. Knowledge on clinical efficacy of whey protein supplementation (WPS) as an option to treat malnutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is limited.

    METHODS: This multicenter, parallel, open-label, randomized controlled trial investigated the clinical efficacy of WPS in 126 malnourished CAPD patients with serum albumin <40 g/L and body mass index (BMI) <24 kg/m2. Patients randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 65) received protein powder (27.4 g) for 6 months plus dietary counseling (DC) while the control group (CG, n = 61) received DC only. Anthropometry, biochemistry, malnutrition-inflammation-score (MIS), dietary intake inclusive of dialysate calories, handgrip strength (HGS) and quality of life (QOL) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed by effect size (Cohen's d) comparisons within and between groups.

    RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (n = 37 per group) completed the study. Significantly more IG patients (59.5%) achieved dietary protein intake (DPI) adequacy of 1.2 g/kg per ideal body weight (p  0.05). A higher DPI paralleled significant increases in serum urea (mean Δ: IG = +2.39 ± 4.36 mmol/L, p = 0.002, d = 0.57 vs CG = -0.39 ± 4.59 mmol/L, p > 0.05, d = 0.07) and normalized protein catabolic rate, nPCR (mean Δ: IG = +0.11 ± 0.14 g/kg/day, p  0.05, d = 0.09) for IG compared to CG patients. Although not significant, comparison for changes in post-dialysis weight (mean Δ: +0.64 ± 1.16 kg vs +0.02 ± 1.36 kg, p = 0.076, d = 0.58) and mid-arm circumference (mean Δ: +0.29 ± 0.93 cm vs -0.12 ± 0.71 cm, p = 0.079, d = 0.24) indicated trends favoring IG vs CG. Other parameters remained unaffected by treatment comparisons. CG patients had a significant decline in QOL physical component (mean Δ = -6.62 ± 16.63, p = 0.020, d = 0.47). Using changes in nPCR level as a marker of WPS intake within IG, 'positive responders' achieved significant improvement in weight, BMI, skinfold measures and serum urea (all p  0.05).

    CONCLUSION: A single macronutrient approach with WPS in malnourished CAPD patients was shown to achieve DPI adequacy and improvements in weight, BMI, skin fold measures, serum urea and nPCR level. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03367000).

    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
  18. Subramaniyan V, Shaik S, Bag A, Manavalan G, Chandiran S
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Mar;31(2):509-516.
    PMID: 29618442
    To determine the ameliorative potential of the active fraction from different extracts of Rumex vesicarius against potassium dichromate and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in experimental rats and its possible mechanism of action. Both sex wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) were fed with a control, potassium dichromate and gentamicin supplemented with different extracts at the doses of 200 and 400mg/kg respectively. Oral administration of EERV offered a significant (p<0.01 and p<0.001) dose dependent protection against PD and GN induced nephrotoxicity. Potassium dichromate and gentamicin nephrotoxicity assessed in terms of body weight, kidney weight, creatinine, urea, uric acid, BUN, albumin and total protein. Thus the present study revealed that EERV phytochemical constituents play an important role in protection against kidney damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Urea/blood
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