MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five inbred female Sprague Dawley rats aged 43 days were administered with three weekly doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) intraperitoneally (ip) at 50 mg/kg body weight. Animals were randomized (beginning from 10 mm tumor size) into four TAM-treated (50, 100, 200 and 500 μg/day) groups of six animals each, and another group (n=6) treated with TAM 100 μg/day at starting tumour size of 15 mm. The animals were treated by oral gavage daily for 8 weeks before sacrifice.
RESULTS: Serum urea and creatinine, and overall physical tumor burden were significantly modulated in animals treated with variable doses of TAM compared to the untreated controls (n=5). Final body weight and tumor number were significantly different in the 10 mm-treated animals compared to those treated at 15 mm. There were no significant differences in histopathological features among all the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the importance of standardizing tumour size and drug doses before initiation of treatment, particularly in the direct comparison of basic end-tumour physical parameters.
METHODS: This multicenter, parallel, open-label, randomized controlled trial investigated the clinical efficacy of WPS in 126 malnourished CAPD patients with serum albumin <40 g/L and body mass index (BMI) <24 kg/m2. Patients randomized to the intervention group (IG, n = 65) received protein powder (27.4 g) for 6 months plus dietary counseling (DC) while the control group (CG, n = 61) received DC only. Anthropometry, biochemistry, malnutrition-inflammation-score (MIS), dietary intake inclusive of dialysate calories, handgrip strength (HGS) and quality of life (QOL) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Clinical outcomes were assessed by effect size (Cohen's d) comparisons within and between groups.
RESULTS: Seventy-four patients (n = 37 per group) completed the study. Significantly more IG patients (59.5%) achieved dietary protein intake (DPI) adequacy of 1.2 g/kg per ideal body weight (p 0.05). A higher DPI paralleled significant increases in serum urea (mean Δ: IG = +2.39 ± 4.36 mmol/L, p = 0.002, d = 0.57 vs CG = -0.39 ± 4.59 mmol/L, p > 0.05, d = 0.07) and normalized protein catabolic rate, nPCR (mean Δ: IG = +0.11 ± 0.14 g/kg/day, p 0.05, d = 0.09) for IG compared to CG patients. Although not significant, comparison for changes in post-dialysis weight (mean Δ: +0.64 ± 1.16 kg vs +0.02 ± 1.36 kg, p = 0.076, d = 0.58) and mid-arm circumference (mean Δ: +0.29 ± 0.93 cm vs -0.12 ± 0.71 cm, p = 0.079, d = 0.24) indicated trends favoring IG vs CG. Other parameters remained unaffected by treatment comparisons. CG patients had a significant decline in QOL physical component (mean Δ = -6.62 ± 16.63, p = 0.020, d = 0.47). Using changes in nPCR level as a marker of WPS intake within IG, 'positive responders' achieved significant improvement in weight, BMI, skinfold measures and serum urea (all p 0.05).
CONCLUSION: A single macronutrient approach with WPS in malnourished CAPD patients was shown to achieve DPI adequacy and improvements in weight, BMI, skin fold measures, serum urea and nPCR level. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03367000).