RESULTS: Here, we investigated the microbial dynamics by next-generation sequencing, and outlined a differential non-targeted metabolite profiling in the process of serofluid dish fermentation using the method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Lactobacillus was the leading genus of bacteria, while Pichia and Issatchenkia were the dominant fungi. They all accumulated during fermentation. In total, 218 differential metabolites were identified, of which organic acids, amino acids, sugar and sugar alcohols, fatty acids, and esters comprised the majority. The constructed metabolic network showed that tricarboxylic acid cycle, urea cycle, sugar metabolism, amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism, and flavonoid metabolism were regulated by the fermentation. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the leading fungi, Pichia and Issatchenkia, were linked to organic acids, amino acid and sugar metabolism, flavonoids, and several other flavor and functional components. Antibacterial tests indicated the antibacterial effect of serofluid soup against Salmonella and Staphylococcus.
CONCLUSION: This work provides new insights into the complex microbial and metabolic networks during serofluid dish fermentation, and a theoretical basis for the optimization of its industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
METHODS: Organic acid and antioxidant profiles of Xeniji fermented foods were evaluated. Moreover, oral acute (5 g/kg body weight) and subchronic toxicity (0.1, 1 and 2 g/kg body weight) of Xeniji were tested on mice for 14 days and 30 days, respectively. Mortality, changes of body weight, organ weight and serum liver enzyme level were measured. Liver and spleen of mice from subchronic toxicity study were subjected to antioxidant and immunomodulation quantification.
RESULTS: Xeniji was rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids. No mortality and significant changes of body weight and serum liver enzyme level were recorded for both oral acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Antioxidant level in the liver and immunity of Xeniji treated mice were significantly upregulated in dosage dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: Xeniji is a fermented functional food that rich in nutrients that enhanced antioxidant and immunity of mice. Xeniji that rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids promote antioxidant and immunity in mice without causing toxic effect.
RESULTS: Cluster analysis of the ERIC-PCR profiles based on band sizes revealed six main clusters from the sixteen isolates analysed. The largest cluster (cluster 3) grouped isolates from vegetables and manure at a similarity coefficient of 0.72.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides data that support the potential transmission of resistant strains of E. coli O157:H7 from vegetables and environmental sources to humans with potential public health implications, especially in developing countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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