Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Tang MY, Cheong YM, Zainuldin T
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Sep;49(3):217-22.
    PMID: 7845269
    From April 1992 to September 1992, 280 samples of 10 different fresh vegetables, bought from four different market outlets in Kuala Lumpur were examined for the presence of Listeria spp. Most of the market produce were locally grown with the exception of carrots. The isolation procedure was based on the Food & Drug Administration method (modified) used for the detection of Listeria spp. Isolation media used were Listeria Selective medium and LiCl- phenylethanol-Moxalactam agars. The identification of isolates was by means of conventional biochemical tests and API Listeria identification system. Five out of the 280 samples showed Listeria contamination, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in lettuce, sengkuang (Pachyrrhizus erosus) and selom Oenanthe javanica) and Listeria innocua was isolated from sengkuang (Pachyrrhizus erosus) and pegaga (Hydrocotyle asiatica).
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  2. Tunung R, Margaret S, Jeyaletchumi P, Chai LC, Tuan Zainazor TC, Ghazali FM, et al.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2010 Feb;20(2):391-6.
    PMID: 20208446
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biosafety of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw salad vegetables at wet market and supermarket in Malaysia. A combination of Most Probable Number - Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method was applied to detect the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and to enumerate their density in the food samples. The study analyzed 276 samples of common vegetables eaten raw in Malaysia (Wild cosmos = 8; Japanese parsley = 21; Cabbage = 30; Lettuce = 16; Indian pennywort = 17; Carrot = 31; Sweet potato = 29; Tomato = 38; Cucumber = 28; Four winged bean = 26; Long bean = 32). The samples were purchased from two supermarkets (A and B) and two wet markets (C and D). The occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus detected was 20.65%, with higher frequency of V. parahaemolyticus in vegetables obtained from wet markets (Wet market C = 27.27%Wet Market D = 32.05%) compared to supermarkets (Supermarket A = 1.64%; Supermarket B = 16.67%). V. parahaemolyticus was most prevalent in Indian pennywort (41.18%). The density of V. parahaemolyticus in all the samples ranged from <3 up to >2400 MPN/g, mostly <3 MPN/g concentration. Raw vegetables from wet markets contained higher levels of V. parahaemolyticus compared to supermarkets. V. parahaemolyticus were present in raw vegetables although in low numbers. The results suggest that raw vegetables act as a transmission route for V. parahaemolyticus. This study will be the first biosafety assessment of V. parahaemolyticus in raw vegetables in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  3. Chai LC, Robin T, Ragavan UM, Gunsalam JW, Bakar FA, Ghazali FM, et al.
    Int J Food Microbiol, 2007 Jun 10;117(1):106-11.
    PMID: 17399832
    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  4. Norazah A, Rahizan I, Zainuldin T, Rohani MY, Kamel AG
    PMID: 9740276
    A total of 402 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from a variety of food samples and screened for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Screening was carried out using 15 specific monovalent antisera from Murex Diagnostic Limited. A total of 19 E. coli isolates were serotyped as EPEC. The EPEC strains were shown to belong to 8 serotypes. Eight out of 19 EPEC strains belonged to serotype 018C:K77 (B21). Seventeen out of 19 of the EPEC strains were isolated from cooked food. The presence of E. coli in cooked food is an indicator of fecal contamination and a sign of unhygienic food handling. The presence of EPEC in food could be a potential source of food-borne outbreak. Hygiene training for every food-handler is a necessity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology
  5. Ng CG, Loke MF, Goh KL, Vadivelu J, Ho B
    Food Microbiol., 2017 Apr;62:68-76.
    PMID: 27889168 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.10.010
    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  6. Khalid MI, Tang JY, Baharuddin NH, Rahman NS, Rahimi NF, Radu S
    J Food Prot, 2015 Jan;78(1):65-71.
    PMID: 25581179 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-109
    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance among Campylobacter jejuni in ulam at farms and retail outlets located in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 526 samples (ulam, soil, and fertilizer) were investigated for the presence of C. jejuni and the gene for cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) by using a multiplex PCR method. Antibiotic susceptibility to 10 types of antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method for 33 C. jejuni isolates. The average prevalence of contaminated samples from farms, wet markets, and supermarkets was 35.29, 52.66, and 69.88%, respectively. The cdt gene was not detected in 24 of the 33 C. jejuni isolates, but 9 isolates harbored cdtC. Antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni isolates was highest to penicillin G (96.97% of isolates) followed by vancomycin (87.88%), ampicillin (75.76%), erythromycin (60.61%), tetracycline (9.09%), amikacin (6.06%), and norfloxacin (3.03%); none of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin. In this study, C. jejuni was present in ulam, and some isolates were highly resistant to some antibiotics but not to quinolones. Thus, appropriate attention and measures are required to prevent C. jejuni contamination on farms and at retail outlets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  7. Khoo CH, Cheah YK, Lee LH, Sim JH, Salleh NA, Sidik SM, et al.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2009 Nov;96(4):441-57.
    PMID: 19565351 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-009-9358-z
    The increased occurrence of Salmonella occurrence in local indigenous vegetables and poultry meat can be a potential health hazards. This study is aimed to detect the prevalence of twenty different virulence factors among Salmonella enterica strains isolated from poultry and local indigenous vegetables in Malaysia via an optimized, rapid and specific multiplex PCR assay. The assay encompasses a total of 19 Salmonella pathogenicity islands genes and a quorum sensing gene (sdiA) in three multiplex reaction sets. A total of 114 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to 38 different serovars were tested. Each isolate in under this study was found to possess up to 70% of the virulence genes tested and exhibited variable pathogenicity gene patterns. Reproducibility of the multiplex PCR assay was found to be 100% and the detection limit of the optimized multiplex PCR was tested with lowest detectable concentration of DNA 0.8 pg microl(-1). This study demonstrated various Salmonella pathogenicity island virulence gene patterns even within the same serovar. This sets of multiplex PCR system provide a fast and reliable typing approach based on Salmonella pathogenicity islands, thus enabling an effective monitoring of emerging pathogenic Salmonella strains as an additional tool in Salmonella surveillance studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  8. Wei J, Ren W, Wang L, Liu M, Tian X, Ding G, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Dec;100(15):5627-5636.
    PMID: 32712996 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10690
    BACKGROUND: Serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food, possesses unique flavors and health beneficial effects. These properties are likely due to the sophisticated metabolic networks during fermentation, which are mainly driven by microbiota. However, the exact roles of metabolic pathways and the microbial community during this process remain equivocal.

    RESULTS: Here, we investigated the microbial dynamics by next-generation sequencing, and outlined a differential non-targeted metabolite profiling in the process of serofluid dish fermentation using the method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Lactobacillus was the leading genus of bacteria, while Pichia and Issatchenkia were the dominant fungi. They all accumulated during fermentation. In total, 218 differential metabolites were identified, of which organic acids, amino acids, sugar and sugar alcohols, fatty acids, and esters comprised the majority. The constructed metabolic network showed that tricarboxylic acid cycle, urea cycle, sugar metabolism, amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism, and flavonoid metabolism were regulated by the fermentation. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the leading fungi, Pichia and Issatchenkia, were linked to organic acids, amino acid and sugar metabolism, flavonoids, and several other flavor and functional components. Antibacterial tests indicated the antibacterial effect of serofluid soup against Salmonella and Staphylococcus.

    CONCLUSION: This work provides new insights into the complex microbial and metabolic networks during serofluid dish fermentation, and a theoretical basis for the optimization of its industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology
  9. Yoke-Kqueen C, Learn-Han L, Noorzaleha AS, Son R, Sabrina S, Jiun-Horng S, et al.
    Lett Appl Microbiol, 2008 Mar;46(3):318-24.
    PMID: 18179445 DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02311.x
    The aims of this communication were to study characterization of serogroups among Salmonella isolates and the relationship of antimicrobial resistance to serogroups. Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) was performed on 189 Salmonella enterica isolates associated with 38 different serovars that were recovered from poultry and four types of indigenous vegetables.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  10. Thong KL, Goh YL, Radu S, Noorzaleha S, Yasin R, Koh YT, et al.
    J Clin Microbiol, 2002 Jul;40(7):2498-503.
    PMID: 12089269
    The incidence of food-borne salmonellosis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Weltevreden is reported to be on the increase in Malaysia. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtyping method was used to assess the extent of genetic diversity and clonality of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden strains from humans and the environment. PFGE of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA from 95 strains of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden gave 39 distinct profiles with a wide range of Dice coefficients (0.27 to 1.00), indicating that PFGE is very discriminative and that multiple clones of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden exist among clinical and environmental isolates. Strains of one dominant pulsotype (pulsotype X1/X2) appeared to be endemic in this region, as they were consistently recovered from humans with salmonellosis between 1996 and 2001 and from raw vegetables. In addition, the sharing of similar PFGE profiles among isolates from humans, vegetables, and beef provides indirect evidence of the possible transmission of salmonellosis from contaminated raw vegetables and meat to humans. Furthermore, the recurrence of PFGE profile X21 among isolates found in samples of vegetables from one wet market indicated the persistence of this clone. The environment in the wet markets may represent a major source of cross-contamination of vegetables with Salmonella serotype Weltevreden. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the clinical isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden remained drug sensitive but that the vegetable isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to compare clinical and environmental isolates of Salmonella serotype Weltevreden in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology
  11. Zulkawi N, Ng KH, Zamberi R, Yeap SK, Satharasinghe D, Jaganath IB, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 30;17(1):344.
    PMID: 28666436 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1845-6
    BACKGROUND: Xeniji, produced by fermenting various types of foods with lactic acid bacteria and yeast, has been commonly consumed as functional food. However, nutrition value, bioactivities and safety of different fermented products maybe varies.

    METHODS: Organic acid and antioxidant profiles of Xeniji fermented foods were evaluated. Moreover, oral acute (5 g/kg body weight) and subchronic toxicity (0.1, 1 and 2 g/kg body weight) of Xeniji were tested on mice for 14 days and 30 days, respectively. Mortality, changes of body weight, organ weight and serum liver enzyme level were measured. Liver and spleen of mice from subchronic toxicity study were subjected to antioxidant and immunomodulation quantification.

    RESULTS: Xeniji was rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids. No mortality and significant changes of body weight and serum liver enzyme level were recorded for both oral acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Antioxidant level in the liver and immunity of Xeniji treated mice were significantly upregulated in dosage dependent manner.

    CONCLUSION: Xeniji is a fermented functional food that rich in nutrients that enhanced antioxidant and immunity of mice. Xeniji that rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids promote antioxidant and immunity in mice without causing toxic effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology
  12. Chai LC, Lee HY, Ghazali FM, Abu Bakar F, Malakar PK, Nishibuchi M, et al.
    J Food Prot, 2008 Dec;71(12):2448-52.
    PMID: 19244897
    Campylobacter jejuni was found to occur at high prevalence in the raw salad vegetables examined. Previous reports describe cross-contamination involving meat; here we investigated the occurrence of cross-contamination and decontamination events in the domestic kitchen via C. jejuni-contaminated vegetables during salad preparation. This is the first report concerning quantitative cross-contamination and decontamination involving naturally contaminated produce. The study was designed to simulate the real preparation of salad in a household kitchen, starting with washing the vegetables in tap water, then cutting the vegetables on a cutting board, followed by slicing cucumber and blanching (heating in hot water) the vegetables in 85 degrees C water. Vegetables naturally contaminated with C. jejuni were used throughout the simulation to attain realistic quantitative data. The mean of the percent transfer rates for C. jejuni from vegetable to wash water was 30.1 to 38.2%; from wash water to cucumber, it was 26.3 to 47.2%; from vegetables to cutting board, it was 1.6 to 10.3%; and from cutting board to cucumber, it was 22.6 to 73.3%. The data suggest the wash water and plastic cutting board as potential risk factors in C. jejuni transmission to consumers. Washing of the vegetables with tap water caused a 0.4-log reduction of C. jejuni attached to the vegetables (most probable number/gram), while rapid blanching reduced the number of C. jejuni organisms to an undetectable level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  13. Wong CB, Khoo BY, Sasidharan S, Piyawattanametha W, Kim SH, Khemthongcharoen N, et al.
    Benef Microbes, 2015 Mar;6(1):129-39.
    PMID: 25213027 DOI: 10.3920/BM2014.0021
    Increasing levels of antibiotic resistance by Staphylococcus aureus have posed a need to search for non-antibiotic alternatives. This study aimed to assess the inhibitory effects of crude and fractionated cell-free supernatants (CFS) of locally isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against a clinical strain of S. aureus. A total of 42 LAB strains were isolated and identified from fresh vegetables, fresh fruits and fermented products prior to evaluation of inhibitory activities. CFS of LAB strains exhibiting a stronger inhibitive effect against S. aureus were fractionated into crude protein, polysaccharide and lipid fractions. Crude protein fractions showed greater inhibition against S. aureus compared to polysaccharide and lipid fractions, with a more prevalent effect from Lactobacillus plantarum 8513 and L. plantarum BT8513. Crude protein, polysaccharide and lipid fractions were also characterised with glycine, mannose and oleic acid being detected as the major component of each fraction, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed roughed and wrinkled membrane morphology of S. aureus upon treatment with crude protein fractions of LAB, suggesting an inhibitory effect via the destruction of cellular membrane. This research illustrated the potential application of fractionated extracts from LAB to inhibit S. aureus for use in the food and health industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology
  14. Chai LC, Ghazali FM, Bakar FA, Lee HY, Suhaimi LR, Talib SA, et al.
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2009 Nov;19(11):1415-20.
    PMID: 19996696
    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli) in soil, poultry manure, irrigation water, and freshly harvested vegetables from vegetable farms in Malaysia. C. jejuni was detected in 30.4% and 2.7% of the soil samples, 57.1% and 0% of the manure samples, and 18.8% and 3% of the vegetable samples from farm A and farm B, respectively, when using the MPNPCR method. Campylobacter spp. was not found in any of the irrigation water samples tested. Therefore, the present results indicate that the aged manure used by farm A was more contaminated than the composted manure used by farm B. Mostly, the leafy and root vegetables were contaminated. C. coli was not detected in any of the samples tested in the current study. Both farms tested in this study were found to be contaminated by campylobacters, thereby posing a potential risk for raw vegetable consumption in Malaysia. The present results also provide baseline data on Campylobacter contamination at the farm level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  15. Abakpa GO, Umoh VJ, Kamaruzaman S, Ibekwe M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):80-86.
    PMID: 28543177 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8441
    BACKGROUND: Some routes of transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to fresh produce include contaminated irrigation water and manure polluted soils. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from some produce growing region in Nigeria using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) DNA fingerprinting analysis. A total of 440 samples comprising leafy greens, irrigation water, manure and soil were obtained from vegetable producing regions in Kano and Plateau States, Nigeria. Genes coding for the quinolone resistance-determinant (gyrA) and plasmid (pCT) coding for multidrug resistance (MDR) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 16 isolates that showed MDR.

    RESULTS: Cluster analysis of the ERIC-PCR profiles based on band sizes revealed six main clusters from the sixteen isolates analysed. The largest cluster (cluster 3) grouped isolates from vegetables and manure at a similarity coefficient of 0.72.

    CONCLUSION: The present study provides data that support the potential transmission of resistant strains of E. coli O157:H7 from vegetables and environmental sources to humans with potential public health implications, especially in developing countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
  16. Abatcha MG, Effarizah ME, Rusul G
    Int J Food Microbiol, 2019 Feb 02;290:180-183.
    PMID: 30342248 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.09.021
    Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B (S. Paratyphi B) is a major foodborne pathogen distributed all over the world. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance, genetic relatedness and virulence profile of S. Paratyphi B isolated from leafy vegetables and the processing environment in Malaysia. In this study, 6 S. Paratyphi B isolates were recovered from different vegetables and drain water of processing areas obtained from fresh food markets in Malaysia. The isolates were characterized by antibiogram, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and virulence genes. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that 3 of the isolates were resistant to the antibiotics. These include S. Paratyphi B SP251 isolate, which was resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfonamides and streptomycin; Isolate SP246 which was resistant to chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and streptomycin and Isolate SP235 showing resistance to nalidixic acid only. PFGE subtyped the 6 S. Paratyphi B isolates into 6 distinct XbaI-pulsotypes, with a wide range of genetic similarity (0.55 to 0.9). The isolates from different sources and fresh food markets location were genetically diverse. Thirteen (tolC, orgA, spaN, prgH, sipB, invA, pefA, sofB, msgA, cdtB, pagC, spiA and spvB) out of the 17 virulence genes tested were found in all of the S. Paratyphi B isolates. Another gene (lpfC), was found only in one isolate (SP051). None of the isolates possessed sifA, sitC and ironN genes. In summary, this study provides unique information on antibiotic resistance, genetic relatedness, and virulotyping of S. Paratyphi B isolated from leafy vegetables and processing environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vegetables/microbiology*
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links