Vibriosis disease by Vibrio spp. greatly reduced productivity of aquaculture, such as brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus), which is an economically important fish species in Malaysia. Preventive measures and immediate treatment are critical to reduce the mortality of E. fuscoguttatus from vibriosis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with immune response and host-bacteria interaction, a transcriptomic analysis was performed to compare between healthy and Vibrio-infected groupers. This permits the discovery of immune-related genes, specifically the resistance genes upon infection. Herein, we provide the raw transcriptome data from Illumina HiSeq. 4000 that have been deposited into NCBI SRA database with the BioProject accession number PRJNA396437. A total of 493,403,076 raw sequences of 74.5 Gb were obtained. Trimming of the raw data produced 437,186,232 clean reads of ~58 Gb. These datasets will be useful to elucidate the defence mechanisms of E. fuscoguttatus against Vibrio vulnificus infection for future development of effective prevention and treatment of vibriosis.
In September 2016, a marine fish farm operator in Selangor, Malaysia, reported a disease outbreak affecting juvenile hybrid groupers (Camouflage Grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion × Tiger Grouper E. fuscoguttatus). The average daily mortality was 120 fish, resulting in a cumulative mortality rate of 29% within 10 d. The affected hybrid groupers displayed lethargy, excessive mucus production, rotten fins, congestion of livers and kidneys, and enlargement of spleens. Microscopically, general congestion of the brains and internal organs was evident. Vibrio harveyi and V. alginolyticus were successfully isolated from the diseased fish. The isolated pathogens were found to be sensitive to oxytetracycline and tetracycline, but resistant towards ampicillin and vancomycin. Experimental infections using the isolated V. harveyi (108 CFU/mL), V. alginolyticus (108 CFU/mL), and concurrent infection by V. harveyi (108 CFU/mL) and V. alginolyticus (108 CFU/mL) in juvenile Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer resulted in 60, 100, and 100% mortality, respectively, within 240 h postinfection. The experimentally infected Asian Seabass demonstrated similar clinical signs and histopathological changes as the naturally infected hybrid groupers. However, concurrently infected fish demonstrated severe clinical signs and histopathological changes compared with single infections. These results suggest that both isolates of Vibrio are pathogenic to fish and responsible for the disease outbreak. However, concurrent infection involving V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi leads to a more devastating impact to the cultured fish. This is the first report of concurrent Vibrio infection in cultured marine fish in Malaysia.
Skin abrasions often occur in farmed fish following handling by labourers, injury by farm facilities, cannibalism and ectoparasites. Vibrio spp. are opportunistic pathogens that can invade host fish through damaged tissues and cause outbreaks of vibriosis. This study describes the effect of skin abrasions on the infectivity of V. harveyi using Asian seabass Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) fingerlings as a case example and compares bacterial load and fish survival following immersion challenge with different doses. In total, 315 fish (6.67 ± 1.8 g) were divided into 3 treatments: skin abrasion followed by immersion infection, immersion infection only and an uninfected, uninjured control. Fish in the infection treatments were divided into 3 subgroups and exposed in triplicate to a 7 d immersion challenge with 106, 107 and 108 CFU ml-1 of live V. harveyi. No mortalities were observed in the control and immersion infection groups. However, fish in the skin abrasion treatment group that were infected with 108 CFU ml-1 of live V. harveyi showed signs of progressing disease throughout the experiment, which resulted in mortalities. Significantly higher bacterial loads (p < 0.05) were recorded in the intestine, liver and gills of the fish in this group. Fish in the skin abrasion treatment that were exposed to 107 and 108 CFU ml-1 of V. harveyi showed 100% mortality by Days 5 and 4, respectively. These findings confirm that skin injuries increase the susceptibility of seabass fingerlings to V. harveyi infection.
Current growth in aquaculture production is parallel with the increasing number of disease outbreaks, which negatively affect the production, profitability, and sustainability of the global aquaculture industry. Vibriosis is among the most common diseases leading to massive mortality of cultured shrimp, fish, and shellfish in Asia. High incidence of vibriosis can occur in hatchery and grow-out facilities, but juveniles are more susceptible to the disease. Various factors, particularly the source of fish, environmental factors (including water quality and farm management), and the virulence factors of Vibrio, influence the occurrence of the disease. Affected fish show weariness, with necrosis of skin and appendages, leading to body malformation, slow growth, internal organ liquefaction, blindness, muscle opacity, and mortality. A combination of control measures, particularly a disease-free source of fish, biosecurity of the farm, improved water quality, and other preventive measures (e.g., vaccination) might be able to control the infection. Although some control measures are expensive and less practical, vaccination is effective, relatively cheap, and easily implemented. In this review, the latest knowledge on the pathogenesis and control of vibriosis, including vaccination, is discussed.
The grow out of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer in marine net-cages is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. Production of this species is greatly affected by the occurrence of vibriosis, which causes heavy mortality. Generally, young fish are more susceptible; they exhibit anorexia and skin darkening, followed by heavy mortality. The acutely affected older fish may also exhibit bloody lesions around the anus and the base of the fins. Twenty-one bacterial isolates obtained from internal organs (kidney, heart, spleen and liver) of the affected specimens were subjected to phenotypic characterization, testing for antibiotic susceptibility, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. The sequencing result showed that all of the bacterial isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi. The phenotypic characterization, however, identified 4 of the bacterial isolates as V. harveyi, 16 as V. parahaemolyticus, and 1 as V. alginolyticus. These findings suggest that biochemical features alone cannot be reliably used to identify bacterial pathogens, including V. harveyi, in aquaculture. Antibiotic susceptibility assays showed that some antibiotics, including oxytetracycline, nitrofurantoin, furazolidone, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid were effective against V. harveyi. Considering the side effects of these antibiotics, however, their use is not recommended in the aquaculture of Asian seabass.
The causative agent responsible for vibriosis in tropical fish aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi, has become a major bacterial pathogen. Studies suggest that this bacterium has developed resistance to antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture. In view of this situation and the requirement for the proposed postantibiotic era, bacteriophage therapy seems to be a promising control strategy for fish vibriosis. In this study, a lytic Vibrio phage VhKM4 belonging to a member of large, marine Myoviridae was successfully isolated. It exhibited bacteriolysis to both V. harveyi VHJR7 and V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. The latent period of the VhKM4 phage was recorded at 60 min. It also recorded average burst size of approximately 52 plaque-forming units per infected cell. A strong bacteriolytic activity at low multiplicity of infection of 0.01 indicates the effectiveness of this large marine myovirid against fish pathogenic strain of V. harveyi VHJR7. Received June 16, 2016; accepted October 7, 2016.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus are the most significant aquatic pathogens of the genera Vibrio, account for most Vibrio-associated outbreaks worldwide. Rapid identification of these pathogens is of great importance for disease surveillance, outbreak investigations and food safety maintenance. Traditional culture dependent methods are time-consuming and labor-intensive whereas culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assays are reliable, consistent, rapid and reproducible. This review covers the recent development and applications of PCR based techniques, which have accelerated advances in the analysis of nucleic acids to identify three major pathogenic vibrios. Emphasis has been given to analytical approaches as well as advantages and limits of the available methods. Overall, this review article possesses the substantial merit to be used as a reference guide for the researchers to develop improved PCR based techniques for the differential detection and quantification of Vibrio species.
Vibrio tubiashii strain T33 was isolated from the coastal waters of Morib, Malaysia, and was shown to possess quorum-sensing activity similar to that of its famous relative Vibrio fischeri. Here, the assembly and annotation of its genome are presented.
The author discusses some of the features of the cholera epidemic caused by El Tor vibrios in 1961-62 in the Western Pacific. The disease originated in the Celebes and spread from there to other parts of Indonesia, to Sarawak and, possibly, to Kwangtung. Hong Kong and Macau were most probably infected from Kwangtung. Subsequently the disease reached the Philippines, progressing from Manila southwards to the other islands, whence it invaded British Borneo. The El Tor epidemic did not differ clinically or epidemiologically from other cholera outbreaks observed during the past decade. The disease attacked poor, under-nourished people living under insanitary conditions. It spread along the coastline and, to a limited extent, along inland waterways. The authorities in the affected territories recommended that the quarantine regulations, sanitary measures and treatment methods used against cholera caused by the so-called "true" cholera vibrios be applied also to cholera caused by El Tor vibrios.
Four Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal strains isolated from surface water were characterized by antibiotic resistance, plasmid profile, presence of cholera toxin gene and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. All four strains exhibit multiple resistance towards the antibiotics tested with a multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.5-0.66, and harboured a 2.0 MDa non-conjugative plasmid. The Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal were positive for the cholera toxin gene. Antibiotyping and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis with four primers proved to be useful in discriminating the isolates. RAPD proved to be more sensitive. These results reveal that there is significant genetic diversity among the Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal strains studied.
Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative marine bacterium that may cause local wound infection, distinctive soft tissue infection, gastroenteritis and septicaemia with a high mortality rate. A healthy man presented with severe abdominal pain, diarrhoea and fever followed by development of multiple blisters, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis of the lower limbs, who progressed rapidly to fulminant sepsis caused by this organism. Vibrio vulnificus septicaemia should be suspected in the presence of sepsis and progressive soft-tissue infection with recent history of raw seafood consumption.
We measured Vibrio spp. distribution and community profile in the tropical estuary of Port Klang and coastal water of Port Dickson, Malaysia. Vibrio spp. abundance ranged from 15 to 2395 colony forming units mL-1, and was driven by salinity and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. However, the effect of salinity was pronounced only when salinity was <20 ppt. A total of 27 Vibrio spp. were identified, and theVibrio spp. community at Port Dickson was more diverse (H' = 1.94 ± 0.21). However species composition between Port Dickson and Port Klang were similar. Two frequently occurring Vibrio spp. were V. owensii and V. rotiferianus, which exhibited relatively higher growth rates (ANCOVA: F > 4.338, P < 0.05). Co-culture experiments between fast- and slow-growing Vibrio spp. revealed that fast-growing Vibrio spp. (r-strategists) were overwhelmed by slower-growing Vibrio spp. (K-strategists) when nutrient conditions were set towards oligotrophy. In response to resource availability, the intrinsic growth strategy of each Vibrio spp. determined its occurrence and the development of Vibrio spp. community composition.
We developed a multiplex enzyme-based electrochemical genosensor for sequence-specific detection of multiplex linear-after-the-exponential-PCR amplicons that targeted toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 using novel screen-printed gold electrode bisensors.