Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 452 in total

  1. Yong D, Tee KK, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:1606.
    PMID: 27790203
    To date, information on plasmid analysis in Pandoraea spp. is scarce. To address the gap of knowledge on this, the complete sequences of eight plasmids from Pandoraea spp. namely Pandoraea faecigallinarum DSM 23572(T) (pPF72-1, pPF72-2), Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) (pPO70-1, pPO70-2, pPO70-3, pPO70-4), Pandoraea vervacti NS15 (pPV15) and Pandoraea apista DSM 16535(T) (pPA35) were studied for the first time in this study. The information on plasmid sequences in Pandoraea spp. is useful as the sequences did not match any known plasmid sequence deposited in public databases. Replication genes were not identified in some plasmids, a situation that has led to the possibility of host interaction involvement. Some plasmids were also void of par genes and intriguingly, repA gene was also not discovered in these plasmids. This further leads to the hypothesis of host-plasmid interaction. Plasmid stabilization/stability protein-encoding genes were observed in some plasmids but were not established for participating in plasmid segregation. Toxin-antitoxin systems MazEF, VapBC, RelBE, YgiT-MqsR, HigBA, and ParDE were identified across the plasmids and their presence would improve plasmid maintenance. Conjugation genes were identified portraying the conjugation ability amongst Pandoraea plasmids. Additionally, we found a shared region amongst some of the plasmids that consists of conjugation genes. The identification of genes involved in replication, segregation, toxin-antitoxin systems and conjugation, would aid the design of drugs to prevent the survival or transmission of plasmids carrying pathogenic properties. Additionally, genes conferring virulence and antibiotic resistance were identified amongst the plasmids. The observed features in the plasmids shed light on the Pandoraea spp. as opportunistic pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence
  2. Azizan E, Brown M
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Dec;42(3):363-367.
    PMID: 33361716
    In 2003, it was discovered that the entry receptor for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a protein called the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This protein is present in a number of cell types, including those from the respiratory tract. Soon after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 that is responsible for the disease Covid-19, scientists found that ACE2 was also used by the new coronavirus to infect cells. This opened some interesting possibilities to explain the striking variation in risks of catching and dying from Covid-19. The best recognised of these are the much higher risk of serious illness in older than younger people, in men than women, and in those with pre-existing comorbidities such as hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There are several ways in which the ACE2 protein might contribute to this variation. The most obvious would be if there is more ACE2, there would be more entry points for the virus to infect the cell, e.g. in older people or in men. However, the evidence for this is rather small, partly because it is not that easy to obtain representative healthy tissues. Alternatively, it could be related to ACE2 membership of a family of proteins that has one end of the protein anchored inside the cell while most of the protein protrudes from the outside of the cell which therefore can be shed when cleaved by proteases at the cell membrane. Herein we review current evidence and theories of ACE2 role on SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and Covid-19 severity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence
  3. Okubo Y
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 08;39(2):207-208.
    PMID: 28866707
    No abstract available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence/genetics*; Virulence Factors/genetics*; Virulence Factors/metabolism
  4. Pang T
    Trends Microbiol., 1998 Sep;6(9):339-42.
    PMID: 9778724
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence/genetics; Virulence/immunology
  5. Chan KG, Liu YC, Chang CY
    Front Microbiol, 2015;6:1173.
    PMID: 26539190 DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01173
    Bacteria sense their own population size, tune the expression of responding genes, and behave accordingly to environmental stimuli by secreting signaling molecules. This phenomenon is termed as quorum sensing (QS). By exogenously manipulating the signal transduction bacterial population behaviors could be controlled, which may be done through quorum quenching (QQ). QS related regulatory networks have been proven their involvement in regulating many virulence determinants in pathogenic bacteria in the course of infections. Interfering with QS signaling system could be a novel strategy against bacterial infections and therefore requires more understanding of their fundamental mechanisms. Here we review the development of studies specifically on the inhibition of production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), a common proteobacterial QS signal. The opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, equips the alkylquinolone (AQ)-mediated QS which also plays crucial roles in its pathogenicity. The studies in QQ targeting on AQ are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  6. Aisyah Mohamed Rehan, Mohammad Izwan Enche Othman, Nor Munirah Mohd Amin, Intan Azura Shahdan, Hanani Ahmad Yusof@Hanafi
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a gram-positive diplococci belonging to the genus Streptococcus and it is a well-studied pathogenic bacterium. Pneumococcal diseases such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis caused by pathogenic strains of S. pneumoniae still brought significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae is exerted by various virulence factors and one of it is the enzyme hyaluronate lyase. Hyaluronate lyase plays a major role in
    the invasive capability of S. pneumoniae. Its mechanism of action and crystallographic
    structure have been determinedbut its regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood.
    Drawing connections between the nutritional behaviour and invasive property of S.
    pneumoniae, CodY regulator is hypothesized as a potential hyaluronate lyase regulator.
    This work was aimed to construct CodY deficient mutant of S. pneumoniae to form
    foundational work for the study of CodY regulatory effect on hyaluronate lyase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  7. Hanafiah A, Lopes BS
    Infect Genet Evol, 2020 Mar;78:104135.
    PMID: 31837482 DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104135
    Helicobacter pylori is the most predominant bacterium in almost 50% of the world's population and colonization causes a persistent inflammatory response leading to chronic gastritis. It shows high genetic diversity and individuals generally harbour a distinct bacterial population. With the advancement of whole-genome sequencing technology, new H. pylori subpopulations have been identified that show admixture between various H. pylori strains. Genotypic variation of H. pylori may be related to the presence of virulence factors among strains and is associated with different outcomes of infection in different individuals. This review summarizes the genetic diversity in H. pylori strain populations and its virulence characteristics responsible for variable outcomes in different ethnic groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  8. Iberahim NA, Sood N, Pradhan PK, van den Boom J, van West P, Trusch F
    Fungal Biol, 2020 Dec;124(12):1024-1031.
    PMID: 33213782 DOI: 10.1016/j.funbio.2020.09.003
    Oomycetes are fungal-like eukaryotes and many of them are pathogens that threaten natural ecosystems and cause huge financial losses for the aqua- and agriculture industry. Amongst them, Aphanomyces invadans causes Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in fish which can be responsible for up to 100% mortality in aquaculture. As other eukaryotic pathogens, in order to establish and promote an infection, A. invadans secretes proteins, which are predicted to overcome host defence mechanisms and interfere with other processes inside the host. We investigated the role of Lhs1 which is part of an ER-resident complex that generally promotes the translocation of proteins from the cytoplasm into the ER for further processing and secretion. Interestingly, proteomic studies reveal that only a subset of virulence factors are affected by the silencing of AiLhs1 in A. invadans indicating various secretion pathways for different proteins. Importantly, changes in the secretome upon silencing of AiLhs1 significantly reduces the virulence of A. invadans in the infection model Galleriamellonella. Furthermore, we show that AiLhs1 is important for the production of zoospores and their cluster formation. This renders proteins required for protein ER translocation as interesting targets for the potential development of alternative disease control strategies in agri- and aquaculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  9. Teoh MC, Furusawa G, Veera Singham G
    Arch Microbiol, 2021 Feb 26.
    PMID: 33634321 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-021-02230-9
    Insects and bacteria are the most widespread groups of organisms found in nearly all habitats on earth, establishing diverse interactions that encompass the entire range of possible symbiotic associations from strict parasitism to obligate mutualism. The complexity of their interactions is instrumental in shaping the roles of insects in the environment, meanwhile ensuring the survival and persistence of the associated bacteria. This review aims to provide detailed insight on the multifaceted symbiosis between one of the most versatile bacterial genera, Pseudomonas (Gammaproteobacteria: Pseudomonadaceae) and a diverse group of insect species. The Pseudomonas engages with varied interactions with insects, being either a pathogen or beneficial endosymbiont, as well as using insects as vectors. In addition, this review also provides updates on existing and potential applications of Pseudomonas and their numerous insecticidal metabolites as biocontrol agents against pest insects for the improvement of integrated pest management strategies. Here, we have summarized several known modes of action and the virulence factors of entomopathogenic Pseudomonas strains essential for their pathogenicity against insects. Meanwhile, the beneficial interactions between pseudomonads and insects are currently limited to a few known insect taxa, despite numerous studies reporting identification of pseudomonads in the guts and haemocoel of various insect species. The vector-symbiont association between pseudomonads and insects can be diverse from strict phoresy to a role switch from commensalism to parasitism following a dose-dependent response. Overall, the pseudomonads appeared to have evolved independently to be either exclusively pathogenic or beneficial towards insects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  10. Ghazali AK, Eng SA, Khoo JS, Teoh S, Hoh CC, Nathan S
    Microb Genom, 2021 02;7(2).
    PMID: 33565959 DOI: 10.1099/mgen.0.000527
    Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of the endemic tropical disease melioidosis. Clinical manifestations of B. pseudomallei infection range from acute or chronic localized infection in a single organ to fulminant septicaemia in multiple organs. The diverse clinical manifestations are attributed to various factors, including the genome plasticity across B. pseudomallei strains. We previously characterized B. pseudomallei strains isolated in Malaysia and noted different levels of virulence in model hosts. We hypothesized that the difference in virulence might be a result of variance at the genome level. In this study, we sequenced and assembled four Malaysian clinical B. pseudomallei isolates, UKMR15, UKMPMC2000, UKMD286 and UKMH10. Phylogenomic analysis showed that Malaysian subclades emerged from the Asian subclade, suggesting that the Malaysian strains originated from the Asian region. Interestingly, the low-virulence strain, UKMH10, was the most distantly related compared to the other Malaysian isolates. Genomic island (GI) prediction analysis identified a new island of 23 kb, GI9c, which is present in B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, but not Burkholderia thailandensis. Genes encoding known B. pseudomallei virulence factors were present across all four genomes, but comparative analysis of the total gene content across the Malaysian strains identified 104 genes that are absent in UKMH10. We propose that these genes may encode novel virulence factors, which may explain the reduced virulence of this strain. Further investigation on the identity and role of these 104 proteins may aid in understanding B. pseudomallei pathogenicity to guide the design of new therapeutics for treating melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  11. Osman HA, Hasan H, Suppian R, Hassan S, Andee DZ, Abdul Majid N, et al.
    Turk J Med Sci, 2015;45(4):940-6.
    PMID: 26422871
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The severity of disease outcome in dyspepsia has been attributed to Helicobacter pylori virulence genes. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of H. pylori virulence genes (cagA, babA2, and dupA) and to determine whether or not there arises a significant correlation with clinical dyspepsia outcomes.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: H. pylori genotypes cagA, babA2, and dupA were identified by polymerase chain reactions from gastric biopsy samples in 105 H. pylori-positive patients.

    RESULTS: The positive rates for cagA, babA2, and dupA genes in H. pylori dyspeptic patients were 69.5%, 41.0%, and 22.9%, respectivel cagA was more prevalent in Indians (39.7%), babA2 was more prevalent in Malays (39.5%), and dupA detection occurred more frequently in both Indians and Malays and at the same rate (37.5%). The Chinese inhabitants had the lowest prevalence of the three genes. Nonulcer disease patients had a significantly higher distribution of cagA (76.7%), babA2 (74.4%), and dupA (75.0%). There was no apparent association between these virulence genes and the clinical outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: The lower prevalence of these genes and variations among different ethnicities implies that the strains are geographically and ethnically dependent. None of the virulence genes were knowingly beneficial in predicting the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection in our subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence/genetics; Virulence Factors/genetics*
  12. Badrun R, Abu Bakar N, Laboh R, Redzuan R, Bala Jaganath I
    Genome Announc, 2017 Jun 01;5(22).
    PMID: 28572313 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00408-17
    Blood disease bacterium A2 HR-MARDI was isolated from banana plants infected with banana blood disease and which were planted in Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of blood disease bacterium A2 HR-MARDI, which could provide important information on the virulence mechanism of this pathogen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence
  13. Reeki Emrizal, Nor Azlan Nor Muhammad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2941-2950.
    Porphyromonas gingivalis is the bacterium responsible for chronic periodontitis, a severe periodontal disease. Virulence
    factors produced by this bacterium are secreted by the Type IX Secretion System (T9SS). The specific functions for
    each protein component of the T9SS have yet to be characterized thus limiting our understanding of the mechanisms
    associated with the translocation and modification processes of the T9SS. This study aims to identify the sequence motifs
    for each T9SS component and predict the functions associated with each discovered motif using motif comparisons. We
    extracted the sequences of 20 T9SS components from the P. gingivalis proteome that were experimentally identified to
    be important for T9SS function and used them for homology searching against fully sequenced bacterial proteomes.
    We developed a rigorous pipeline for the identification of seed sequences for each protein family of T9SS components.
    We verified that each selected seed sequence are true members of the protein family hence sharing conserved sequence
    motifs using profile Hidden Markov Models. The motifs for each T9SS component are identified and compared to motifs
    in the Pfam database. The discovered motifs for 11 components with known functions matched the motifs associated
    with the reported functions. We also suggested the putative functions for four components. PorM and PorW might form
    the putative energy transduction complex. PorP and PorT might be the putative O-deacylases. The identified motifs for
    five components matched the motifs associated with functions that related/unrelated to the T9SS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence
  14. Harun A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Nov-Dec;21(6):1-2.
    PMID: 25897275
    The emergence of fungal species as opportunistic pathogens has warranted further studies on their pathogenicity, epidemiology, and transmissibility. Fungal genotyping has been employed to study the genetic relatedness within the organism, in order to obtain answers to epidemiological questions (such as in outbreak confirmation) as well as to provide basis for the improvement for patients care. Various fungal genotyping methods have been previously published, which can be chosen depending on the intended use and the capability of individual laboratory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence
  15. McMinn PC
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 2002 Mar;26(1):91-107.
    PMID: 12007645
    Since its discovery in 1969, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been recognised as a frequent cause of epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological sequelae in a small proportion of cases. There has been a significant increase in EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. Recent HFMD epidemics in this region have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary oedema and high case-fatality rates. The emergence of large-scale epidemic activity in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of three genetic lineages that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary change. Two of these lineages (B3 and B4) have not been described previously and appear to have arisen from an endemic focus in equatorial Asia, which has served as a source of virus for HFMD epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore and Australia. The third lineage (C2) has previously been identified [Brown, B.A. et al. (1999) J. Virol. 73, 9969-9975] and was primarily responsible for the large HFMD epidemic in Taiwan during 1998. As EV71 appears not to be susceptible to newly developed antiviral agents and a vaccine is not currently available, control of EV71 epidemics through high-level surveillance and public health intervention needs to be maintained and extended throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Future research should focus on (1) understanding the molecular genetics of EV71 virulence, (2) identification of the receptor(s) for EV71, (3) development of antiviral agents to ameliorate the severity of neurological disease and (4) vaccine development to control epidemics. Following the successful experience of the poliomyelitis control programme, it may be possible to control EV71 epidemics if an effective live-attenuated vaccine is developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence/genetics
  16. Midorikawa Y, Shimizu T, Sanda T, Hamasaki K, Dan S, Lal MTBM, et al.
    J Fish Dis, 2020 May;43(5):541-549.
    PMID: 32147853 DOI: 10.1111/jfd.13151
    Mass mortality due to necrosis signs occurred in hatchery-reared zoea stage larvae of the mud crab Scylla serrata in Okinawa, Japan, and a causative bacterium was isolated. In this study, we identified and characterized the bacterium by genome analysis, biochemical properties and pathogenicity. The bacterium was a Gram-negative, non-motile, long rod, forming yellow colonies on a marine agar plate. It grew at 20-33°C (not at 37°C) and degraded chitin and gelatin. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence identified the bacterium as Aquimarina hainanensis. Genome sequence data obtained from Illumina MiSeq generated 29 contigs with 3.56 Mbp in total length and a G + C content of 32.5%. The predicted 16 chitinase genes, as putative virulence factors, had certain homologies with those of genus Aquimarina. Experimental infection with the bacterium conducted on larvae of four crustacean species, brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, freshwater shrimp Caridina multidentata, swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus and mud crab S. serrata, revealed that this bacterium was highly virulent to these species. The present study suggests that the bacterium caused mass mortality in mud crab seed production was A. hainanensis and can be widely pathogenic to crustaceans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  17. Ibrahim R, Ismail-Suhaimy NW, Shu-Qing T, Ismail SI, Ina-Salwany MY, Yusof MT, et al.
    Data Brief, 2020 Jun;30:105634.
    PMID: 32395592 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105634
    A Gram-negative bacterium, Pantoea stewartii subspecies stewartii (P. stewartii subsp. stewartii) has been recognized as the causative agent for jackfruit bronzing disease in Malaysia. Here, we report the whole genome sequencing dataset of P. stewartii subsp. stewartii strain SQT1 isolated from local infected jackfruit. The paired-end libraries with an insert size of 350 bp was subjected to the Illumina Hiseq 4000, generating a genome size of 4,783,993 bp with a G+C content of 53.7%. A total protein of 4,671 was identified including virulence factors, resistance factors and secretion systems. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii strain DC283 (NCBI accession no. CP017581.1) was used as a reference genome, where the query hit 72% coverage and average sequencing depth of 68. In total, 28,717 nucleotide polymorphisms, 520 small insertion/deletions and 142 structure variants were identified. The complete genome was deposited at the European Nucleotide Archive under the sample accession number ERP119356 and study accession number PRJEB36196.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  18. Low CF, Shamsir MS, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Baharum SN
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e6568.
    PMID: 30984478 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6568
    Pathologically relevant behaviors of Vibrio, such as the expression of virulence factors, biofilm production, and swarming motility, have been shown to be controlled by quorum sensing. The autoinducer-2 quorum sensing receptor protein LuxP is one of the target proteins for drug development to suppress the virulence of Vibrio. Here, we reported the potential molecular interaction of fatty acids identified in vibriosis-resistant grouper with LuxP. Fatty acid, 4-oxodocosahexaenoic acid (4R8) showed significant binding affinity toward LuxP (-6.0 kcal/mol) based on molecular docking analysis. The dynamic behavior of the protein-ligand complex was illustrated by molecular dynamic simulations. The fluctuation of the protein backbone, the stability of ligand binding, and hydrogen bond interactions were assessed, suggesting 4R8 possesses potential interaction with LuxP, which was supported by the low binding free energy (-29.144 kJ/mol) calculated using the molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  19. Emrizal R, Nor Muhammad NA
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e9019.
    PMID: 32617187 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9019
    Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the major bacteria that causes periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis is a severe form of periodontal disease that ultimately leads to tooth loss. Virulence factors that contribute to periodontitis are secreted by Type IX Secretion System (T9SS). There are aspects of T9SS protein components that have yet to be characterised. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between members of 20 T9SS component protein families. The Bayesian Inference (BI) trees for 19 T9SS protein components exhibit monophyletic clades for all major classes under Bacteroidetes with strong support for the monophyletic clades or its subclades that is consistent with phylogeny exhibited by the constructed BI tree of 16S rRNA. The BI tree of PorR is different from the 19 BI trees of T9SS protein components as it does not exhibit monophyletic clades for all major classes under Bacteroidetes. There is strong support for the phylogeny exhibited by the BI tree of PorR which deviates from the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA. Hence, it is possible that the porR gene is subjected to horizontal transfer as it is known that virulence factor genes could be horizontally transferred. Seven genes (porR included) that are involved in the biosynthesis of A-LPS are found to be flanked by insertion sequences (IS5 family transposons). Therefore, the intervening DNA segment that contains the porR gene might be transposed and subjected to conjugative transfer. Thus, the seven genes can be co-transferred via horizontal gene transfer. The BI tree of UgdA does not exhibit monophyletic clades for all major classes under Bacteroidetes which is similar to the BI tree of PorR (both are a part of the seven genes). Both BI trees also exhibit similar topology as the four identified clusters with strong support and have similar relative positions to each other in both BI trees. This reinforces the possibility that porR and the other six genes might be horizontally transferred. Other than the BI tree of PorR, the 19 other BI trees of T9SS protein components also exhibit evidence of horizontal gene transfer. However, their genes might undergo horizontal gene transfer less frequently compared to porR because the intervening DNA segment that contains porR is easily exchanged between bacteria under Bacteroidetes due to the presence of insertion sequences (IS5 family transposons) that flank it. In conclusion, this study can provide a better understanding about the phylogeny of T9SS protein components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
  20. Sri Raja Rajeswari Mahalingam, Priya Madhavan, Chong, Pei Pei
    Introduction: One of the most common aetiology of opportunistic fungal infections in humans is Candida species. The virulence of Candida species is due to repertoire of factors, specifically, the ability to form biofilms. Medical devices such as intravenous catheters, prosthetic heart valves and surgical interventions provide pathogenic microorganisms with a surface to adhere to form biofilm. Fungi present as biofilms are often resistant to antifungal treatment because these biofilms offer a protective barrier that prohibits the drugs to get to the active site of the fungi. The objective of this study is to investigate the biofilm architecture of Candida rugosa (C.rugosa) at different developmental phases and to identify Sessile Minimum Inhibition Concentrations (SMICs) of amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole for the biofilm of C. rugosa. Methods: Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to visualize C. rugosa biofilms at different developmental phases. The antifungal susceptibility test was performed using serial doubling dilution. The growth kinetics of Candida biofilms was quantified using XTT reduction assay and crystal violet assay. Results: From the antifungal susceptibility test, the biofilms had SMIC of >16μg/mL for amphotericin B, 6µg/mL for caspofungin, >64μg/mL for fluconazole and >16μg/ mL for voriconazole. From the SEM micrographs, C. rugosa biofilm have a structure composed of an adherent yeast cells and blastopores with hyphal elements. There were significant alterations in the morphology after exposure to antifungal agents. The quantitative measurement of the matrix thickness of embedded yeast cells were obtained from CLSM micrographs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the ability of C. rugosa to form biofilms may attribute to one of the virulence factors that causes reduced susceptibility to antifungal agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Virulence; Virulence Factors
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