METHODS: A total of 141 UPEC isolates from cUTI and 160 ASB E. coli isolates were obtained from Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Phylogrouping and the occurrence of virulence genes were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to different classes of antibiotics was determined using the Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion method.
RESULTS: The cUTI isolates were distributed differentially among both Extraintestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and non-ExPEC phylogroups. Phylogroup B2 isolates were observed to possess the highest average aggregative virulence score (7.17), a probable representation of the capability to cause severe disease. Approximately 50% of the cUTI isolates tested in this study were multidrug resistant against common antibiotics used to treat UTI. Analysis of the occurrence of virulence genes among different cUTI categories demonstrated that UPEC isolates of pyelonephritis and urosepsis were highly virulent and had the highest average aggregative virulence scores of 7.80 and 6.89 respectively, compared to other clinical categories. Relational analysis of the occurrence of phylogroups and virulence determinants of UPEC and ASB E. coli isolates showed that 46.1% of UPEC and 34.3% of ASB E. coli from both categories were distributed in phylogroup B2 and had the highest average aggregative virulence score of 7.17 and 5.37, respectively. The data suggest that UPEC isolates which carry virulence genes from all four virulence genes groups studied (adhesions, iron uptake systems, toxins and capsule synthesis) and isolates from phylogroup B2 specifically could predispose to severe UTI involving the upper urinary tract. Therefore, specific analysis of the genotypic characteristics of UPEC could be further explored by incorporating the combination of virulence genes as a prognostic marker for predicting disease severity, in an attempt to propose a more evidence driven treatment decision-making for all UTI patients. This will go a long way in enhancing favourable therapeutic outcomes and reducing the antimicrobial resistance burden among UTI patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: H. pylori genotypes cagA, babA2, and dupA were identified by polymerase chain reactions from gastric biopsy samples in 105 H. pylori-positive patients.
RESULTS: The positive rates for cagA, babA2, and dupA genes in H. pylori dyspeptic patients were 69.5%, 41.0%, and 22.9%, respectivel cagA was more prevalent in Indians (39.7%), babA2 was more prevalent in Malays (39.5%), and dupA detection occurred more frequently in both Indians and Malays and at the same rate (37.5%). The Chinese inhabitants had the lowest prevalence of the three genes. Nonulcer disease patients had a significantly higher distribution of cagA (76.7%), babA2 (74.4%), and dupA (75.0%). There was no apparent association between these virulence genes and the clinical outcomes.
CONCLUSION: The lower prevalence of these genes and variations among different ethnicities implies that the strains are geographically and ethnically dependent. None of the virulence genes were knowingly beneficial in predicting the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection in our subjects.