Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 65 in total

  1. Amanullah I, Khan YH, Anwar I, Gulzar A, Mallhi TH, Raja AA
    Postgrad Med J, 2019 Nov;95(1129):601-611.
    PMID: 31434683 DOI: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-136364
    The efficacy of vitamin E among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear. The current qualitative and quantitative analyses aimed to ascertain the efficacy of vitamin E on clinical outcomes of patients with NAFLD. A systematic search of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed using databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus, EBSCOhost and Ovid) from inception to July 2018. Trials meeting the inclusion criteria were subjected to quality assessment using the Jadad Scoring. All trials meeting the prerequisites information for meta-analysis were subjected to quantitative synthesis of results. Nine RCTs (five in adults and four in children) were included. Four of the five RCTs on adults demonstrated significant improvements in alanine transaminase and other liver function surrogates in patients with NAFLD. On the other hand, only one of the four RCTs conducted on children showed significant improvements in liver functions with the use of vitamin E. Although quantitative synthesis of available data revealed insignificant differences between vitamin E and placebo, still the use of vitamin E improves the level of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase by -1.96 and -0.59, with heterogeneity of I2=67% and I2=0%, respectively. Adjuvant vitamin E therapy provides significant biochemical and histological improvements in adult patients with NAFLD, while paediatric patients showed insignificant efficacy compared with placebo. Lifestyle interventions along with vitamin E can provide much better results. Data, including the impact of vitamin E on hepatic histology, are still lacking. Moreover, the short duration of trials limits the conclusion on the safety and efficacy of proposed treatments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  2. Mohd Zaffarin AS, Ng SF, Ng MH, Hassan H, Alias E
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:9961-9974.
    PMID: 33324057 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S276355
    Vitamin E belongs to the family of lipid-soluble vitamins and can be divided into two groups, tocopherols and tocotrienols, with four isomers (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). Although vitamin E is widely known as a potent antioxidant, studies have also revealed that vitamin E possesses anti-inflammatory properties. These crucial properties of vitamin E are beneficial in various aspects of health, especially in neuroprotection and cardiovascular, skin and bone health. However, the poor bioavailability of vitamin E, especially tocotrienols, remains a great limitation for clinical applications. Recently, nanoformulations that include nanovesicles, solid-lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, and polymeric nanoparticles have shown promising outcomes in improving the efficacy and bioavailability of vitamin E. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties and pharmacokinetics of vitamin E and current advances in vitamin E nanoformulations for future clinical applications. The limitations and future recommendations are also discussed in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  3. Kafilzadeh F, Kheirmanesh H, Karami Shabankareh H, Targhibi MR, Maleki E, Ebrahimi M, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:165841.
    PMID: 25045726 DOI: 10.1155/2014/165841
    The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se) on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1) a single intramuscular (im) injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2) daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3) injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  4. Norazlina M, Maizatul-Neza J, Azarina A, Nazrun AS, Norliza M, Ima-Nirwana S
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):14-7.
    PMID: 21265240 MyJurnal
    Vitamin E is found to reverse the effects of nicotine on bone and this study aimed to determine its mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and treated for 3 months: Group 1 was the control group (RC). Groups 2 (N), 3 (N+TT) and 4 (N+ATF) received nicotine 7 mg/kg throughout the treatment period. In addition, groups 3 and 4 received tocotrienol 60 mg/kg and alpha-tocopherol 60 mg/kg respectively during months 2 and 3. Parameters measured were serum osteoprotegerin (OPG), serum receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), femoral and lumbar bone calcium content and body weight. Nicotine did not affect OPG or RANKL levels but reduced bone calcium content suggesting the calcium loss is not due to increase osteoclastogenesis. OPG was increased in N+ATF while RANKL was slightly increased in N+TT. Both vitamin E supplements restored bone calcium loss induced by nicotine. Nicotine impaired weight gain in all treatment groups starting week 4 however, N+TT group was comparable to RC from week 6 onwards. Bone protective effects of ATF, but not TT, may be partly due to inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  5. Rashid SA, Halim AS, Muhammad NA
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:69-70.
    PMID: 19024988
    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is angiogenic and effective in down-regulating excess collagen production. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin E (Tocotrienol Rich Fraction) in altering the level of bFGF, a cytokine involved in the scar formation process. In this model, normal human fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of vitamin E at different time frames. The levels of bFGF were determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA). This study demonstrated that Tocotrienol Rich Fraction (TRF) stimulated bFGF production by fibroblast and postulate that vitamin E may decrease aberrant scar formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  6. Khor SC, Mohd Yusof YA, Wan Ngah WZ, Makpol S
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):e81-90.
    PMID: 25945449 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1825
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin E has been suggested as nutritional intervention for the prevention of degenerative and age-related diseases. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) in delaying cellular aging by targeting the proliferation signaling pathways in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction was used to treat different stages of cellular aging of primary human diploid fibroblasts viz. young (passage 6), pre-senescent (passage 15) and senescent (passage 30). Several selected targets involved in the downstream of PI3K/AKT and RAF/MEK/ERK pathways were compared in total RNA and protein.

    RESULTS: Different transcriptional profiles were observed in young, pre-senescent and senescent HDFs, in which cellular aging increased AKT, FOXO3, CDKN1A and RSK1 mRNA expression level, but decreased ELK1, FOS and SIRT1 mRNA expression level. With tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment, gene expression of AKT, FOXO3, ERK and RSK1 mRNA was decreased in senescent cells, but not in young cells. The three down-regulated mRNA in cellular aging, ELK1, FOS and SIRT1, were increased with tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment. Expression of FOXO3 and P21Cip1 proteins showed up-regulation in senescent cells but tocotrienol-rich fraction only decreased P21Cip1 protein expression in senescent cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction exerts gene modulating properties that might be responsible in promoting cell cycle progression during cellular aging.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  7. Ainsah O, Nabishah BM, Osman CB, Khalid BA
    PMID: 10595599
    Normal rats, on being repetitively stressed by being restrained in a tight container for two hours, had higher levels of plasma corticosterone compared to pre stress values. These rats also reacted to the stress by a behavioral response in which there was marked decrease in locomotor activity assessed by the open field test (pre stress: 71.3 +/- 2.6 squares crossed versus post stress: 14.3 +/- 2.5 squares crossed) by counting the number of squares entered by the rat over 5 minutes. By the 6th to 7th exposures to the repetitive stress, the rats adapted to the stress and had normal plasma corticosterone levels and locomotor activity scores comparable to the pre stress values. These responses to stress were completely blocked by the administration of 0.32 microg/100 g BW of naloxone i.p at 10 minutes prior to the stress. In rats fed with rat chow supplemented with 90 mg/kg rat chow or 150 mg/kg rat chow of vitamin E, there was significant reduction of the plasma corticosterone levels and improvement in the locomotor activity. Stress thus caused opioid mediated increase in plasma corticosterone and reduction in locomotor activity which could be blocked by naloxone. These stress responses probably also involved generation of oxygen free radicals which were scavenged by the vitamin E, thus reducing the effects of repetitive stress on locomotor activity and serum corticosterone levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  8. Newaz MA, Nawal NN
    Am J Hypertens, 1998 Dec;11(12):1480-5.
    PMID: 9880131
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), comparing them with normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. SHR were divided into three groups and treated with different doses of alpha-tocopherol (alpha1, 17 mg/kg diet; alpha2, 34 mg/kg diet; and alpha3, 170 mg/kg diet). Normal WKY and untreated SHR were used as normal (N) and hypertensive control (HC). Blood pressures were recorded every 10 days for 3 months. At the end of the trial, animals were killed and measurement of plasma total antioxidant status, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lipid peroxide levels in plasma and blood vessels was carried out following well-established methods. From our study it was found that lipid peroxides in thoracic aorta (N, 0.47 +/- 0.17; H, 0.96 +/- 0.37; P < .0001) and plasma (N, 0.06 +/- 0.01; H, 0.13 +/- 0.01) were significantly higher in hypertensives than in normal rats. SOD activity was significantly lower in hypertensive than normal rats (N, 172.93 +/- 46.91; H, 110.08 +/- 14.38; P < .005). Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in normal than hypertensive rats (N, 0.88 +/- 0.05; H, 0.83 +/- 0.02; P < .05). After the antioxidant trial, it was found that in the treated groups rise of blood pressure was prevented significantly (P < .001) and lipid peroxides in blood vessels were significantly reduced more than in the controls (P < .001). For plasma lipid peroxide it was only significant for groups alpha2 (P < .001) and alpha3 (P < .05). Although all three treated groups showed improved total antioxidant status, only groups alpha2 (0.87 +/- 0.04, P < .005) and alpha3 (1.20 +/- 0.18, P < .001) were statistically significant. All the three groups showed significant increases in their SOD activity (P < .001). Correlation studies showed that total antioxidant status and SOD were significantly negatively correlated with blood pressure in normal rats (P = .007; P = .008). Lipid peroxides in both blood vessel and plasma showed a positive correlation. In the treated groups, lipid peroxides in blood vessels maintained a significant positive correlation with blood pressure in all groups (alpha1, P = .021; alpha2, P = .019; alpha3, P = .002), whereas for plasma lipid peroxides the correlation was in groups alpha1 (P = .005) and alpha2 (P = .009). For SOD activity, significant negative correlations were found with blood pressure in the alpha2 (P = .017) and alpha3 (P = .025) groups. Total antioxidant status maintained a significant negative correlation with blood pressure in all three groups (alpha1, P = .012; alpha2, P = .044; alpha3, P = .014). In conclusion it was found that supplement of alpha-tocopherol may prevent development of increased blood pressure, reduce lipid peroxides in plasma and blood vessels, and enhance the total antioxidant status, including SOD activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  9. Nesaretnam K, Guthrie N, Chambers AF, Carroll KK
    Lipids, 1995 Dec;30(12):1139-43.
    PMID: 8614304
    The tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil consists of tocotrienols and some alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Tocotrienols are a form of vitamin E having an unsaturated side-chain, rather than the saturated side-chain of the more common tocopherols. Because palm oil has been shown not to promote chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we tested effects of TRF and alpha-T on the proliferation, growth, and plating efficiency (PE) of the MDA-MB-435 estrogen-receptor-negative human breast cancer cells. TRF inhibited the proliferation of these cells with a concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation by 50% of 180 microgram/mL whereas alpha-T had no effect at concentrations up to 1000 microgram/mL as measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine. The effects of TRF and alpha-T also were tested in longer-term growth experiments, using concentrations of 180 and 500 microgram/mL. We found that TRF inhibited the growth of these cells by 50%, whereas alpha-T did not. Their effect on the ability of these cells to form colonies also was studied, and it was found that TRF inhibited PE, whereas alpha T had no effect. These results suggest that the inhibition is due to the presence of tocotrienols in TRF rather than alpha T.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology
  10. Ong FB, Wan Ngah WZ, Shamaan NA, Md Top AG, Marzuki A, Khalid AK
    PMID: 7903615
    1. The effect of tocotrienol and tocopherol on glutathione S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. 2. Tocotrienol and tocopherol significantly decreased GGT activities at 5 days in culture but tocotrienol also significantly decreased GGT activities at 1-2 days. 3. Tocotrienol and tocopherol treatment significantly decreased GST activities at 3 days compared to the control but tocotrienol also decreased GST activities at 1-3 days. 4. Tocotrienol showed a more pronounced effect at a dosage of greater than 50 microM tocotrienol at 1-3 days in culture compared to the control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  11. Zulkiflee NS, Awang SA, Ming WX, Kamilan MFW, Mariappan MY, Kit TJ
    Curr Comput Aided Drug Des, 2020;16(4):467-472.
    PMID: 31203808 DOI: 10.2174/1573409915666190614113733
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin E is comprised of α, β, γ and δ-tocopherols (Ts) and α, β, γ and δ- tocotrienols (T3s). Vitamin E has neuroprotective antioxidant, anti-cancer, and cholesterol-lowering effects. Intracellular trafficking of these isomers remains largely unknown, except for αT which is selectively transported by αT transfer protein (αTTP).

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the binding of vitamin E isomers on transport proteins using in silico docking.

    METHODS: Transport proteins were selected using AmiGo Gene Ontology tool based on the same molecular function annotation as αTTP. Protein structures were obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Ligands structures were obtained from ZINC database. In silico docking was performed using SwissDock.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 6 transport proteins were found: SEC14-like protein 2, glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP), pleckstrin homology domain-containing family A member 8, collagen type IV alpha-3-binding protein, ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein and afamin. Compared with other transport proteins, αTTP had the highest affinities for all isomers except βT3. Binding order of vitamin E isomers toward αTTP was γT > βT > αT > δT > αT3 > γT3 > δT3 > βT3. GLTP had a higher affinity for tocotrienols than tocopherols. βT3 bound stronger to GLTP than αTTP.

    CONCLUSION: αTTP remained as the most preferred transport protein for most of the isomers. The binding affinity of αT toward αTTP was not the highest than other isomers suggested that other intracellular trafficking mechanisms of these isomers may exist. GLTP may mediate the intracellular transport of tocotrienols, especially βT3. Improving the bioavailability of these isomers may enhance their beneficial effects to human.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  12. Cheah PB, Gan SP
    J Food Prot, 2000 Mar;63(3):404-7.
    PMID: 10716573
    The antioxidant and microbial stabilities of galangal (Alpinia galanga) extract in raw minced beef were examined at 4 +/- 1 degree C. Raw minced beef containing galangal extracts (0 to 0.10%, wt/wt) were prepared. Lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage was assessed by monitoring malonaldehyde formation, using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method. In minced beef, added galangal extract improved oxidative stability. Galangal extract at higher concentrations of 0.05% and 0.10% (wt/wt) were also found to extend the shelf-life of minced beef. Addition of alpha-tocopherol (0.02%, wt/wt) to galangal extract (0.05%, wt/wt) were observed to increase the oxidative but not the microbial stability of minced beef during the storage of 7 days. Galangal extract may prove useful in inhibiting lipid oxidation and increasing microbial stability of minced meat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  13. Hashim P
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Mar;27(2):233-7.
    PMID: 24577907
    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology
  14. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Nutrients, 2014 Apr;6(4):1424-41.
    PMID: 24727433 DOI: 10.3390/nu6041424
    Recent studies have found conflicting evidence on the role of α-tocopherol (αTF) on bone health. This nonsystematic review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of αTF on bone health from cell culture, animal, and human studies in order to clarify the role of αTF on bone health. Our review found that αTF exerted beneficial, harmful or null effects on bone formation cells. Animal studies generally showed positive effects of αTF supplementation on bone in various models of osteoporosis. However, high-dose αTF was possibly detrimental to bone in normal animals. Human studies mostly demonstrated a positive relationship between αTF, as assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and/or dietary questionnaire, and bone health, as assessed using bone mineral density and/or fracture incidence. Three possible reasons high dosage of αTF can be detrimental to bone include its interference with Vitamin K function on bone, the blocking of the entry of other Vitamin E isomers beneficial to bone, and the role of αTF as a prooxidant. However, these adverse effects have not been shown in human studies. In conclusion, αTF may have a dual role in bone health, whereby in the appropriate doses it is beneficial but in high doses it may be harmful to bone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology
  15. Makpol S, Zainuddin A, Chua KH, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2013;2013:454328.
    PMID: 23634235 DOI: 10.1155/2013/454328
    The effect of γ -tocotrienol, a vitamin E isomer, in modulating gene expression in cellular aging of human diploid fibroblasts was studied. Senescent cells at passage 30 were incubated with 70  μ M of γ -tocotrienol for 24 h. Gene expression patterns were evaluated using Sentrix HumanRef-8 Expression BeadChip from Illumina, analysed using GeneSpring GX10 software, and validated using quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 100 genes were differentially expressed (P < 0.001) by at least 1.5 fold in response to γ -tocotrienol treatment. Amongst the genes were IRAK3, SelS, HSPA5, HERPUD1, DNAJB9, SEPR1, C18orf55, ARF4, RINT1, NXT1, CADPS2, COG6, and GLRX5. Significant gene list was further analysed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), and the Normalized Enrichment Score (NES) showed that biological processes such as inflammation, protein transport, apoptosis, and cell redox homeostasis were modulated in senescent fibroblasts treated with γ -tocotrienol. These findings revealed that γ -tocotrienol may prevent cellular aging of human diploid fibroblasts by modulating gene expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology
  16. Rodzian MN, Aziz Ibrahim IA, Nur Azlina MF, Nafeeza MI
    Pol J Pathol, 2013 Apr;64(1):52-8.
    PMID: 23625601
    Stress has been implicated as a risk factor of various major health problems, such as stress-induced gastric mucosal injury. This study was performed to investigate the action of a pure preparation of tocotrienol (T3) concentrate, made up of 90% δ-tocotrienol and 10% γ-tocotrienol, on gastric injury of rats induced by water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS). Fourteen male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into two equal groups: a control group and a treated group. The treatment group received T3 concentrate at 60 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days. The body weights of rats were recorded daily before the treatment was given. At the end of the treatment period, all rats were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours, following which the rats were euthanized. The stomachs were isolated and opened along the greater curvature for the examination of lesions and measurements of gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) contents. The mean gastric mucosal lesion index in the treated rats was significantly lower than that in the control rats. This suggests that the T3 concentrate has the ability to confer protection to the gastric mucosa against gastric injury induced by acute stress. No significant difference was observed for changes in body weight before and after the treatment. The gastric PGE2 content in both groups was comparable. However, the gastric MDA content was significantly higher in the treated group compared to the control group, indicating that the T3 supplementation was not able to reduce the lipid peroxidation process. This study concludes that the T3 concentrate has the ability to protect the gastric mucosa from stress-induced injury by a non-antioxidant mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology
  17. Dauqan E, Sani HA, Abdullah A, Kasim ZM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2011 Mar 15;14(6):399-403.
    PMID: 21902064
    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of four different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO), palm olein (PO), corn oil (CO), coconut oil (COC)] on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in the control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups, 15% of additional different vegetable oils were given. After 4 weeks of treatment the catalase (CAT) activity results showed that there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups while after 8 weeks of treatment showed that there was no significant different (p > or = 0.05) between control group and RPO group but the treated rat liver with PO, CO and COC groups were the lowest and it were significantly lower (> or = 0.05) than control group. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups of vegetable oils after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Thus the study indicated that there was no significant (p > or = 0.05) effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) but there was significant effect (p > or = 0.05) on catalase in rat liver.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology
  18. Makpol S, Abidin AZ, Sairin K, Mazlan M, Top GM, Ngah WZ
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2010 Jan-Feb;3(1):35-43.
    PMID: 20716926 DOI: 10.4161/oxim.3.1.9940
    The effects of palm gamma-tocotrienol (GGT) on oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing was investigated in normal human skin fibroblast cell lines derived from different age groups; young (21-year-old, YF), middle (40-year-old, MF) and old (68-year-old, OF). Fibroblast cells were treated with gamma-tocotrienol for 24 hours before or after incubation with IC50 dose of H2O2 for 2 hours. Changes in cell viability, telomere length and telomerase activity were assessed using the MTS assay (Promega, USA), Southern blot analysis and telomere repeat amplification protocol respectively. Results showed that treatment with different concentrations of gamma-tocotrienol increased fibroblasts viability with optimum dose of 80 microM for YF and 40 microM for both MF and OF. At higher concentrations, gamma-tocotrienol treatment caused marked decrease in cell viability with IC50 value of 200 microM (YF), 300 microM (MF) and 100 microM (OF). Exposure to H2O2 decreased cell viability in dose dependent manner, shortened telomere length and reduced telomerase activity in all age groups. The IC50 of H2O2 was found to be; YF (700 microM), MF (400 microM) and OF (100 microM). Results showed that viability increased significantly (p < 0.05) when cells were treated with 80 microM and 40 microM gamma-tocotrienol prior or after H2O2-induced oxidative stress in all age groups. In YF and OF, pretreatment with gamma-tocotrienol prevented shortening of telomere length and reduction in telomerase activity. In MF, telomerase activity increased while no changes in telomere length was observed. However, post-treatment of gamma-tocotrienol did not exert any significant effects on telomere length and telomerase activity. Thus, these data suggest that gamma-tocotrienol protects against oxidative stress-induced cellular ageing by modulating the telomere length possibly via telomerase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology
  19. Newaz MA, Nawal NN, Rohaizan CH, Muslim N, Gapor A
    Am J Hypertens, 1999 Aug;12(8 Pt 1):839-44.
    PMID: 10480480
    Antioxidant protection provided by different doses of alpha-tocopherol was compared by determining nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with alpha-tocopherol. SHR were divided into four groups namely hypertensive control (C), treatment with 17 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (alpha1), 34 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (alpha2), and 170 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (alpha3). Wister Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as normal control (N). Blood pressure were recorded from the tail by physiography every other night for the duration of the study period of 3 months. At the end of the trial, animals were sacrificed. The NOS activity in blood vessels was measured by [3H]arginine radioactive assay and the nitrite concentration in plasma by spectrophotometry at wavelength 554 nm using Greiss reagent. Analysis of data was done using Student's t test and Pearson's correlation. The computer program Statistica was used for all analysis. Results of our study showed that for all the three alpha-tocopherol-treated groups, blood pressure was significantly (P < .001) reduced compared to the hypertensive control and maximum reduction of blood pressure was shown by the dosage of 34 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (C: 209.56 +/- 8.47 mm Hg; alpha2: 128.83 +/- 17.13 mm Hg). Also, NOS activity in blood vessels of SHR was significantly lower than WKY rats (N: 1.54 +/- 0.26 pmol/mg protein, C: 0.87 +/- 0.23 pmol/mg protein; P < .001). Although alpha-tocopherol in doses of alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 increased the NOS activity in blood vessels, after treatment only that of alpha2 showed a statistical significance (P < .01). Plasma nitrite concentration was significantly reduced in SHR compared to normal WKY rats (N: 54.62 +/- 2.96 mol/mL, C: 26.24 +/- 2.14 mol/mL; P < .001) and accordingly all three groups showed significant improvement in their respective nitrite level (P < .001). For all groups, NOS activity and nitrite level showed negative correlation with blood pressure. It was significant for NOS activity in hypertensive control (r = -0.735, P = .038), alpha1 (r = -0.833, P = .001), and alpha2 (r = -0.899, P = .000) groups. For plasma nitrite, significant correlation was observed only in group alpha1 (r = -0.673, P = .016) and alpha2 (r = -0.643, P = .024). Only the alpha2 group showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.777, P = .003) between NOS activity and nitrite level. In conclusion it was found that compared to WKY rats, SHR have lower NOS activity in blood vessels, which upon treatment with antioxidant alpha-tocopherol increased the NOS activity and concomitantly reduced the blood pressure. There was correlation of lipid peroxide in blood vessels with NOS and nitric oxide, which implies that free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
  20. Norazlina M, Ima-Nirwana S, Gapor MT, Khalid BA
    Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes, 2000;108(4):305-10.
    PMID: 10961363
    Vitamin E has been shown to affect bone metabolism. In this study we determined the effects of palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol on bone metabolism. Sprague-Dawley female rats fed with normal rat chow were divided into 4 groups and supplemented with either palm vitamin E 30 mg/kg rat weight, palm vitamin E 60 mg/kg rat weight or alpha-tocopherol 30 mg/kg rat weight. One group was not supplemented. Half of these rats were ovariectomised before supplementation was given for 10 months. As expected, bone mineral density of the ovariectomised rats fed on normal rat chow diet was lower compared to the intact rats. However, these changes were not seen in the supplemented group of rats. Both intact and ovariectomised rats supplemented with palm vitamin E 30 mg/kg rat weight had a lower bone calcium content in both femoral and vertebral bones whilst rats fed palm vitamin E 60 mg/kg rat weight or alpha-tocopherol 30 mg/kg rat weight were able to maintain bone calcium content. Alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated in ovariectomised rats supplemented with palm vitamin E 30 mg/kg rat weight and alpha-tocopherol 30 mg/kg rat weight compared to the intact rats. Alpha-tocopherol also reduced the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase post-ovariectomy. These findings indicate that both palm vitamin E and alpha-tocopherol maintained bone mineral density in ovariectomised rats but caused conflicting effects on bone calcium content. Further study is needed in order to determine the mechanisms involved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vitamin E/pharmacology*
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