MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction was used to treat different stages of cellular aging of primary human diploid fibroblasts viz. young (passage 6), pre-senescent (passage 15) and senescent (passage 30). Several selected targets involved in the downstream of PI3K/AKT and RAF/MEK/ERK pathways were compared in total RNA and protein.
RESULTS: Different transcriptional profiles were observed in young, pre-senescent and senescent HDFs, in which cellular aging increased AKT, FOXO3, CDKN1A and RSK1 mRNA expression level, but decreased ELK1, FOS and SIRT1 mRNA expression level. With tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment, gene expression of AKT, FOXO3, ERK and RSK1 mRNA was decreased in senescent cells, but not in young cells. The three down-regulated mRNA in cellular aging, ELK1, FOS and SIRT1, were increased with tocotrienol-rich fraction treatment. Expression of FOXO3 and P21Cip1 proteins showed up-regulation in senescent cells but tocotrienol-rich fraction only decreased P21Cip1 protein expression in senescent cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Tocotrienol-rich fraction exerts gene modulating properties that might be responsible in promoting cell cycle progression during cellular aging.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the binding of vitamin E isomers on transport proteins using in silico docking.
METHODS: Transport proteins were selected using AmiGo Gene Ontology tool based on the same molecular function annotation as αTTP. Protein structures were obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Ligands structures were obtained from ZINC database. In silico docking was performed using SwissDock.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 6 transport proteins were found: SEC14-like protein 2, glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP), pleckstrin homology domain-containing family A member 8, collagen type IV alpha-3-binding protein, ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein and afamin. Compared with other transport proteins, αTTP had the highest affinities for all isomers except βT3. Binding order of vitamin E isomers toward αTTP was γT > βT > αT > δT > αT3 > γT3 > δT3 > βT3. GLTP had a higher affinity for tocotrienols than tocopherols. βT3 bound stronger to GLTP than αTTP.
CONCLUSION: αTTP remained as the most preferred transport protein for most of the isomers. The binding affinity of αT toward αTTP was not the highest than other isomers suggested that other intracellular trafficking mechanisms of these isomers may exist. GLTP may mediate the intracellular transport of tocotrienols, especially βT3. Improving the bioavailability of these isomers may enhance their beneficial effects to human.