Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 133 in total

  1. Isa MH, Ibrahim N, Aziz HA, Adlan MN, Sabiani NH, Zinatizadeh AA, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2008 Apr 1;152(2):662-8.
    PMID: 17714862
    This study proposed an oil palm by-product as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] from aqueous solution. Adsorption of Cr (VI) by sulphuric acid and heat-treated oil palm fibre was conducted using batch tests. The influence of pH, contact time, initial chromium concentration and adsorbent dosage on the removal of Cr (VI) from the solutions was investigated. The optimum initial pH for maximum uptake of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution was found to be 1.5. The removal efficiency was found to correlate with the initial Cr (VI) concentration, adsorbent dosage as well as the contact time between Cr (VI) and the adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics tested with pseudo first order and pseudo second order models yielded high R(2) values from 0.9254 to 0.9870 and from 0.9936 to 0.9998, respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference between the R(2) values of the two models at 99% confidence level. The Freundlich isotherm (R(2)=0.8778) described Cr (VI) adsorption slightly better than the Langmuir isotherm (R(2)=0.8715). Difficulty in desorption of Cr (VI) suggests the suitability of treated oil palm fibre as a single-use adsorbent for Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  2. Al-Baldawi IA, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Anuar N, Suja F, Idris M
    Water Sci Technol, 2013;68(10):2271-8.
    PMID: 24292478 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.484
    One of the appropriate development technology options for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with diesel is constructed wetlands (CWs). Throughout 72 days of exposure, sampling was carried out for monitoring of physical parameters, plant growth and the efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, as an indication for diesel contamination, to assess the pilot-scale performance. Four pilot CWs with a horizontal sub-surface flow system were applied using the bulrush of Scirpus grossus. The CWs were loaded with different diesel concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.25% (Vdiesel/Vwater). The TPH removal efficiencies were 82, 71, and 67% at the end of 72 days for diesel concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.25% respectively. In addition, the high removal efficiency of total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 100 and 75.4% respectively, for a diesel concentration of 0.1%. It was concluded that S. grossus is a potential plant that can be used in a well-operated CW for restoring 0.1% diesel-contaminated water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  3. Osman WH, Abdullah SR, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AA, Rahman RA
    J Environ Manage, 2013 May 30;121:80-6.
    PMID: 23524399 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.02.005
    A lab-scale granular activated carbon sequencing batch biofilm reactor (GAC-SBBR), a combined adsorption and biological process, was developed to treat real wastewater from a recycled paper mill. In this study, one-consortia of mixed culture (4000-5000 mg/L) originating from recycled paper mill activated sludge from Kajang, Malaysia was acclimatized. The GAC-SBBR was fed with real wastewater taken from the same recycled paper mill, which had a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and adsorbable organic halides (AOX). The operational duration of the GAC-SBBR was adjusted from 48 h to 24, 12 and finally 8 h to evaluate the effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the simultaneous removal of COD and AOX. The COD and AOX removals were in the range of 53-92% and 26-99%, respectively. From this study, it was observed that the longest HRT (48 h) yielded a high removal of COD and AOX, at 92% and 99%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  4. Chang SH, Teng TT, Ismail N, Alkarkhi AF
    J Hazard Mater, 2011 Jun 15;190(1-3):197-204.
    PMID: 21493005 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.025
    The objectives of this work were to select suitable design parameters and optimize the operating parameters of a soybean oil-based bulk liquid membrane (BLM) for Cu(II) removal and recovery from aqueous solutions. The soybean oil-based BLM consists of an aqueous feed phase (Cu(II) source), an organic membrane phase (soybean oil (diluent), di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) (carrier) and tributylphosphate (phase modifier)) and an aqueous stripping phase (sulfuric acid solution (H(2)SO(4))). Effects of design parameters (stirring condition and stripping/membrane to feed/membrane interface area ratio) of soybean oil-based BLM on the Cu(II) removal and recovery from aqueous solutions were investigated and the suitable parameters were selected for further studies. Optimization of the operating parameters (D2EHPA concentration, H(2)SO(4) concentration, stirring speed, temperature and operating time) of soybean oil-based BLM for maximum percentage (%) recovery of Cu(II) was then conducted using Response Surface Methodology and the optimum parameters were determined. A regression model for % recovery was developed and its adequacy was evaluated. The experimental % recovery obtained under the optimum operating conditions was compared with the predicted one and they were found to agree satisfactorily with each other.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  5. Ahmad T, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R
    PMID: 21929380 DOI: 10.1080/10590501.2011.601847
    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  6. Ahmad T, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, Ahmad A
    PMID: 21069614 DOI: 10.1080/10590501.2010.525782
    In this review article, the use of various low-cost adsorbents for the removal of pesticides from water and wastewater has been reviewed. Pesticides may appear as pollutants in water sources, having undesirable impacts to human health because of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity or causing aesthetic problems such as taste and odors. These pesticides pollute the water stream and it can be removed very effectively using different low-cost adsorbents. It is evident from a literature survey of about 191 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for pesticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  7. Chang SH, Teng TT, Ismail N
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Sep 15;181(1-3):868-72.
    PMID: 20638965 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.093
    Various types of vegetable oil-based organic solvents (VOS), i.e. vegetable oils (corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils) with and without extractants (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tributylphosphate (TBP)), were investigated into their potentiality as greener substitutes for the conventional petroleum-based organic solvents to extract Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The pH-extraction isotherms of Cu(II) using various vegetable oils loaded with both D2EHPA and TBP were investigated and the percentage extraction (%E) of Cu(II) achieved by different types of VOS was determined. Vegetable oils without extractants and those loaded with TBP alone showed a poor extractability for Cu(II). Vegetable oils loaded with both D2EHPA and TBP were found to be the most effective VOS for Cu(II) extraction and, thus, are potential greener substitutes for the conventional petroleum-based organic solvents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  8. Balasubramanian N, Kojima T, Basha CA, Srinivasakannan C
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Aug 15;167(1-3):966-9.
    PMID: 19231076 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.01.081
    Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution was carried out using electrocoagulation. Experiments were conducted using mild steel sacrificial anode covering wide range in operating conditions to assess the removal efficiency. The maximum arsenic removal efficiency was recorded as 94% under optimum condition. The electrocoagulation mechanism of arsenic removal has been developed to understand the effect of applied charge and electrolyte pH on arsenic removal efficiency. Further the experimental data were tested with different adsorption isotherm model to describe the electrocoagulation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  9. Hussain S, Aziz HA, Isa MH, Adlan MN, Asaari FA
    Bioresour Technol, 2007 Mar;98(4):874-80.
    PMID: 16716587
    The purpose of the present study was to examine the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) from synthetic wastewater using limestone (LS) and granular activated carbon (GAC) mixture as low cost adsorbent. In batch study, optimum shaking and settling times were 150 and 120 min, respectively. The LS-GAC mixture ratio of 25:15 removed about 58% NH4-N. The smaller particle size of medium yielded higher adsorption capacity. The equilibrium adsorption data followed the Freundlich isotherm (R2 > 0.98) but it showed weak bond. Adsorption kinetics were well described by the pseudo second-order rate model (R2 > 0.93). The upflow column showed that higher flow rate and initial concentration resulted in shorter column saturation time. The study showed that the usage of GAC could be reduced by combining GAC with LS for the removal of NH4-N from wastewater; thus reducing the cost of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  10. Rezania S, Ponraj M, Talaiekhozani A, Mohamad SE, Md Din MF, Taib SM, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2015 Nov 1;163:125-33.
    PMID: 26311085 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.08.018
    The development of eco-friendly and efficient technologies for treating wastewater is one of the attractive research area. Phytoremediation is considered to be a possible method for the removal of pollutants present in wastewater and recognized as a better green remediation technology. Nowadays the focus is to look for a sustainable approach in developing wastewater treatment capability. Water hyacinth is one of the ancient technology that has been still used in the modern era. Although, many papers in relation to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published, recently removal of organic, inorganic and heavy metal have not been reviewed extensively. The main objective of this paper is to review the possibility of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in different types of wastewater. Water hyacinth is although reported to be as one of the most problematic plants worldwide due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies but its quest for nutrient absorption has provided way for its usage in phytoremediation, along with the combination of herbicidal control, integratated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply to control its growth. Moreover as a part of solving wastewater treatment problems in urban or industrial areas using this plant, a large number of useful byproducts can be developed like animal and fish feed, power plant energy (briquette), ethanol, biogas, composting and fiber board making. In focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the utilization of invasive plants in pollution abatement phytotechnologies can certainly assist for their sustainable management in treating waste water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  11. Arumugam N, Chelliapan S, Kamyab H, Thirugnana S, Othman N, Nasri NS
    PMID: 30551682 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15122851
    Inadequately treated or untreated wastewater greatly contribute to the release of unwanted toxic contaminants into water bodies. Some of these contaminants are persistent and bioaccumulative, becoming a great concern as they are released into the environment. Despite the abundance of wastewater treatment technologies, the adsorption method overall has proven to be an excellent way to treat wastewater from multiple industry sources. Because of its significant benefits, i.e., easy availability, handling, and higher efficiency with a low cost relative to other treatments, adsorption is opted as the best method to be used. However, biosorption using naturally found seaweeds has been proven to have promising results in removing pollutants, such as dyes from textile, paper, and the printing industry, nitrogen, and phosphorous and phenolic compounds, as well as heavy metals from various sources. Due to its ecofriendly nature together with the availability and inexpensiveness of raw materials, biosorption via seaweed has become an alternative to the existing technologies in removing these pollutants from wastewater effectively. In this article, the use of low-cost adsorbent (seaweed) for the removal of pollutants from wastewater has been reviewed. An extensive table summarises the applicability of seaweed in treating wastewater. Literature reported that the majority of research used simulated wastewater and minor attention has been given to biosorption using seaweed in the treatment of real wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  12. Habiba U, Islam MS, Siddique TA, Afifi AM, Ang BC
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 09 20;149:317-31.
    PMID: 27261756 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.04.127
    Chitosan/PVA/Na-titanate/TiO2 composite was synthesized by solution casting method. The composite was analyzed via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal gravimetric analysis and water stability test. Incorporation of Na-titanate shown decrease of crystallinity for chitosan but increase water stability. However, the composite structure was deteriorated with considerable weight loss in acidic medium. Two anionic dyes, methyl orange and congo red were used for the adsorption test. The adsorption behavior of the composites were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Lagergren-first-order model for methyl orange and congo red, respectively. For methyl orange, adsorption was started with a promising decolorization rate. 99.9% of methyl orange dye was removed by the composite having higher weightage of chitosan and crystalline TiO2 phase. On the other hand, for the congo red the composite having higher chitosan and Na-titanate showed an efficient removal capacity of 95.76%. UV-vis results showed that the molecular backbone of methyl orange and congo red was almost destroyed when equilibrium was obtained, and the decolorization rate was reaching 100%. Kinetic study results showed that the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and congo red could be explained by Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Thus, chitosan/PVA/Na-titanate/TiO2 possesses efficient adsorptivity and photocatalytic property for dye degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification
  13. Pramanik BK, Pramanik SK, Suja F
    Environ Technol, 2016 Aug;37(15):1857-64.
    PMID: 26695189 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2015.1134677
    The impact of biological activated carbon (BAC), sand filtration (SF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) for removal of the selected organic micropollutants and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from secondary effluent was studied. BAC led to greater removal of dissolved organic carbon (43%) than BAF (30%) which in turn was greater than SF (24%). All biological filtration systems could effectively remove most of the selected organic micropollutants, and there was a greater removal of these micropollutants by BAC (76-98%) than BAF (70-92%) or SF (68-90%). It was found that all treatment was effective for removal of the hydrophobic (log D > 3.2) and readily biodegradable organic micropollutants. The major mechanism for the removal of these molecules was biodegradation by the micro-organism and sorption by the biofilm. Compared to organic micropollutants removal, there was a lower removal of PFASs by all treatments, and BAF and SF had a considerably lower removal than BAC treatment. The better removal for all molecule types by BAC was due to additional adsorption capacity by the activated carbon. This study demonstrated that the BAC process was most effective in removing organic micropollutants present in the secondary effluent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  14. Shahadat M, Teng TT, Rafatullah M, Arshad M
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2015 Feb 1;126:121-37.
    PMID: 25543989 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.11.049
    This article explains recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of novel titanium-based nanocomposite materials. Currently, it is a pressing concern to develop innovative skills for the fabrication of hybrid nanomaterials under varying experimental conditions. This review generally focuses on the adsorption behavior of nanocomposites for the exclusion of organic and inorganic pollutants from industrial effluents and their significant applications in various fields. The assessment of recently published articles on the conjugation of organic polymers with titanium has revealed that these materials may be a new means of managing aquatic pollution. These nanocomposite materials not only create alternative methods for designing novel materials, but also develop innovative industrial applications. In the future, titanium-based hybrid nanomaterials are expected to open new approaches for demonstrating their outstanding applications in diverse fields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  15. Tisa F, Raman AA, Daud WM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:348974.
    PMID: 25309949 DOI: 10.1155/2014/348974
    Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40-90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification
  16. Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Ibrahim MH, Abdullah AZ, Salamatinia B, Gholami Z
    PMID: 24984835 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-06746-9_3
    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The advantages that oil palm biomass has includes the following:available and exists in abundance, appears to be effective technically, and can be integrated into existing processes. Despite these advantages, oil palm biomasses have disadvantages such as low adsorption capacity, increased COD, BOD and TOC. These disadvantages can be overcome by modifying the biomass either chemically or thermally. Such modification creates a charged surface and increases the heavy metal ion binding capacity of the adsorbent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  17. Oladoja NA, Adelagun RO, Ahmad AL, Unuabonah EI, Bello HA
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2014 May 1;117:51-9.
    PMID: 24632030 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.02.006
    A novel adsorbent, magnetic, macro-reticulated cross-linked chitosan (MRC) was synthesised for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from water using a source of biogenic waste (gastropod shells) as a pore-forming agent. The insertion of crosslinks into the chitosan frame was confirmed by FTIR analysis, while the stability of the MRC was demonstrated via a stability test performed in an acidic solution. The enhanced porosity of the MRC was confirmed by the evaluation of its porosity, a swelling test and the determination of its specific surface area. The time-concentration profile of the sorption of TC onto the MRC demonstrated that equilibrium was attained relatively quickly (120 min), and the data obtained fitted a pseudo second order (r(2)>0.99) kinetic equation better than a pseudo first order or reversible first order kinetic equation. The optimisation of process variables indicated that the sorption of TC onto the MRC was favoured at a low solution pH and that the presence of organics (simulated by the addition of humic acid) negatively impacted the magnitude of TC removal. The area of coverage of TC on the MRC (2.51 m(2)/g) was low compared to the specific surface area of the MRC (47.95 m(2)/g). The value of the calculated energy of adsorption of TC onto the MRC was 100 kJ/mol, which is far above the range of 1-16 kJ/mol stipulated for physical adsorption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  18. Surikumaran H, Mohamad S, Sarih NM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(4):6111-36.
    PMID: 24727378 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15046111
    This work describes methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-βCD) as a novel functional monomer in the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP MAA-βCD) for the selective removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The influence of parameters such as solution pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentrations towards removal of 2,4-DCP using MIP MAA-βCD have been evaluated. The imprinted material shows fast kinetics and the optimum pH for removal of 2,4-DCP is pH 7. Compared with the corresponding non-imprinted polymer (NIP MAA-βCD), the MIP MAA-βCD exhibited higher adsorption capacity and outstanding selectivity towards 2,4-DCP. Freundlich isotherm best fitted the adsorption equilibrium data of MIP MAA-βCD and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4-DCP was spontaneous and exothermic under the examined conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification
  19. Tan WS, Ting AS
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 May;160:115-8.
    PMID: 24405651 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.056
    This study evaluated the use of alginate-immobilized bentonite to remove Cu(II) as an alternative to mitigate clogging problems. The adsorption efficacy (under the influence of time, pH and initial Cu(II) concentration) and reusability of immobilized-bentonite (1% w/v bentonite) was tested against plain alginate beads. Results revealed that immobilized bentonite demonstrated significantly higher sorption efficacy compared to plain alginate beads with 114.70 and 94.04 mg Cu(II) adsorbed g(-1) adsorbent, respectively. Both sorbents were comparable in other aspects where sorption equilibrium was achieved within 6 h, with optimum pH between pH 4 and 5 for adsorption, displayed maximum adsorption capacity at initial Cu(II) concentrations of 400 mg l(-1), and demonstrated excellent reusability potential with desorption greater than 90% throughout three consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. Both sorbents also conformed to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model. Immobilized bentonite is therefore recommended for use in water treatments to remove Cu(II) without clogging the system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
  20. Zain NN, Abu Bakar NK, Mohamad S, Saleh NM
    PMID: 24161875 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2013.09.129
    A greener method based on cloud point extraction was developed for removing phenol species including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in water samples by using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. The non-ionic surfactant DC193C was chosen as an extraction solvent due to its low water content in a surfactant rich phase and it is well-known as an environmentally-friendly solvent. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as pH, temperature and incubation time, concentration of surfactant and salt, amount of surfactant and water content were evaluated and optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied for removing phenol species in real water samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification*
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