Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Zainal-Abideen M, Aris A, Yusof F, Abdul-Majid Z, Selamat A, Omar SI
    Water Sci Technol, 2012;65(3):496-503.
    PMID: 22258681 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.561
    In this study of coagulation operation, a comparison was made between the optimum jar test values for pH, coagulant and coagulant aid obtained from traditional methods (an adjusted one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method) and with central composite design (the standard design of response surface methodology (RSM)). Alum (coagulant) and polymer (coagulant aid) were used to treat a water source with very low pH and high aluminium concentration at Sri-Gading water treatment plant (WTP) Malaysia. The optimum conditions for these factors were chosen when the final turbidity, pH after coagulation and residual aluminium were within 0-5 NTU, 6.5-7.5 and 0-0.20 mg/l respectively. Traditional and RSM jar tests were conducted to find their respective optimum coagulation conditions. It was observed that the optimum dose for alum obtained through the traditional method was 12 mg/l, while the value for polymer was set constant at 0.020 mg/l. Through RSM optimization, the optimum dose for alum was 7 mg/l and for polymer was 0.004 mg/l. Optimum pH for the coagulation operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6. The final turbidity, pH after coagulation and residual aluminium recorded were all within acceptable limits. The RSM method was demonstrated to be an appropriate approach for the optimization and was validated by a further test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  2. Yusop Z, Tan LW, Ujang Z, Mohamed M, Nasir KA
    Water Sci Technol, 2005;52(9):125-32.
    PMID: 16445181
    Runoff quality draining from 17.14 km2 urban catchment in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, was analysed. The land-use consists of residential (30.3%), agricultural (27.3%), open space (27.9%), industrial (8.1%) and commercial (6.4%) areas. Three storm events were sampled in detail. These storms produced stormflow between 0.84 mm and 27.82 mm, and peakflow from 2.19 m3/s to 42.36 m3/s. Water quality showed marked variation during storms especially for TSS, BOD and COD with maximum concentrations of 778 mg/l, 135 mg/l and 358 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of TOC, DOC, NH3-N, Fe and level of colour were also high. In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) for various parameters varied considerably between storms. The largest storm produced higher EMC for TSS, NO3-N and SS whereas the smaller storms tend to register higher EMC for BOD, COD, NH3-N, TOC, Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Such variations could be explained in terms of pollutant availability and the effects of flushing and dilution. Based on a three-month average recurrence interval (ARI) of rainfall, the estimated event loadings (ton/ha) of TSS, BOD, COD, TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N were 0.055, 0.016, 0.012, 0.039, 0.010, 0.0007 and 0.0002, respectively. Heavy metals present in trace quantities. Storms with 3 months ARI could capture about 70% of the total annual loads of major pollutants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  3. Abdul Samad BH, Suhaili MR, Baba N, Rajasekaran G
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):297-304.
    PMID: 15727373 MyJurnal
    Water-based cooling towers and their water supply at two hospitals in Johor were surveyed for the presence Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila were grown from 19 (76%) out of 25 collected water samples. One hospital cooling tower was contaminated with L. pneumophila serogroup 1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  4. Mohamed M, Stednick JD, Smith FM
    Water Sci Technol, 2002;46(9):47-54.
    PMID: 12448451
    Some of the many tools used for watershed management are mathematical and computer models for wasteload allocations. QUAL2E is one of the most popular water quality models used for such purposes. The question arises as to whether the model is applicable in a different climate such as that in the tropics. In this study, QUAL2E was used to model Sg. Selangor River in Malaysia using the predictive equations for reaeration coefficient (k2) within the model and the measured reaeration coefficients for the river. The study results indicated that use of the reaeration coefficient (k2) measured at Sg. Selangor River did give the lowest standard error (SE) for the simulation of water quality during the 7Q10 low-flow period which is considered as the worst scene scenario in water quality modeling. But during calibration and validation using actual low-flow discharge data, the measured reaeration coefficients did not give the lowest standard error (SE). In conclusion, the results indicated that QUAL2E is applicable in tropical rivers when used with the modeled river parameters (i.e. hydraulic parameters, meteorological conditions etc.). Measured reaeration coefficients produced good results and several predictive equations also produced comparatively good results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  5. Mahmud MAF, Abdul Mutalip MH, Lodz NA, Muhammad EN, Yoep N, Hashim MH, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 05 15;9(5):e026101.
    PMID: 31097485 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026101
    INTRODUCTION: Dengue is among the most important mosquito-borne diseases, with more than half of the world's population at risk of infection in dengue endemic countries. Environmental management, which includes any activities that involve environmental modification, environmental manipulation and changes to human behaviour have been used to mitigate the risk of dengue transmission. In this protocol, we will integrate the data from various sources to assess the overall effect of environmental management on the incidence of dengue and other entomological indices.

    METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will conduct a systematic review of intervention that assess the effect of environmental management on the incidence of dengue and/or entomological indices. We will include any studies that include intervention through environmental management for dengue control, involving environmental modification, environmental manipulation and changes to human behaviour. A comprehensive search will be performed in electronic databases PUBMED, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Web of Science and relevant research websites such as PROPSERO, WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify studies that meet our inclusion criteria. A systematic approach to searching, screening, reviewing and data extraction will be applied based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis. Titles, abstract, keywords for eligibility will be examined independently by researchers. The quality of the included studies will be assessed using quality assessment tool for studies with diverse design and Cochrane risk of bias tool. The characteristics of the selected articles will be described based on the study design, types of intervention and outcomes of the study in various countries. These include the types of environmental management intervention methods and the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing dengue cases or incidence and impact on entomological indices.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We will register this systematic review with the National Medical Research Register, Ministry of Health Malaysia. This protocol also had been registered with the PROSPERO. No ethical approval is necessary, as there will be no collection of primary data. The results will be disseminated though a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation.


    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  6. Onichandran S, Kumar T, Salibay CC, Dungca JZ, Tabo HA, Tabo N, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:244.
    PMID: 24885105 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-244
    Despite the amount of awareness created, waterborne disease still poses threat, especially in developing countries. Due to the scarcity of reported data on waterborne parasites, the consumption of unsafe water prolongs. Thus, the occurrences of waterborne parasites from various samples were investigated from one of the Southeast Asian country, the Philippines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  7. Azlan A, Khoo HE, Idris MA, Ismail A, Razman MR
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:403574.
    PMID: 22649292 DOI: 10.1100/2012/403574
    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  8. Lee S, Park H
    Water Sci Technol, 2010;61(12):3129-40.
    PMID: 20555209 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.454
    This study deals with the overcapacity problem of water treatment plants in Korea, and mainly discusses status, causes, and engineering options. To this end, we first statistically analyze the recent trend of demand, revealing that the demands of small- and mid-size systems are still increasing while that of large-size systems is now decreasing. Since the existing approach to plan capacity implicitly assumes that demand will increase at a regular rate, we estimate excess capacities and system utilizations of large-size systems. From these results it is found that the large-size systems are suffering from serious overcapacity, thus necessitating that engineers make very difficult decisions given that systems are still expanding the capacities of plants due to a lack of awareness of the current demand trend. For other systems where there is a better understanding of the transition of demand, planners have ceased to expand plants or have closed down relatively old plants in efforts to reduce O&M costs. To address this problem, quick recognition of the transition of demand is being highlighted by the concepts of integrated resources management and cybernetics. Therefore, we examined how quickly the new trend of the Seoul case could be precisely recognized and appropriately addressed. Using the Bayesian parameter estimation method, we found that a new trend can be recognized six years after the transition of demand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  9. Mokhtar MB, Murad W
    J Environ Health, 2010 Apr;72(8):24-9.
    PMID: 20420051
    Environmental health problems in Malaysia are mostly attributed to atmospheric pollution, water pollution, climate change, ozone depletion, and solid waste management, as well as toxic, chemical, and hazardous waste management. The Ministry of Health, Malaysia, has been vigorously pursuing the environmental health agenda by collaborating with other agencies at district, state, national, and international levels. This article discusses the issues and management framework of environmental health in Malaysia. Some issues requiring further investigation in order to clearly understand the trade-off between atmospheric change and environmental health are suggested. These suggestions are developed with particular reference to appraisals concerned with the development and implementation of environmental policy, programs, and practice. Research on the relevant issues is discussed and a framework is built involving a comprehensive review of the literature and existing framework of Malaysian environmental health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  10. Baguma D, Hashim JH, Aljunid SM, Loiskandl W
    Sci Total Environ, 2013 Jan 1;442:96-102.
    PMID: 23178827 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.004
    The need for water continues to become more acute with the changing requirements of an expanding world population. Using a logistical analysis of data from 301 respondents from households that harvest rainwater in Uganda, the relationship between dependent variables, such as water management performed as female-dominated practices, and independent variables, such as years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and the presence of local associations, was investigated. The number of years of water harvesting, family size, tank operation and maintenance, and presence of local associations were statistically significantly related to adequate efficient water management. The number of years of water harvesting was linked to women's participation in household chores more than to the participation of men, the way of livelihoods lived for many years. Large families were concurrent with a reduction in water shortages, partially because of the availability of active labour. The findings also reveal important information regarding water-related operations and maintenance at the household level and the presence of local associations that could contribute some of the information necessary to minimise water-related health risks. Overall, this investigation revealed important observations about the water management carried out by women with respect to underlying safe-water shortages, gender perspectives, and related challenges in Uganda that can be of great importance to developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  11. Suhaimi S, Tahir NM, Suriyati S
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2004 Dec;73(6):1094-100.
    PMID: 15674725
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  12. Desmarchelier P, Lew A, Caique W, Knight S, Toodayan W, Isa AR, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1992 7 1;86(4):448-50.
    PMID: 1440833
    The H2S water screening test and the membrane filtration faecal coliform count were compared with Escherichia coli counts for water samples collected from household water sources and domestic drinking water in rural Malaysia. Water samples were taken from 151 wells, 44 taps supplying water from the treated municipal supply and 192 domestic stored water supplies. E. coli were detected in 20% of the samples (42% of wells, 7% of tap water and 6% of drinking water). Excellent correlation (Spearman's rank correlation rs = 0.93) was found between the faecal coliform and E. coli counts for all sample types. The H2S method was poorly correlated whether read at 18 or 30 h. False positive rates were highest for well water, and false negative rates were highest for both well and drinking water samples, with low E. coli counts. The faecal coliform test was an excellent predictor of the presence of E. coli in these water samples, while the H2S test was very inadequate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  13. Roundy RW
    Soc Sci Med, 1985;20(3):293-300.
    PMID: 3975696
    The decade of the 1980s is declared as a time to solve global domestic water supply problems. By 1990 international goals include the provision of adequate quantities of clean water to every person on earth. Such goals are justified on the basis of human health, economic well being, political development and equity and public safety. Drawing upon observations from Ethiopia, Malaysia and Liberia, cases where attempts to provide domestic water to villagers and rural town dwellers are presented. In all cited cases attempts to provide safe water have failed or are in jeopardy. Conclusions drawn from these cases include acknowledgement that global goals will best be achieved by approaching local problems one-by-one and recognizing the technical, environmental and human constraints upon safe water provision interact differently from one site to another. To properly plan, implement and maintain safe water systems the current technical solutions must be combined with the contributions of social and environmental scientists on a case-by-case basis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  14. Lye MS
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1984 Apr;13(2):156-62.
    PMID: 6497315
    A survey was conducted in six selected rural villages to obtain baseline data on socioeconomic status, nutrition, environmental sanitation and behavioural aspects in relation to diarrhoeal diseases, using a standard questionnaire. Subsequent to this, children 0-4 years of age were followed weekly for six months for diarrhoeal disease. Eleven variables representing socioeconomic status, nutritional status, housing condition, environmental sanitation, mother's knowledge and beliefs were investigated using stepwise logistic regression to determine significant predictors of diarrhoeal disease. Children who were below two years of age, living in conditions of poor sanitation and poor quality water supply, whose houses were prone to flooding and who had mothers whose sanitary habits were not influenced by their religious beliefs, were at significantly greater risk of diarrhoeal disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  15. Lonergan S, Vansickle T
    Soc Sci Med, 1991;33(8):937-46.
    PMID: 1745918
    Due to the increasingly documented prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in Malaysia, a number of water-related programmes have been implemented in an attempt to improve health status through the reduction of incidence of waterborne communicable diseases associated with poor public water supplies. The implicit assumption underlying these projects is that the enhancement of the physical infrastructure, and subsequent improvements in the quality of the water supply, will substantially reduce water-related disease. The present study questions this hypothesis and uses a socio-ecological model as a framework to assess risk factors associated with the increased probability of waterborne disease. Research is centred on Port Dickson, a district which typifies existing water and sanitation conditions in much of semi-rural Malaysia. Health services utilization data and a 268-household diarrhoeal morbidity survey were used to measure the burden of illness of waterborne disease within the district and to identify predictors of morbidity. It was concluded that although treatment facilities will reduce the health burden in the region, a number of behavioural and sanitation factors may be more important and could act to minimize the potential impacts of improved water quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  16. Lono A, Kumar S, Chye TT
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2011 Jul;105(7):409-13.
    PMID: 21596411 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2011.03.006
    The HIV-positive population, due to their immuno-compromised nature, is considered more susceptible to parasitic infections than other populations. However despite the reports of other opportunistic pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and tuberculosis reported in vulnerable communities, microsporidia have not been highlighted in the local HIV-positive population in Malaysia. This study aimed to provide preliminary information on the prevalence of microsporidia in the local HIV-population. Microsporidia were detected in 21/247 (8.5%) stool samples from the HIV-infected individuals, a significantly higher (P-value <0.05) prevalence than in the control group, in which 5/173 (2.9%) were positive. HIV patients were 3x more at risk for acquiring microspordium (OR: 3.12; 95% CI 1.15-8.44). Spores were ellipsoid in shape with outlines that stained dark pink with the interior a lighter shade. Approximately 21% of the positive specimens were from individuals in the 40-49 years age group. Ten individuals who were positive for microsporidia were also positive for other enteric parasites such as Blastocystis hominis and Giardia lamblia. We detected Encephalitozoon intestinalis DNA following nested PCR from three of 10 samples analysed, as demonstrated by an amplicon of 370bp. From the findings reported, it appears that microsporidial infection in humans may actually be more common than reported. We strongly advocate greater emphasis on personal hygiene through public education on personal hygiene and the consumption of boiled or filtered water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  17. Juahir H, Zain SM, Aris AZ, Yusoff MK, Mokhtar MB
    J Environ Monit, 2010 Jan;12(1):287-95.
    PMID: 20082024 DOI: 10.1039/b907306j
    The present study deals with the assessment of Langat River water quality with some chemometrics approaches such as cluster and discriminant analysis coupled with an artificial neural network (ANN). The data used in this study were collected from seven monitoring stations under the river water quality monitoring program by the Department of Environment (DOE) from 1995 to 2002. Twenty three physico-chemical parameters were involved in this analysis. Cluster analysis successfully clustered the Langat River into three major clusters, namely high, moderate and less pollution regions. Discriminant analysis identified seven of the most significant parameters which contribute to the high variation of Langat River water quality, namely dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, pH, ammoniacal nitrogen, chlorine, E. coli, and coliform. Discriminant analysis also plays an important role as an input selection parameter for an ANN of spatial prediction (pollution regions). The ANN showed better prediction performance in discriminating the regional area with an excellent percentage of correct classification compared to discriminant analysis. Multivariate analysis, coupled with ANN, is proposed, which could help in decision making and problem solving in the local environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards
  18. Liew KB, Lepesteur M
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2006 Oct;100(10):949-55.
    PMID: 16730364 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.11.018
    This study evaluates and discusses the impact of the rural health improvement scheme in reducing the incidence of dysentery, enteric fever, cholera and viral hepatitis in Sarawak, Malaysia, using data compiled from state and federal health department reports. This study suggests that from 1963 to 2002, water supply intervention contributed to a more than 200-fold decrease in dysentery and a 60-fold decrease in enteric fever. Variations in reporting of viral hepatitis during that period make it difficult to detect a trend. Cholera was still endemic in 2002. Cholera and dysentery outbreaks, occurring when rural populations relied on contaminated rivers for their water supply, suggested that sanitation intervention was not as effective in reducing waterborne diseases. Recommendations are made for successive one-component interventions focusing on catchment management to ensure protection of current and alternative water supplies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
  19. Sakai N, Dayana E, Abu Bakar A, Yoneda M, Nik Sulaiman NM, Ali Mohd M
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Oct;188(10):592.
    PMID: 27679511
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.
    Matched MeSH terms: Water Supply/standards*
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