Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 251 in total

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  1. Asshauer E
    Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., 1966 May 27;91(21):1003-4.
    PMID: 5948793
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses*
  2. Md-Lasim A, Mohd-Taib FS, Abdul-Halim M, Mohd-Ngesom AM, Nathan S, Md-Nor S
    PMID: 34502012 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18179411
    Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, an emerging zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans worldwide. The risk of host infection following interaction with environmental sources depends on the ability of Leptospira to persist, survive, and infect the new host to continue the transmission chain. Leptospira may coexist with other pathogens, thus providing a suitable condition for the development of other pathogens, resulting in multi-pathogen infection in humans. Therefore, it is important to better understand the dynamics of transmission by these pathogens. We conducted Boolean searches of several databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, SciELO, and ScienceDirect, to identify relevant published data on Leptospira and coinfection with other pathogenic bacteria. We review the role of the host-microbiota in determining the synanthropic interaction of Leptospira sp. with other bacteria, thus creating a suitable condition for the leptospira to survive and persist successfully. We also discuss the biotic and abiotic factors that amplify the viability of Leptospira in the environment. The coinfection of leptospira with pathogenic bacteria has rarely been reported, potentially contributing to a lack of awareness. Therefore, the occurrence of leptospirosis coinfection may complicate diagnosis, long-lasting examination, and mistreatment that could lead to mortality. Identifying the presence of leptospirosis with other bacteria through metagenomic analysis could reveal possible coinfection. In conclusion, the occurrence of leptospirosis with other diseases should be of concern and may depend on the success of the transmission and severity of individual infections. Medical practitioners may misdiagnose the presence of multiple infections and should be made aware of and receive adequate training on appropriate treatment for leptospirosis patients. Physicians could undertake a more targeted approach for leptospirosis diagnosis by considering other symptoms caused by the coinfected bacteria; thus, more specific treatment could be given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology
  3. Stanton AT, Fletcher W
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses
  4. Heisch RB
    Br Med J, 1956;2:669.
    DOI: 10.1136/bmj.2.4994.669
    The zoonoses, which are defined as infections of man naturally acquired from other vertebrates, are treated as a problem in ecology. This entails studying the interrelation between man, animals, a causative organism, the environment, and sometimes arthropods. Such an approach is holistic or synecological—wholes being regarded as more important than parts. Holism is a dynamic not a static conception. The evolution of the zoonoses is discussed, particularly in relation to plague, relapsing fever, and leishmaniasis. The most important reservoirs of zoonoses and other parasitic infections are usually resistant or relatively insusceptible animals rather than highly susceptible ones. Plague and Chagas's disease illustrate this. Resistant and unduly susceptible animals occupy different “niches“ in nature. By “niche“ is meant the place of an animal in its biotic environment. Zoonoses often have a “focal distribution“ in nature. Thus wild rodents infected with plague may occur in “ pockets,” and the vector mites of scrub typhus congregate in “typhus islands.” An unstable environment often favours the transference of zoonoses to man and animals. Examples are the plague-infected plain of Rongai, in Kenya, the typhus-infected forest clearings in Malaya, and the yellow-fever infected forest edges in Uganda. Ecologically unstable areas are termed “ ecotones.” Zoonoses can also be transmitted in or near relatively stable sites such as huts, rodent burrows, caves, and termite hills. These are known as “habitat niches.” Animals and arthropods in a community are linked by food, and the importance of what are known as “food chains“ and “food cycles“ is discussed in relation to the transference of zoonotic infections from one host to another. Reference is also made to the fluctuations in numbers of various animals in nature, and how this affects the incidence of zoonotic disease. Certain highly susceptible rodents are periodically decimated by plague; this breaks the link with man, and human infections cease for the time being. © 1956, British Medical Journal Publishing Group. All rights reserved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses
  5. Nga VT, Ngoc TU, Minh LB, Ngoc VTN, Pham VH, Nghia LL, et al.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2019 Jun;38(6):1047-1058.
    PMID: 30806904 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-019-03505-2
    In recent decades, exceeding 60% of infectious cases in human beings are originated from pathogenic agents related to feral or companion animals. This figure continues to swiftly increase due to excessive exposure between human and contaminated hosts by means of applying unhygienic farming practices throughout society. In Asia countries-renowned for lax regulation towards animal-trading markets-have experienced tremendous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases every year. Meanwhile, various epidemic surges were first reported in the residential area of China-one of the largest distributor of all animal products on the planet. Some noticeable illnesses comprising of A/H5N1 or H7N9-known as avian influenza which transmitted from poultry and also wild birds-have caused inevitable disquiet among inhabitants. Indeed, poultry farming industry in China has witnessed dynamic evolution for the past two decades, both in quantity and degree of output per individual. Together with this pervasive expansion, zoonotic diseases from poultry have incessantly emerged as a latent threat to the surrounding residents in entire Asia and also European countries. Without strict exporting legislation, Vietnam is now facing the serious problem in terms of poultry distribution between the two countries' border. Even though several disease investigations have been conducted by many researchers, the disease epidemiology or transmission methods among people remained blurred and need to be further elucidated. In this paper, our aim is to provide a laconic review of common zoonotic diseases spread in Vietnam, outstanding cases and several factors predisposing to this alarming situation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology*; Zoonoses/transmission*
  6. Naing C, Reid SA, Aye SN, Htet NH, Ambu S
    PLoS One, 2019;14(5):e0217643.
    PMID: 31141558 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217643
    Leptospirosis is probably the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world especially in tropical countries. There has been an increase in individual studies, which assessed the frequency of leptospirosis in flood conditions. Some studies showed contact with floods was significantly associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis while other studies reported differently. The objective of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the evidence on the risk factors which are associated with human leptospirosis following flooding. We set up the inclusion criteria and searched for the original studies, addressing leptospirosis in human with related to flood in health-related electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline, google scholar and Scopus sources. We used the terms 'leptospirosis', 'flood', 'risk factor' and terms from the categories were connected with "OR" within each category and by "AND" between categories. The initial search yielded 557 citations. After the title and abstract screening, 49 full-text papers were reviewed and a final of 18 observational studies met the pre-specified inclusion criteria. Overall, the pooled estimates of 14 studies showed that the contact with flooding was a significant factor for the occurrence of leptospirosis (pooled OR: 2.19, 95%CI: 1.48-3.24, I2:86%). On stratification, the strength of association was greater in the case-control studies (pooled OR: 4.01, 95%CI: 1.26-12.72, I2:82%) than other designs (pooled OR:1.77,95%CI:1.18-2.65, I2:87%). Three factors such as 'being male'(pooled OR:2.06, 95%CI:1.29-2.83), the exposure to livestock animals (pooled OR: 1.95, 95%CI:1.26-2.64), the lacerated wound (pooled OR:4.35, 95%CI:3.07-5.64) were the risk factors significantly associated with the incidence of leptospirosis following flooding in the absence of within-study heterogeneity (I2: 0%). We acknowledge study limitations such as publication bias and type 2 statistical errors. We recommended flood control and other environmental modifications that are expected to reduce the risk of leptospiral infection, and a multi-sectoral effort to this aspect would have long-term benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/microbiology; Zoonoses/epidemiology*
  7. Lim VK
    Malays J Pathol, 2011 Jun;33(1):1-5.
    PMID: 21874744 MyJurnal
    Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic infection. In developing countries large outbreaks have occurred in urban slums and following floods. Individuals from developed nations are also now more frequently exposed to the infection as a result of international travel and greater participation in certain outdoor recreational activities. Leptospirosis remains a diagnostic challenge since it often presents as a non-specific febrile event and laboratory diagnosis is still currently inadequate. Rapid tests may not be sufficiently sensitive in early disease and culture facilities are not widely available. A severe pulmonary haemorrhagic form of the infection is increasingly being encountered in many countries including Malaysia. The control of leptospirosis is largely dependent on general hygienic measures and rodent control. An effective human vaccine is still not available. There remains much that is unknown about this disease and there is scope and opportunity for good quality research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology
  8. Tan DS
    Malays J Pathol, 1981 Aug;4:19-27.
    PMID: 7186600
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology*
  9. Cantlay JC, Ingram DJ, Meredith AL
    Ecohealth, 2017 06;14(2):361-388.
    PMID: 28332127 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-017-1229-x
    The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission. We identify 51 zoonotic pathogens (16 viruses, 19 bacteria and 16 parasites) potentially hosted by wildlife and describe the human health risks. The Suidae and the Cervidae families potentially host the highest number of pathogens. We conclude that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of zoonotic pathogens and recommend performing microbial food safety risk assessments to assess the hazards of wild meat consumption. Overall, there may be considerable zoonotic risks to people involved in the hunting, butchering or consumption of wild meat in Southeast Asia, and these should be considered in public health strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses*
  10. Bisseru B
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Sep;23(1):35-40.
    PMID: 4237554
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology*
  11. Rudnick A
    J Med Entomol, 1965 Jun;2(2):203-8.
    PMID: 5827577
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology*
  12. INGLIS WG, DUNN RL
    Z Parasitenkd, 1964 Mar 10;24:82-7.
    PMID: 14174788
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses*
  13. Lee J, Hughes T, Lee MH, Field H, Rovie-Ryan JJ, Sitam FT, et al.
    Ecohealth, 2020 09;17(3):406-418.
    PMID: 33226526 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-020-01503-x
    The legal and illegal trade in wildlife for food, medicine and other products is a globally significant threat to biodiversity that is also responsible for the emergence of pathogens that threaten human and livestock health and our global economy. Trade in wildlife likely played a role in the origin of COVID-19, and viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been identified in bats and pangolins, both traded widely. To investigate the possible role of pangolins as a source of potential zoonoses, we collected throat and rectal swabs from 334 Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) confiscated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah between August 2009 and March 2019. Total nucleic acid was extracted for viral molecular screening using conventional PCR protocols used to routinely identify known and novel viruses in extensive prior sampling (> 50,000 mammals). No sample yielded a positive PCR result for any of the targeted viral families-Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae. In the light of recent reports of coronaviruses including a SARS-CoV-2-related virus in Sunda pangolins in China, the lack of any coronavirus detection in our 'upstream' market chain samples suggests that these detections in 'downstream' animals more plausibly reflect exposure to infected humans, wildlife or other animals within the wildlife trade network. While confirmatory serologic studies are needed, it is likely that Sunda pangolins are incidental hosts of coronaviruses. Our findings further support the importance of ending the trade in wildlife globally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/virology*
  14. Borzée A, McNeely J, Magellan K, Miller JRB, Porter L, Dutta T, et al.
    Trends Ecol Evol, 2020 12;35(12):1052-1055.
    PMID: 33097287 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2020.10.001
    Zoonosis-based epidemics are inevitable unless we revisit our relationship with the natural world, protect habitats, and regulate wildlife trade, including live animals and non-sustenance products. To prevent future zoonoses, governments must establish effective legislation addressing wildlife trade, protection of habitats, and reduction of the wildlife-livestock-human interface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology
  15. DUNN FL
    J Parasitol, 1964 Apr;50:214-6.
    PMID: 14170752
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses*
  16. Chin AZ, Maluda MCM, Jelip J, Jeffree MSB, Culleton R, Ahmed K
    J Physiol Anthropol, 2020 Nov 23;39(1):36.
    PMID: 33228775 DOI: 10.1186/s40101-020-00247-5
    BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public-health problem, with over 40% of the world's population (more than 3.3 billion people) at risk from the disease. Malaysia has committed to eliminate indigenous human malaria transmission by 2020. The objective of this descriptive study is to understand the epidemiology of malaria in Malaysia from 2000 through 2018 and to highlight the threat posed by zoonotic malaria to the National Malaria Elimination Strategic Plan.

    METHODS: Malaria is a notifiable infection in Malaysia. The data used in this study were extracted from the Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, contributed by the hospitals and health clinics throughout Malaysia. The population data used in this study was extracted from the Department of Statistics Malaysia. Data analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel. Data used for mapping are available at EPSG:4326 WGS84 CRS (Coordinate Reference System). Shapefile was obtained from igismap. Mapping and plotting of the map were performed using QGIS.

    RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2007, human malaria contributed 100% of reported malaria and 18-46 deaths per year in Malaysia. Between 2008 and 2017, indigenous malaria cases decreased from 6071 to 85 (98.6% reduction), while during the same period, zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi cases increased from 376 to 3614 cases (an 861% increase). The year 2018 marked the first year that Malaysia did not report any indigenous cases of malaria caused by human malaria parasites. However, there was an increasing trend of P. knowlesi cases, with a total of 4131 cases reported in that year. Although the increased incidence of P. knowlesi cases can be attributed to various factors including improved diagnostic capacity, reduction in human malaria cases, and increase in awareness of P. knowlesi, more than 50% of P. knowlesi cases were associated with agriculture and plantation activities, with a large remainder proportion linked to forest-related activities.

    CONCLUSIONS: Malaysia has entered the elimination phase of malaria control. Zoonotic malaria, however, is increasing exponentially and becoming a significant public health problem. Improved inter-sectoral collaboration is required in order to develop a more integrated effort to control zoonotic malaria. Local political commitment and the provision of technical support from the World Health Organization will help to create focused and concerted efforts towards ensuring the success of the National Malaria Elimination Strategic Plan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses*
  17. Tee KK, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A
    Int J Infect Dis, 2009 May;13(3):307-18.
    PMID: 19010076 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2008.09.005
    Over the past decade, a number of unique zoonotic and non-zoonotic viruses have emerged in Malaysia. Several of these viruses have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality to those affected and they have imposed a tremendous public health and economic burden on the state. Amongst the most devastating was the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in 1998, which resulted in 109 deaths. The culling of more than a million pigs, identified as the amplifying host, ultimately brought the outbreak under control. A year prior to this, and subsequently again in 2000 and 2003, large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease due to enterovirus 71, with rare cases of fatal neurological complications, were reported in young children. Three other new viruses - Tioman virus (1999), Pulau virus (1999), and Melaka virus (2006) - whose origins have all been linked to bats, have been added to the growing list of novel viruses being discovered in Malaysia. The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has also been detected in Malaysia with outbreaks in poultry in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Fortunately, no human infections were reported. Finally, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has seen the emergence of an HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF33_01B) in HIV-infected individuals from various risk groups, with evidence of ongoing and rapid expansion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses/epidemiology; Zoonoses/transmission; Zoonoses/virology*
  18. Kitsutani P, Ohta M
    Nippon Rinsho, 2005 Dec;63(12):2143-53.
    PMID: 16363687
    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that was first recognized in 1999 as the causative agent of outbreaks of human encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore, in association with severe respiratory and neurological disease in pigs. Since then, outbreaks of NiV encephalitis have also occurred in Bangladesh during 2001-2004, but without an association to infected swine or other animals. Although NiV infections typically result in acute encephalitis with high mortality, other clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic infection, relapsed encephalitis, and pulmonary disease, have been observed. The article will summarize the virology, epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and control and prevention of NiV infections in humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses
  19. Mohamed Zahidi J, Ahmad N, Tay BY, Hashim R, Khoo E, Ahmad N, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2017 Aug 03;5(31).
    PMID: 28774972 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00689-17
    Human brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease and has widespread geographical distribution. Brucella melitensis has caused outbreaks and sporadic cases in Malaysia. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. melitensis strains isolated from brucellosis patients in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Zoonoses
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