Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

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  1. Fathil SM, Soong NS, Mustafa NM, Arith A, Ng WN, Bahrum NA, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):89-91.
    PMID: 22106683 MyJurnal
    Pain management in Malaysian Emergency Departments has not been studied well. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 402 patients who presented with acute pain over a 2-week period. The 11-point Numerical Rating Scale was used to quantify pain. Pain relieving medications were prescribed to 178 patients (44.3%) in the Emergency Department. These patients had a median pain score of 7 on arrival. Nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs were the most commonly prescribed class of analgesic. Pain was found to be inadequately treated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  2. Ahmad N, Tan CC, Balan S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Jun;62(2):122-6.
    PMID: 18705443 MyJurnal
    We sought to review the current practice of sedation and analgesia in intensive care units (ICUs) in Malaysian public hospitals. A questionnaire survey was designed and sent by mail to 40 public hospitals with ICU facility in Malaysia. The anaesthesiologists in charge of ICU were asked to complete the questionnaire. Thirty seven questionnaires were returned (92.5% response rate). Only 35% respondents routinely assess the degree of sedation. The Ramsay scale was used prevalently. A written protocol for sedation was available in only 14 centers (38%). Although 36 centers (95%) routinely adjust the degree of sedation according to patient's clinical progress, only 10 centers (14%) interrupt sedation on a daily basis. Most respondents agreed that the selection of agents for sedation depends on familiarity (97%), pharmacology (97%), the expected duration for sedation (92%), patient's clinical diagnosis (89%) and cost (73%). Midazolam (89%) and morphine (86%) were the most commonly used agents for sedation and analgesia, respectively. Only 14% respondents still frequently use neuromuscular blocking agents, mostly in head injury patients. Our survey showed similarity in the choice of sedative and analgesic agents in ICUs in Malaysian public hospitals comparable to international practice. Nevertheless, the standard of practice could still be improved by implementing the practice of sedation score assessment and daily interruption of sedative infusion as well as having a written protocol for sedation and analgesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  3. Pan KL, Ibrahim S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Sep;55 Suppl C:107-8.
    PMID: 11200037
    Osteopoikilosis is a rare, inheritable, sclerosing bone dysplasia; sometimes mistaken for osteoblastic bone metastases. We report a case in a 25 year-old lady.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use
  4. Ibrahim MI
    World Health Forum, 1996;17(4):409-10.
    PMID: 9060246
    A small survey in Peninsular Malaysia indicates a marked tendency among the general population to treat minor ailments by self-medication with over-the-counter drugs and/or traditional medicines. The use of over-the-counter drugs appears to be favoured for skin conditions, general health care, aches and pains, and problems affecting the eyes, ears, mouth, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. A doctor is usually consulted if self-medication fails.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use
  5. Segasothy M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Dec;38(4):282-8.
    PMID: 6599983
    A survey was conducted on three different groups of population viz. inpatients in the medical wards of General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the people of Kampong Pandan and two rubber estates as to their analgesic consuming habits. It is found that 0.5 to 2.0% of the people surveyed had consumed more than 2 kg of analgesics and 4.6 to 9.6% of the people surveyed had consumed more than 250g of analgesics. The commonest analgesic consumed is paracetamol followed by Chap Kaki Tiga and Chap Harimau. The commonest reason for consuming analgesic is headache. The implications of the above findings are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  6. Mustaffa F, Indurkar J, Shah M, Ismail S, Mansor SM
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2013;27(10):888-95.
    PMID: 22574706 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.678347
    This review describes the morphological, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Cinnamomum iners Reinw. ex Blume (Lauraceae). The plant grows wild in the lowland of Malaysia, India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei and Philippines. This plant is commonly used for its carminative, analgesic and antipyretic properties, for postpartum treatment, rheumatism and digestive ailments. This article enumerates an overview of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects that is useful to researchers for further exploration necessary for the development of this potential herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use
  7. Shaikh S, Yaacob HB, Abd Rahman RB
    J Chin Med Assoc, 2011 Jun;74(6):243-9.
    PMID: 21621166 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcma.2011.04.002
    BACKGROUND: Anticonvulsants are regarded as useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and occurrence of side effects of lamotrigine (LTG) in comparison with carbamazepine (CBZ), in trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients.

    METHODS: The study was an interventional and crossover comparison. Twenty-one patients with TN were administered with LTG in comparison to CBZ. The clinical trials comprised two phases of 40 days each, with an intervening three-day washout period. The final titration in dose for LTG was 400 mg and 1,200 mg for CBZ. Efficacy of the medications involved was determined by visual analog scale (VAS) and verbal rating scale (VRS). Side effects were recorded through marking of the profiles of side effects encountered on administration of LTG and CBZ, together with baseline haematological, hepatic and renal investigations.

    RESULTS: Both on VAS and VRS assessments, in terms of proportion of patients, CBZ benefitted 90.5% (19/21) of the patients with pain relief (p  0.05). Meanwhile, LTG inflicted 14% (3/21) of the patients with haematological, hepatic and renal derangements, as compared with 48% (10/21) on CBZ.

    CONCLUSION: LTG is generally an effective and safe treatment for management of TN, compared to CBZ.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  8. Batra YK, Shamsah M, Al-Khasti MJ, Rawdhan HJ, Al-Qattan AR, Belani KG
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2007 Mar;45(3):155-60.
    PMID: 17416110
    OBJECTIVE: Ketamine inhibits the NMDA receptors via non-competitive antagonism, resulting in an antihyperalgesic effect achieved by doses of ketamine much smaller than are required for analgesia. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which small-dose ketamine, when used in conjunction with remifentanil, has a morphine-sparing effect in the perioperative period.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study, we enrolled 40 children undergoing tonsillectomy. Anesthetic care was standardized. Intraoperative analgesia was provided with remifentanil 0.5 microg x kg(-1) followed by an infusion of 0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1). Group I (ketamine, n = 20) received a bolus dose of ketamine 0.5 mg x kg(-1) followed by a continuous infusion of 2 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) before start of surgery. The infusion was stopped when surgery ended. Group II (placebo, n=20) received normal saline in the same manner. Pain was assessed postoperatively using the Children's Hospital Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS; range of scores 4 13), and total morphine consumption was recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Patients were transferred to the ward and morphine was administered via a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device and analgesia was recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 - 10).

    RESULTS: Intraoperative remifentanil consumption was not different between the ketamine group (0.29+/-0.09 microg x kg x min(-1) ) and the control group (0.24+/-0.07 microg x kg x min(-1)). There were no significant differences between CHEOPS scores and VAS score between the two groups. The total mean morphine consumption in the ward was not significantly different between the two groups: 376.5 +/-91.6 microg x kg(-1) with ketamine and 384.4+/-97.3 microg x kg(-1) with placebo. The time-to-first analgesic requirement was also similar in both groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Small-dose ketamine did not decrease postoperative pain after tonsillectomy in children when added to a continuous intraoperative remifentanil infusion.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  9. Hadi MA, Alldred DP, Briggs M, Munyombwe T, Closs SJ
    Clin J Pain, 2014 Nov;30(11):1006-14.
    PMID: 24480911 DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000063
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacist-led medication review in chronic pain management.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINHAL, CENTRAL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant websites were searched for randomized controlled trials published in the English language involving adults with chronic pain. Studies were included if one of the intervention arms had received pharmacist-led medication review independently or as part of a multidisciplinary intervention. Risk of bias was assessed for all the included studies.

    RESULTS: The search strategy yielded 583 unique articles including 5 randomized controlled trials. Compared with control, meta-analysis showed that participants in the intervention group had: a 0.8-point reduction in pain intensity on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale at 3 months [95% confidence interval (CI), -1.28 to -0.36] and a 0.7-point reduction (95% CI, -1.19 to -0.20) at 6 months; a 4.84 point (95% CI, -7.38 to -2.29) and -3.82 point (95% CI, -6.49 to -1.14) improvement in physical functioning on a 0- to 68-point function subscale of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index at 3 and 6 months, respectively; and a significant improvement in patient satisfaction equivalent to a "small to moderate effect."

    DISCUSSION: Pharmacist-led medication review reduces pain intensity and improves physical functioning and patient satisfaction. However, the clinical significance of these findings remain uncertain due to small effect size and nature of reported data within clinical trials that limits recommendation of wider clinical role of pharmacist in chronic pain management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use
  10. Zulazmi NA, Gopalsamy B, Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Bharatham BH, Perimal EK
    Fitoterapia, 2015 Sep;105:215-21.
    PMID: 26205045 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2015.07.011
    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is difficult to be treated. Current therapies available are either ineffective or non-specific thus requiring newer treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene from Zingiber zerumbet in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain animal model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of zerumbone (5, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCI-induced neuropathic pain when evaluated using the electronic von Frey anesthesiometer, cold plate, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer and the Hargreaves plantar test. Zerumbone significantly alleviated tactile and cold allodynia as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings are in comparison to the positive control drugs thatused gabapentin (20 mg/kgi.p.) and morphine (1 mg/kgi.p.). Together, these results showed that the systemic administration of zerumbone produced marked antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in the CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice and may serve as a potential lead compound for further analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use
  11. Rus-Anida A, Quah BS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):204-8.
    PMID: 10968154
    There appears to be a general tendency towards under-usage of analgesics not only in children but also in adults. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of analgesic usage in adults and children admitted for major intra-abdominal surgery. All patients who had intra-abdominal surgery at University Science Malaysia Hospital (USM Hospital) from 1st January to 31st March 1995 were included in the study. Children were patients of 12 years and below and adults were patients above 12 years of age. Data including age, sex, weight, type of analgesics used, the number of patients who had analgesics ordered and administered post-operatively were obtained from the patients' medical record. A total of 48 children and 67 adults were studied. Narcotic analgesics were the most common analgesics ordered both in adults (95.5%) and in children (97%). Post-operative analgesics were ordered significantly more often for adults 67 (100%) than for children 33 (69%) (p < 0.0001). In adults, 70% of patients who had analgesics ordered post-operatively had their analgesics administered, but in children only 39.4% of patients had their analgesics administered (p < 0.001). The most common route of administration was intramuscular in both adults (95.5%) and children (88%). Analgesics were more likely to be administered in the intensive care units (100%) than in the surgical wards (60%) (p = 0.049). Elective or emergency surgery and the time of day when surgery was performed did not affect the frequency of analgesics ordered or administered. In summary, children in this hospital had less analgesics ordered and administered following intra-abdominal surgery compared to adults. The results of this study imply that increased attention should be given to relieve postoperative pain with analgesic drugs in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  12. Lim MA, Yusof K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1973 Dec;28(2):129-31.
    PMID: 4276231
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use
  13. Abdul-Wahab IR, Guilhon CC, Fernandes PD, Boylan F
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 Dec 18;144(3):741-6.
    PMID: 23099251 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.029
    Local communities in Malaysia consume Pereskia bleo Kunth. (Cactaceae) leaves as raw vegetables or as a concoction and drink as a tea to treat diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, cancer-related diseases, inflammation, gastric pain, ulcers, and for revitalizing the body.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  14. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahman A, Mohamad AS, Desa MN, Stanslas J, et al.
    Biol Res Nurs, 2010 Jan;11(3):293-301.
    PMID: 19689990 DOI: 10.1177/1099800409343311
    The current study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties of andrographolide isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata using two animal models. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid- induced writhing and the hot-plate tests, while antiedematogenic activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of andrographolide (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) did not affect the motor coordination of the experimental animals but produced significant (p < .05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using both tests. However, 2 mg/kg naloxone failed to affect the 25 mg/kg andrographolide activity in both tests, indicating that the activity was modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. Furthermore, andrographolide showed significant (p < .05) antiedematogenic activity. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities; it may be useful for treating pain and inflammation once human studies are conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  15. Shaik Mossadeq WM, Sulaiman MR, Tengku Mohamad TA, Chiong HS, Zakaria ZA, Jabit ML, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2009;18(5):378-84.
    PMID: 19648761 DOI: 10.1159/000226292
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Mitragyna speciosa Korth methanol extract in rodents.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tests in rats. Antinociceptive activity was measured using the writhing test and the hot plate test in mice, and the formalin test in rats. All drugs and extracts were diluted in dH(2)O and administered through the intraperitoneal route. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparisons among groups.
    RESULTS: Results showed that intraperitoneal administration of the extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent activity in all of the nociceptive models evaluated (p < 0.05). With the formalin test, the antinociceptive activity in mice was inhibited only at the highest dose of the extract (200 mg/kg). The study also showed that intraperitoneal administration of the methanol extract of M. speciosa (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the development of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema (p < 0.05). In the chronic test, however, significant reduction in granulomatous tissue formation in rats was observed only at the highest dose of the methanol extract of M. speciosa (200 mg/kg, p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSION: The present study suggests the presence of potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory principles in the extract, supporting its folkloric use for the treatment of these conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  16. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Chiong HS, Lai SK, Israf DA, Azam Shah TM
    Med Princ Pract, 2009;18(4):272-9.
    PMID: 19494533 DOI: 10.1159/000215723
    The present study was carried out to explore the antinociceptive as well as the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (EESJ) using 3 models of nociception and 2 models of inflammation in experimental animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use
  17. Taye GAWC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Oct;61(4):405-9.
    PMID: 17243516
    This survey was intended to gauge the management of pain in palliative cancer patients by the doctors in Melaka Hospital. It also sought to identify possible barriers to adequate pain management among doctors and gauge their response to the adequacy of medical school teaching on cancer pain issues. A 39 item survey was used to cover the issues involved. Overall, the doctors displayed a lack of systematic approach to cancer pain management with inadequate knowledge of analgesia handling. Medical school exposure to cancer pain issues was lacking. Formulation of accepted clinical practice guidelines and new education strategies can improve cancer pain management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  18. Vijayan R, Tay KH, Tan LB, Loganathan
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Oct;35(5):502-4.
    PMID: 7701371
    One hundred and eighty-three patients undergoing surgery were interviewed twenty-four hours following surgery to assess the quality of pain relief they received in the immediate postoperative period. Interviews were conducted using a standard questionnaire for all patients. They were asked to (1) rate the quality of pain relief they obtained on a Visual Pain Analogue Scale (VPAS-0 being no pain and 10 being the worst imaginable pain); (2) state whether they were happy and satisfied with the pain relief they received; (3) if dissatisfied, they were asked to give their reasons. 37.7% (69 patients) had moderate to severe pain--pain score greater than 6 on the VPAS. Most of these patients had undergone abdominal or major orthopaedic surgery. 32.7% (60 patients) were unhappy with their postoperative pain control. The main reasons for complaint from the patients were that analgesic injections were either not given promptly or were not given at all. The survey also highlighted the inadequate under-administration of narcotic injections in the postoperative period despite orders being written up. It showed there is an urgent need for setting up an Acute Pain Service for better postoperative pain control. An anaesthesiology based Acute Pain Service was started in October 1992.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  19. Chin KY, Mark-Lee WF
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1359-1365.
    PMID: 28950813 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170925154025
    Mitragyna speciosa is a tropical plant with narcotic effects. The antinociceptive effects of its crude extracts, bioactive compounds and structurally modified derivatives have been examined in rodent models. This review aims to summarize the evidence on the antinociceptive effects of M. speciosa and its derivatives and explore whether they can offer an alternative to morphine in pain management. Methanolic and alkaloid extracts of M. speciosa were shown to attenuate the nociceptive response in rodents. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine offered better antinociceptive effects than crude extracts. Structurally modified derivatives of 7-hydroxymitragynine, such as MGM-9, MGM- 15, MGM-16, demonstrated superior antinociceptive effects compared to morphine. M. speciosa and its derivatives mainly act on the opioid receptor, but receptor subtypes specificity differs between each compound. The tolerance and adverse side effects of M. speciosa and its derivatives are similar with morphine. The affinity of MGM-9 on kappa-opioid receptor could potentially limit the effects of drug dependence. In conclusion, M speciosa derivatives can offer alternatives to morphine in controlling chronic pain. Structural modification of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine can generate compounds with higher potency and lesser side-effects. Human clinical trials are required to validate the use of these compounds in clinical setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
  20. Chongmelaxme B, Sruamsiri R, Dilokthornsakul P, Dhippayom T, Kongkaew C, Saokaew S, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2017 Dec;35:70-77.
    PMID: 29154071 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.09.009
    Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. known locally as "Plai" in Thai, has been used for treating bruise, sprain and musculoskeletal pain. Several pre-clinical studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of Plai. However, current evidence of clinical effects of Plai is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of Plai among all identified indications. Of the 808 articles identified by a systematic review, six studies were included. Four studies were randomized controlled trials, while two studies were quasi-experimental studies involving 178 patients in intervention group and 177 patients in control group. Duration of treatment ranged from 7days to 2 months. Our findings showed that 14% Plai cream had a strong trend of benefits in pain reduction for muscle pain and ankle sprain. However, evidence supporting the effects of Plai on acne vulgaris treatment and anti-histamine effect are still unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Analgesics/therapeutic use*
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