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  1. Jasamai M, Jalil J, Jantan I
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2015;29(11):1055-8.
    PMID: 25332053 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.971317
    A handful of bioactive compounds from plants have been reported to possess platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist activity. However, their mode of action is not well understood. Selected bioactive compounds that exhibit PAF antagonist activity and synthetic PAF antagonists were subjected to docking simulations using the MOE 2007.09 software package. The docking study of PAF antagonists was carried out on the PAF receptor (PAFR) protein which involves in various pathological responses mediated by PAF. The docking results revealed that amentoflavone (3) showed good interactions with the PAFR model where the flavone and phenolic moieties were mostly involved in these interactions. Knowledge on PAF antagonists' interactions with the PAFR model is a useful screening tool of potential PAF antagonists prior to performing PAF inhibitory assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/chemistry*
  2. Yeong LT, Abdul Hamid R, Saiful Yazan L, Khaza'ai H, Awang Hamsin DE
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2014;28(22):2026-30.
    PMID: 24836304 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.917415
    An isomeric mixture of α,β-amyrin (triterpene) and 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone (quinone) isolated from the Ardisia crispa root hexane (ACRH) extract was reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. Considering the close association between inflammation and cancer, on top of the lack of antitumour study on those compounds, this study aimed to determine the potential of both compounds against tumour promotion in vitro, either as single agent or in combination. Triterpene and quinone compounds, as well as triterpene-quinone fraction (TQF) and ACRH were subjected to inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay for that purpose. Compared with curcumin (positive control), inhibition against EBV-EA activation occurred in the order: ACRH>TQF ≥ curcumin>α,β-amyrin ≥ 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone. These findings reported, for the first time, the antitumor-promoting effect of α,β-amyrin and 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone from the roots of A. crispa, which was enhanced when both compounds act in synergy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/chemistry*
  3. Yeong LT, Hamid RA, Yazan LS, Khaza'ai H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2301-5.
    PMID: 23725131
    Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) is an evergreen, fruiting shrub that has been traditionally used as folklore medicine. Despite a scarcity of research publications, we have succeeded in showing suppressive effects on murine skin papillomagenesis. In extension, the present research was aimed at determining the effect of a quinone-rich fraction (QRF) isolated from the same root hexane extract on both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, at the selected dose of 30 mg/kg. Mice (groups I-IV) were initiated with a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA, 100 μg/100 μl) followed by repeated promotion of croton oil (1%) twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, group I (anti-initiation) received QRF 7 days before and after DMBA; group II (anti-promotion) received QRF 30 minutes before each croton oil application; group III (anti-initiation/ promotion) was treated with QRF as a combination of group I and II. A further two groups served as vehicle control (group V) and treated control (group VI). As carcinogen control, group IV showed the highest tumor volume (8.79±5.44) and tumor burden (3.60±1.17). Comparatively, group III revealed only 20% of tumor incidence, tumor burden (3.00±1.00) and tumor volume (2.40±1.12), which were significantly different from group IV. Group II also showed significant reduction of tumor volume (3.11), tumor burden (3.00) and tumor incidence (11.11%), along with prominent increase of latency period of tumor formation (week 12). Group I, nonetheless, demonstrated marked increment of tumor incidence by 40% with prompted latency period of tumor formation (week 7). No tumor formation was observed in groups V and VI. This study provided clear evidence of inhibitory effects of QRF during promotion period which was in agreement with our previous findings. The mechanism(s) underlying such effects have yet to be elucidated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/chemistry*
  4. Roslida A, Fezah O, Yeong LT
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(3):665-9.
    PMID: 21627361
    Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for various ailments. Previous studies showed that Ardisia crispa possesses antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, research done on the plant is still limited. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the suppression effect of Ardisia crispa root hexane (ACRH) extract on 7, 12-dimethylbenz (α) anthracene (DMBA)-induced mice skin tumor promotion in ICR mice with topical application twice weekly for 10 weeks. Results showed significant difference between treatment groups (mice treated with 30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of ACRH extract; denoted as group I, II and III respectively) for tumor incidence and tumor burden (P<0.05). Significant reduction in tumor incidence (20%), tumor burden (1.5 ± 0.50), tumor volume (2.49 ± 1.70) and delayed latency period of tumor formation was observed in group I (30 mg/kg) in comparison to carcinogen control. This study indicates that ACRH extract could be a promising skin tumor promotion suppressing agent at a lower dosage (30 mg/kg). Further studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) leading to this effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/chemistry*
  5. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Abdullah R, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 12;18(1):87.
    PMID: 29530022 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2153-5
    BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay. The cells were treated with concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL- 1000 μg/mL for 72 h. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were carried out to determine the relationship between of phytochemical compounds responsible for cytotoxic and antioxidative activities. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay and expressed as milligram (mg) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per 1 g (g) of tested extract.

    RESULTS: The hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 57.35 ± 19.33 μg/mL, and 54.98 ± 14.10 μg/mL, respectively but aqueous extract was inactive against MCF-7. For MDA-MB-231, hydromethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited weak cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. The plant revealed high total phenolic content, total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The response of different type of breast cancer cell lines towards A. crispa extract and its partitions varied. Accordingly, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts appear to be more cytotoxic to oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. However, aqueous extract appears to have poor activity to both types of breast cancer. Besides that, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibit higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous extract. Synergistic effect of anticancer and antioxidant bioactives compounds of A. crispa plausibly contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/chemistry*
  6. Hamsin DE, Hamid RA, Yazan LS, Taib CN, Yeong LT
    PMID: 24641961 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-102
    In our previous studies conducted on Ardisia crispa roots, it was shown that Ardisia crispa root inhibited inflammation-induced angiogenesis in vivo. The present study was conducted to identify whether the anti-angiogenic properties of Ardisia crispa roots was partly due to either cyclooxygenase (COX) or/and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity inhibition in separate in vitro studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/chemistry*
  7. Yeong LT, Abdul Hamid R, Saiful Yazan L, Khaza'ai H, Mohtarrudin N
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015;15(1):431.
    PMID: 26638207 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0954-3
    Drastic increment of skin cancer incidence has driven natural product-based chemoprevention as a promising approach in anticancer drug development. Apart from its traditional usages against various ailments, Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) specifically its triterpene-quinone fraction (TQF) which was isolated from the root hexane extract (ACRH) was recently reported to exert antitumor promoting activity in vitro. This study aimed at determining chemopreventive effect of TQF against chemically-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis as well as elucidating its possible pathway(s).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia*
  8. Sulaiman H, Hamid RA, Ting YL, Othman F
    J Cancer Res Ther, 2012 Jul-Sep;8(3):404-10.
    PMID: 23174723 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1482.103521
    CONTEXT: Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC (Myrsinaceae) or locally known as hen's eyes has been used in local folk medicine as a remedy in various illnesses. Previously, it has been reported to inhibit various inflammatory diseases. However, research done on this plant is still limited.
    AIMS: In the present study, the hexane fraction of the A. crispa root (ACRH) was evaluated on the peri-initiation and promotion phases of skin carcinogenesis.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This two-stage skin carcinogenesis was induced by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by repeated treatment with croton oil for 10 weeks in Imprinting Control Region (ICR) mice. Morphological observation would be conducted to measure tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor volume. Histological evaluation on the skin tissue would also be done.
    RESULTS: The carcinogen control group exhibited 66.67% of tumor incidence. Although, in the ACRH-treated groups, at 30 mg/kg, the mice showed only 10% of tumor incidence with a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the values of tumor burden and tumor volume of 2.00 and 0.52 mm(3), respectively. Furthermore, the result was significantly lower than that of the carcinogen and curcumin control. At 100 mg/kg, ACRH showed a comparable result to carcinogen control. On the contrary, at 300 mg/kg, ACRH exhibited 100% tumor incidence and showed a significant elevated (P < 0.05) value of tumor burden (3.80) and tumor volume (14.67 ± 2.48 mm(3)).
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study thus demonstrates that the anti-tumor effect of the chemopreventive potential of ACRH is at a lower dosage (30 mg/kg bwt) in both the initiating and promotion period, yet it exhibits a promoting effect at a higher dosage (300 mg/kg bwt).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/metabolism*
  9. Wen Jun L, Pit Foong C, Abd Hamid R
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2019 Oct;118:109221.
    PMID: 31545225 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109221
    Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. (Primulaceae) has been used extensively as folk-lore medicine in South East Asia including China and Japan to treat various inflammatory related diseases. Ardisia crispa root hexane fraction (ACRH) has been thoroughly studied by our group and it has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesic, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcer, chemoprevention and suppression against inflammation-induced angiogenesis in various animal model. Nevertheless, its effect against human endothelial cells in vitro has not been reported yet. Hence, the aim of the study is to investigate the potential antiangiogenic property of ACRH in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and zebrafish embryo model. ACRH was separated from the crude ethanolic extract of the plant's root in prior to experimental studies. MTT assay revealed that ACRH exerted a concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on HUVEC with the IC50 of 2.49 ± 0.04 μg/mL. At higher concentration (10 μg/mL), apoptosis was induced without affecting the cell cycle distribution. Angiogenic properties including migration, invasion and differentiation of HUVECs, evaluated via wound healing, trans-well invasion and tube formation assay respectively, were significantly suppressed by ACRH in a concentration-dependent manner. Noteworthily, significant antiangiogenic effects were observed even at the lowest concentration used (0.1 μg/mL). Expression of proMMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, Angiopoietin-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, Follistatin, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly reduced in various degrees by ACRH. The ISV formation in zebrafish embryo was significantly suppressed by ACRH at the concentration of 5 μg/mL. These findings revealed the potential of ACRH as antiangiogenic agent by suppressing multiple proangiogenic proteins. Thus, it can be further verified via the transcription of these proteins from their respective DNA, in elucidating their exact pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia
  10. Hamsin DE, Hamid RA, Yazan LS, Taib CN, Ting YL
    PMID: 23298265 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-5
    Ardisia crispa (Myrsinaceae) is used in traditional Malay medicine to treat various ailments associated with inflammation, including rheumatism. The plant's hexane fraction was previously shown to inhibit several diseases associated with inflammation. As there is a strong correlation between inflammation and angiogenesis, we conducted the present study to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of the plant's roots in animal models of inflammation-induced angiogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ardisia/chemistry*
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