Displaying all 4 publications

  1. Lee KH, Abas F, Alitheen NB, Shaari K, Lajis NH, Ahmad S
    Molecules, 2011 Nov 23;16(11):9728-38.
    PMID: 22113581 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16119728
    Our preliminary screening had shown that the curcumin derivative [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] or BDMC33 exhibited improved anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cells. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 on PGE(2 )synthesis and cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated macrophages. We found that BDMC33 significantly inhibited PGE(2) synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner albeit at a low inhibition level with an IC(50) value of 47.33 ± 1.00 µM. Interestingly, the PGE(2) inhibitory activity of BDMC33 is not attributed to inhibition of the COX enzyme activities, but rather BDMC33 selectively down-regulated the expression of COX-2. In addition, BDMC33 modulates the COX expression by sustaining the constitutively COX-1 expression in IFN-γ/LPS-treated macrophage cells. Collectively, the experimental data suggest an immunodulatory action of BDMC33 on PGE(2) synthesis and COX expression, making it a possible treatment for inflammatory disorders with minimal gastrointestinal-related side effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis
  2. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis*
  3. Abdelgawad MA, Musa A, Almalki AH, Alzarea SI, Mostafa EM, Hegazy MM, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2021;15:2325-2337.
    PMID: 34103896 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S310820
    Introduction: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition is an imperative therapeutic approach targeting various types of cancer including colorectal, lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer types. Moreover, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently overexpressed in different types of cancers and has a role in the promotion of malignancy, apoptosis inhibition, and metastasis of tumor cells. Combination therapy has been emerged to improve the therapeutic benefit against cancer and curb intrinsic and acquired resistance.

    Methods: Three semi-synthetic series of compounds (C1-4, P1-4, and G1-4) were prepared and evaluated biologically as potential dual epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and COX-2 inhibitors. The main phenolic constituents of Amaranthus spinosus L. (p-coumaric, caffeic and gallic) acids have been isolated and subsequently subjected to diazo coupling with various amines to get novel three chemical scaffolds with potential anticancer activities.

    Results: Compounds C4 and G4 showed superior inhibitory activity against EGFR (IC50: 0.9 and 0.5 µM, respectively) and displayed good COX-2 inhibition (IC50: 4.35 and 2.47 µM, respectively). Moreover, the final compounds were further evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human colon cancer (HT-29), pancreatic cancer (PaCa-2), human malignant melanoma (A375), lung cancer (H-460), and pancreatic ductal cancer (Panc-1) cell lines. Interestingly, compounds C4 and G4 exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity with average IC50 values of 1.5 µM and 2.8 µM against H-460 and Panc-1, respectively. The virtual docking study was conducted to gain proper understandings of the plausible-binding modes of target compounds within EGFR and COX-2 binding sites.

    Discussion: The NMR of prepared compounds showed characteristic peaks that confirmed the structure of the target compounds. The synthesized benzoxazolyl scaffold containing compounds showed inhibitory activities for both COXs and EGFR which are consistent with the virtual docking study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis
  4. Mohd Aluwi MF, Rullah K, Yamin BM, Leong SW, Abdul Bahari MN, Lim SJ, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2016 05 15;26(10):2531-8.
    PMID: 27040659 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.03.092
    The syntheses and bioactivities of symmetrical curcumin and its analogues have been the subject of interest by many medicinal chemists and pharmacologists over the years. To improve our understanding, we have synthesized a series of unsymmetrical monocarbonyl curcumin analogues and evaluated their effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 and U937 cells. Initially, compounds 8b and 8c exhibited strong inhibition on the production of PGE2 in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 (8b, IC50=12.01μM and 8c, IC50=4.86μM) and U937 (8b, IC50=3.44μM and 8c, IC50=1.65μM) cells. Placing vanillin at position Ar2 further improved the potency when both compounds 15a and 15b significantly lowered the PGE2 secretion level (RAW264.7: 15a, IC50=0.78μM and 15b, IC50=1.9μM while U937: 15a, IC50=0.95μM and 15b, IC50=0.92μM). Further experiment showed that compounds 8b, 8c, 15a and 15b did not target the activity of downstream inflammatory COX-2 mediator. Finally, docking simulation on protein targets COX-2, IKK-β, ERK, JNK2, p38α and p38β were performed using the conformation of 15a determined by single-crystal XRD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis
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