MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six clear cell RCC cases were selected. There were 21 (58.3%) men and 15 (41.7%) women with median age of 56.6 years (range: 16-74 years). Chinese constituted 16 (44.4%) of the cases; Malays 14 (38.9%) cases and Indian 6 (16.7%) cases. There were 6 (16.7%) grade 1, 20 (55.6%) grade 2, 10 (27.8%) grade 3 and none was grade 4. The paraffin embedded tissues were cut at 4 μm thick and stained with COX-2 monoclonal antibody.
RESULTS: Eighteen (50%) of the RCC cases were immunopositive, of which all showed strong positivity. The immunopositive cases showed cytoplasmic membrane positivity.
CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between COX-2 expression with grade, age, sex and ethnicity (p=0.457, p=0.054, p=0.389 and p=0.568 respectively). Strong positivity of COX-2 suggest that COX-2 may play a role in cell proliferation and in carcinogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded tumour tissue of 144 no special type (NST) invasive breast carcinomas histologically diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2012 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah were immunostained with COX-2 antibody. COX-2 overexpression was analysed against demographic data, hormone receptor status, HER2- neu overexpression, histological grade, tumour size and lymph node status.
RESULTS: COX-2 was overexpressed in 108/144 (75%) tumours and was significantly more prevalent (87%) in hormone receptor-positive tumours. There was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and HER2/neu status. Triple negative cancers had the lowest prevalence (46%) (p<0.05). A rising trend of COX-2 overexpression with increasing age was observed. There was a significant inverse relationship with tumour grade (p<0.05), prevalences being 94%, 83% and 66% in grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours, respectively. A higher prevalence of COX-2 overexpression in smaller size tumours was observed but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node status.
CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the generally held notion that COX-2 overexpression is linked to poor prognosis, rather supporting a role in tumorigenesis. Larger scale studies with outcome data and basic studies on cancer pathogenetic pathways will be required to cast further light on whether COX-2 inhibitors would have clinical utility in cancer prevention or blockage of cancer progression. In either setting, the pathological assessment for COX-2 overexpression in breast cancers would have an important role in the selection of cancer patients for personalized therapy with COX-2 inhibitors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups with 12 rats in each group. For cancer induction two intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) were given at 15 mg/kg bodyweight over a 2-weeks period. During the post initiation phase, two different concentrations of PA, 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) were administered in the diet.
RESULTS: Results of β-catenin, COX-2 expressions and cell proliferation of Ki-67 showed a significant contribution in colonic cancer progression. For β-catenin and COX-2 expression, there was a significant difference between groups at p<0.05. With Ki-67, there was a statistically significant lowering the proliferating index as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) was noted between COX-2 expression and proliferation. Total β-catenin also demonstrated a significant positive linear relationship with total COX-2 (p=0.044).
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated potential value of PA extracted from rice bran in reducing colonic cancer risk in rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of mitragynine on the mRNA and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were investigated in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed using Western blot analysis and the level of PGE(2) production was quantified using Parameter™ PGE(2) Assay (R&D Systems).
RESULTS: Mitragynine produced a significant inhibition on the mRNA expression of COX-2 induced by LPS, in a dose dependent manner and this was followed by the reduction of PGE(2) production. On the other hand, the effects of mitragynine on COX-1 mRNA expression were found to be insignificant as compared to the control cells. However, the effect of mitragynine on COX-1 protein expression is dependent on concentration, with higher concentration of mitragynine producing a further reduction of COX-1 expression in LPS-treated cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that mitragynine suppressed PGE(2) production by inhibiting COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Mitragynine may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: To compare the anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-nociceptive properties of RG and BG.
METHODS: Nitric Oxide (NO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay, quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema RESULTS: The ginsenoside contents were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and has been altered through increased processing. The highest concentration of these extracts inhibited NO production to near-basal levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at the mRNA level was investigated using qRT-PCR. Comparatively, BG exhibited better inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Protein expression was determined using western blot analysis and BG exhibited stronger inhibition. Xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats were carried out and tested with the effects of ginseng as well as dexamethasone and indomethacin - commonly used drugs. BG is a more potent anti-inflammatory agent, possesses anti-nociceptive properties, and has a strong potency comparable to the NSAIDs.
CONCLUSION: BG has more potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects due to the change in ginsenoside component with increased processing.