Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

  1. Shafie NH, Mohd Esa N, Ithnin H, Md Akim A, Saad N, Pandurangan AK
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:681027.
    PMID: 24260743 DOI: 10.1155/2013/681027
    Nutritional or dietary factors have drawn attention due to their potential as an effective chemopreventive agent, which is considered a more rational strategy in cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of IP₆ extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane- (AOM-) induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in rats. Initially, male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups, with 6 rats in each group. The rats received two intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of AOM in saline (15 mg/kg body weight) over a 2-week period to induce CRC. IP₆ was given in three concentrations, 0.2% (w/v), 0.5% (w/v), and 1.0% (w/v), via drinking water for 16 weeks. The deregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 have been implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis. β-Catenin and COX-2 expressions were analysed using the quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Herein, we reported that the administration of IP₆ markedly suppressed the incidence of tumors when compared to the control. Interestingly, the administration of IP₆ had also markedly decreased β-catenin and COX-2 in colon tumors. Thus, the downregulation of β-catenin and COX-2 could play a role in inhibiting the CRC development induced by IP₆ and thereby act as a potent anticancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism*
  2. Mohtarrudin N, Ghazali R, Md Roduan MR
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Dec;40(3):313-318.
    PMID: 30580362
    INTRODUCTION: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) promotes carcinogenesis by inducing proliferation and angiogenesis while decreasing apoptosis and immunosuppressive activity. It is overexpressed in many malignancies including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to investigate COX-2 expression in clear cell RCC and its association with tumour grades and demographic parameters.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six clear cell RCC cases were selected. There were 21 (58.3%) men and 15 (41.7%) women with median age of 56.6 years (range: 16-74 years). Chinese constituted 16 (44.4%) of the cases; Malays 14 (38.9%) cases and Indian 6 (16.7%) cases. There were 6 (16.7%) grade 1, 20 (55.6%) grade 2, 10 (27.8%) grade 3 and none was grade 4. The paraffin embedded tissues were cut at 4 μm thick and stained with COX-2 monoclonal antibody.

    RESULTS: Eighteen (50%) of the RCC cases were immunopositive, of which all showed strong positivity. The immunopositive cases showed cytoplasmic membrane positivity.

    CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between COX-2 expression with grade, age, sex and ethnicity (p=0.457, p=0.054, p=0.389 and p=0.568 respectively). Strong positivity of COX-2 suggest that COX-2 may play a role in cell proliferation and in carcinogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism*
  3. Misron NA, Looi LM, Nik Mustapha NR
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(4):1553-8.
    PMID: 25743830
    BACKGROUND: COX-2 has been shown to play an important role in the development of breast cancer and increased expression has been mooted as a poor prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between COX-2 immunohistochemical expression and known predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer in a routine diagnostic histopathology setting.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin- embedded tumour tissue of 144 no special type (NST) invasive breast carcinomas histologically diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2012 in Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah were immunostained with COX-2 antibody. COX-2 overexpression was analysed against demographic data, hormone receptor status, HER2- neu overexpression, histological grade, tumour size and lymph node status.

    RESULTS: COX-2 was overexpressed in 108/144 (75%) tumours and was significantly more prevalent (87%) in hormone receptor-positive tumours. There was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and HER2/neu status. Triple negative cancers had the lowest prevalence (46%) (p<0.05). A rising trend of COX-2 overexpression with increasing age was observed. There was a significant inverse relationship with tumour grade (p<0.05), prevalences being 94%, 83% and 66% in grades 1, 2 and 3 tumours, respectively. A higher prevalence of COX-2 overexpression in smaller size tumours was observed but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no relationship between COX-2 expression and lymph node status.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study did not support the generally held notion that COX-2 overexpression is linked to poor prognosis, rather supporting a role in tumorigenesis. Larger scale studies with outcome data and basic studies on cancer pathogenetic pathways will be required to cast further light on whether COX-2 inhibitors would have clinical utility in cancer prevention or blockage of cancer progression. In either setting, the pathological assessment for COX-2 overexpression in breast cancers would have an important role in the selection of cancer patients for personalized therapy with COX-2 inhibitors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism*
  4. Chan KY, Mohamad K, Ooi AJ, Imiyabir Z, Chung LY
    Fitoterapia, 2012 Jul;83(5):961-7.
    PMID: 22565147 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.04.018
    Lipoxygenase (LOX)-inhibiting compounds from the leaves of Chisocheton polyandrus Merr. were isolated in this study using a bioactivity-guided fractionation technique. Two dammarane triterpenoids, dammara-20,24-dien-3-one (1) (IC(50)=0.69±0.07 μM) and 24-hydroxydammara-20,25-dien-3-one (2) (IC(50)=1.11±0.38 μM), were isolated and identified based on the soybean LOX assay. Dammara-20,24-dien-3-one (1) exhibited dual inhibition of both human 5-LOX (IC(50)=24.27±2.92 μM) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (IC(50)=3.17±0.90 μM), whereas 24-hydroxydammara-20,25-dien-3-one (2) did not exhibit any significant inhibitory effects. This report is the first to detail the inhibition of LOX and COX by both C. polyandrus and its isolated compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  5. Nesaretnam K, Meganathan P
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2011 Jul;1229:18-22.
    PMID: 21793834 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06088.x
    Inflammation is an organism's response to environmental assaults. It can be classified as acute inflammation that leads to therapeutic recovery or chronic inflammation, which may lead to the development of cancer and other ailments. Genetic changes that occur within cancer cells themselves are responsible for many aspects of cancer development but are dependent on ancillary processes for tumor promotion and progression. Inflammation has long been associated with the development of cancer. The distinct characteristics of cancer cells to proliferate, metastasize, evade apoptotic signals, and develop chemoresistance have been linked to the inflammatory response. Due to the involvement of multiple genes and various pathways, current drugs that target single genes have not been effective in providing a therapeutic cure. On the other hand, natural products target multiple genes and therefore have better success compared to drugs. Tocotrienols, the potent isoforms of vitamin E, are such a natural product. This review will discuss the relationship between cancer and inflammation with particular focus on the roles played by NF-κB, STAT3, and COX-2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  6. Kabir TD, Leigh RJ, Tasena H, Mellone M, Coletta RD, Parkinson EK, et al.
    Aging (Albany NY), 2016 08;8(8):1608-35.
    PMID: 27385366 DOI: 10.18632/aging.100987
    Senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that is believed to contribute to cancer progression. The mechanisms underlying SASP development are, however, poorly understood. Here we examined the functional role of microRNA in the development of the SASP in normal fibroblasts and CAF. We identified a microRNA, miR-335, up-regulated in the senescent normal fibroblasts and CAF and able to modulate the secretion of SASP factors and induce cancer cell motility in co-cultures, at least in part by suppressing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). Additionally, elevated levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (PTGS2; COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion were observed in senescent fibroblasts, and inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib reduced the expression of miR-335, restored PTEN expression and decreased the pro-tumourigenic effects of the SASP. Collectively these data demonstrate the existence of a novel miRNA/PTEN-regulated pathway modulating the inflammasome in senescent fibroblasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism*
  7. Nordin NA, Lawai V, Ngaini Z, Abd Halim AN, Hwang SS, Linton RE, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2020 Jun;34(11):1505-1514.
    PMID: 30507306 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1517120
    In searching for drugs from natural product scaffolds has gained interest among researchers. In this study, a series of twelve halogenated thiourea (ATX 1-12)via chemical modification of aspirin (a natural product derivative) and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines, HK-1 via MTS-based colorimetric assay. The cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that halogens at meta position of ATX showed promising activity against HK-1 cells (IC50 value ≤15 µM) in comparison to cisplatin, a positive cytotoxic drug (IC50 value =8.9 ± 1.9 µM). ATX 11, bearing iodine at meta position, showed robust cytotoxicity against HK-1 cells with an IC50 value of 4.7 ± 0.7 µM. Molecular docking interactions between ATX 11 and cyclooxygenase-2 demonstrated a robust binding affinity value of -8.1 kcal/mol as compared to aspirin's binding affinity value of -6.4 kcal/mol. The findings represent a promising lead molecule from natural product with excellent cytotoxic activity against NPC cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  8. Bukhari SN, Zhang X, Jantan I, Zhu HL, Amjad MW, Masand VH
    Chem Biol Drug Des, 2015 Jun;85(6):729-42.
    PMID: 25328063 DOI: 10.1111/cbdd.12457
    A novel series of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one (chalcone) derivatives was synthesized by a simple, eco-friendly, and efficient Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and used as precursors for the synthesis of new pyrazoline derivatives. All the synthesized compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory related activities such as inhibition of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), IL-6, and TNF-α. The results of the above studies show that the compounds synthesized are effective inhibitors of above pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines. Overall, the results of the studies reveal that the pyrazolines with chlorophenyl substitution (1b-6b) seem to be important for inhibition of enzymes and cytokines. Molecular docking experiments were performed to clarify the molecular aspects of the observed COX-inhibitory activities of the investigated compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  9. George A, Chinnappan S, Chintamaneni M, Kotak C V, Choudhary Y, Kueper T, et al.
    PMID: 25252832 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-355
    The study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Polygonum minus (Huds) using in vitro and in vivo approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  10. Tan BL, Esa NM, Rahman HS, Hamzah H, Karim R
    PMID: 25129221 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-304
    Brewers' rice is locally known as temukut, is a byproduct of the rice milling process, and consists of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Unlike rice bran, the health benefit of brewers' rice has yet to be fully studied. Our present study aimed to identify the chemopreventive potential of brewers' rice with colonic tumor formation and to examine further the mechanistic action of brewers' rice during colon carcinogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  11. Saad N, Esa NM, Ithnin H
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(5):3093-9.
    PMID: 23803085
    BACKGROUND: Phytic acid (PA) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that can be found in high amounts in most cereals, legumes, nut oil, seeds and soy beans. It has been suggested to play a significant role in inhibition of colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to investigate expression changes of β-catenin and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cell proliferation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence after treatment with rice bran PA by immunocytochemistry.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups with 12 rats in each group. For cancer induction two intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) were given at 15 mg/kg bodyweight over a 2-weeks period. During the post initiation phase, two different concentrations of PA, 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) were administered in the diet.

    RESULTS: Results of β-catenin, COX-2 expressions and cell proliferation of Ki-67 showed a significant contribution in colonic cancer progression. For β-catenin and COX-2 expression, there was a significant difference between groups at p<0.05. With Ki-67, there was a statistically significant lowering the proliferating index as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) was noted between COX-2 expression and proliferation. Total β-catenin also demonstrated a significant positive linear relationship with total COX-2 (p=0.044).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated potential value of PA extracted from rice bran in reducing colonic cancer risk in rats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  12. Lee KH, Abas F, Alitheen NB, Shaari K, Lajis NH, Ahmad S
    Molecules, 2011 Nov 23;16(11):9728-38.
    PMID: 22113581 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16119728
    Our preliminary screening had shown that the curcumin derivative [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] or BDMC33 exhibited improved anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cells. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 on PGE(2 )synthesis and cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in IFN-γ/LPS-stimulated macrophages. We found that BDMC33 significantly inhibited PGE(2) synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner albeit at a low inhibition level with an IC(50) value of 47.33 ± 1.00 µM. Interestingly, the PGE(2) inhibitory activity of BDMC33 is not attributed to inhibition of the COX enzyme activities, but rather BDMC33 selectively down-regulated the expression of COX-2. In addition, BDMC33 modulates the COX expression by sustaining the constitutively COX-1 expression in IFN-γ/LPS-treated macrophage cells. Collectively, the experimental data suggest an immunodulatory action of BDMC33 on PGE(2) synthesis and COX expression, making it a possible treatment for inflammatory disorders with minimal gastrointestinal-related side effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  13. Utar Z, Majid MI, Adenan MI, Jamil MF, Lan TM
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Jun 14;136(1):75-82.
    PMID: 21513785 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.04.011
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: [corrected] Mitragyna speciosa Korth (Rubiaceae) is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally to treat various types of diseases especially in Thailand and Malaysia. Its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in its crude form are well documented. In this study, the cellular mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of mitragynine, the major bioactive constituent, was investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of mitragynine on the mRNA and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were investigated in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 were assessed using Western blot analysis and the level of PGE(2) production was quantified using Parameter™ PGE(2) Assay (R&D Systems).

    RESULTS: Mitragynine produced a significant inhibition on the mRNA expression of COX-2 induced by LPS, in a dose dependent manner and this was followed by the reduction of PGE(2) production. On the other hand, the effects of mitragynine on COX-1 mRNA expression were found to be insignificant as compared to the control cells. However, the effect of mitragynine on COX-1 protein expression is dependent on concentration, with higher concentration of mitragynine producing a further reduction of COX-1 expression in LPS-treated cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that mitragynine suppressed PGE(2) production by inhibiting COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Mitragynine may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism*
  14. Syahida A, Israf DA, Permana D, Lajis NH, Khozirah S, Afiza AW, et al.
    Immunol. Cell Biol., 2006 Jun;84(3):250-8.
    PMID: 16509831
    Many plant-derived natural compounds have been reported previously to inhibit the production of important pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-alpha and reactive oxygen species by suppressing inducible enzyme expression via inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and nuclear translocation of critical transcription factors. This study evaluates the effects of atrovirinone [2-(1-methoxycarbonyl-4,6-dihydroxyphenoxy)-3-methoxy-5,6-di-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone)], a benzoquinone that we have previously isolated from Garcinia atroviridis, on two cellular systems that are repeatedly used in the analysis of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds, namely, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and whole blood. Atrovirinone inhibited the production of both nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 from LPS-induced and IFN-gamma-induced RAW 264.7 cells and whole blood, with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values of 4.62 +/- 0.65 and 9.33 +/- 1.47 micromol/L, respectively. Analysis of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) secretion from whole blood stimulated by either the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or the COX-2 pathway showed that atrovirinone inhibits the generation of TXB2 by both pathways, with IC50 values of 7.41 +/- 0.92 and 2.10 +/- 0.48 micromol/L, respectively. Analysis of IC50 ratios showed that atrovirinone was more COX-2 selective in its inhibition of TXB2, with a ratio of 0.32. Atrovirinone also inhibited the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the secretion of TNF-alpha from RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-responsive manner, with IC50 values of 5.99 +/- 0.62 and 11.56 +/- 0.04 micromol/L, respectively. Lipoxygenase activity was also moderately inhibited by atrovirinone. Our results suggest that atrovirinone acts on important pro-inflammatory mediators possibly by the inhibition of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway and also by the inhibition of the COX/lipoxygenase enzyme activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  15. Baskaran A, Chua KH, Sabaratnam V, Ravishankar Ram M, Kuppusamy UR
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jan 13;17(1):40.
    PMID: 28086773 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1546-6
    Pleurotus giganteus (Berk. Karunarathna and K.D. Hyde), has been used as a culinary mushroom and is known to have medicinal properties but its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent to mitigate inflammation triggered diseases is untapped. In this study, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of ethanol extract of P. giganteus (EPG) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and combination of LPS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inflammation on RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism*
  16. Chin KY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2016;10:3029-3042.
    PMID: 27703331
    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease of the joint affecting aging populations worldwide. It has an underlying inflammatory cause, which contributes to the loss of chondrocytes, leading to diminished cartilage layer at the affected joints. Compounds with anti-inflammatory properties are potential treatment agents for osteoarthritis. Curcumin derived from Curcuma species is an anti-inflammatory compound as such. This review aims to summarize the antiosteoarthritic effects of curcumin derived from clinical and preclinical studies. Many clinical trials have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of curcumin in osteoarthritic patients. Extracts of Curcuma species, curcuminoids and enhanced curcumin, were used in these studies. Patients with osteoarthritis showed improvement in pain, physical function, and quality of life after taking curcumin. They also reported reduced concomitant usage of analgesics and side effects during treatment. In vitro studies demonstrated that curcumin could prevent the apoptosis of chondrocytes, suppress the release of proteoglycans and metal metalloproteases and expression of cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin E-2, and inflammatory cytokines in chondrocytes. These were achieved by blocking the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) system in the chondrocytes, by preventing the activation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha, phosphorylation, and translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB complexes into the nucleus. In conclusion, curcumin is a potential candidate for the treatment of osteoarthritis. More well-planned randomized control trials and enhanced curcumin formulation are required to justify the use of curcumin in treating osteoarthritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  17. Lee YY, Saba E, Irfan M, Kim M, Chan JY, Jeon BS, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2019 Feb 15;54:169-181.
    PMID: 30668366 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.186
    BACKGROUND: Different processing conditions alter the ginseng bioactive compounds, promoting or reducing its anti-inflammatory effects. We compared black ginseng (BG) - that have been steamed 5 times - with red ginseng (RG).

    HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: To compare the anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-nociceptive properties of RG and BG.

    METHODS: Nitric Oxide (NO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay, quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced paw edema RESULTS: The ginsenoside contents were confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and has been altered through increased processing. The highest concentration of these extracts inhibited NO production to near-basal levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression at the mRNA level was investigated using qRT-PCR. Comparatively, BG exhibited better inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Protein expression was determined using western blot analysis and BG exhibited stronger inhibition. Xylene-induced ear edema model in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats were carried out and tested with the effects of ginseng as well as dexamethasone and indomethacin - commonly used drugs. BG is a more potent anti-inflammatory agent, possesses anti-nociceptive properties, and has a strong potency comparable to the NSAIDs.

    CONCLUSION: BG has more potent anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects due to the change in ginsenoside component with increased processing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  18. Raja SB, Rajendiran V, Kasinathan NK, P A, Venkatabalasubramanian S, Murali MR, et al.
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Aug;106(Pt A):92-106.
    PMID: 28479391 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2017.05.006
    Quercetin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study exemplifies the differential cytotoxic activity of Quercetin on two human colonic cancer cell lines, HT29 and HCT15. IC50 of Quercetin for HT29 and HCT15 cells were 42.5 μM and 77.4 μM, respectively. Activation of caspase-3, increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, decreased levels of pAkt, pGSK-3β and cyclin D1 in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells alone. Though, nuclear translocation of NFkB was increased in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 and HCT15 cells, over expression of COX-2 was observed in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells, whereas, Quercetin treated HCT15 cells did not expressed COX-2. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed only in Quercetin treated HT29 cells, which is due to over expression of COX-2, as COX-2 silencing inhibited Quercetin induced apoptosis and ROS generation. Insilico analysis provided evidence that Quercetin could partially inhibit COX-2 enzyme by binding to subunit A which has peroxidase activity and serves as source of ROS. However, Quercetin showed minimal effect on normal intestinal epithelial cells i,e IEC-6. To conclude, differential sensitivity of two cancer cells, HT29 and HCT15, to Quercetin depends on COX-2 dependent ROS generation that induces apoptosis and inhibits cell survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism*
  19. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
  20. Israf DA, Khaizurin TA, Syahida A, Lajis NH, Khozirah S
    Mol Immunol, 2007 Feb;44(5):673-9.
    PMID: 16777230
    Cardamonin, a chalcone isolated from the fruits of a local plant Alpinia rafflesiana, has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in cellular models of inflammation. In this report, we evaluated the ability of cardamonin to suppress both NO and PGE2 synthesis, iNOS and COX-2 expression and enzymatic activity, and key molecules in the NF-kappaB pathway in order to determine its molecular target. Cardamonin suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. This inhibition was demonstrated to be caused by a dose-dependent down-regulation of both inducible enzymes, iNOS and COX-2, without direct effect upon iNOS or COX-2 enzyme activity. Subsequently we determined that the inhibition of inducible enzyme expression was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of I-kappaBalpha, which resulted in a reduction of p65NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. We conclude that cardamonin is a potential anti-inflammatory drug lead that targets the NF-kappaB pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism
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